The Georges River, formerly known as Tucoerah River, is an intermediate tide dominated drowned valley estuary, located to the south and west of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The river travels for approximately 96 kilometres in a north and easterly direction to its mouth at Botany Bay, the Georges River is the main tributary of Botany Bay, with the Cooks River being a secondary tributary. The land adjacent to the Georges River was occupied for thousands of years by the Tharawal. They used the river as an important source of food and a place for trade, major tributaries include OHares Creek, Bunbury Curran Creek, Cabramatta Creek, Prospect Creek, Salt Pan Creek and the Woronora River. The Georges River is popular for activities such as water skiing and swimming. The banks of the river along the lower reaches are marked by large inlets and indentations overlooked by steep ridges and scarps. The Georges River features some artificial lakes in the suburb of Chipping Norton and these lakes, known as the Chipping Norton Lakes, are the result of sand mining and quarrying operations in the twentieth century.
The Lakes are now a popular watersports and recreational facility for the residents of the suburbs of Sydney. Liverpool Weir now forms the uppermost tidal limit and presence of water on the Georges River. Georges River National Park adjoins the upper reaches of the Georges River, from Appin to Glenfield, a large corridor has been protected as part of the Georges River Regional Open Space Corridor. Council reserves allow for access to natural sections of the river at Simmos Beach, Ingleburn Reserve, Keith Longhurst Reserve, Botany Bay Community River Health Monitoring Program is a community-based initiative to monitor ecosystem health catchment. Www. georgesriver. org. au Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Georges River was named in honour of King George III, by Governor Arthur Phillip. The river was first explored by Bass and Flinders in 1795 on their first voyage on the Tom Thumb after their arrival in New South Wales, the exploration led to the establishment of Bankstown. A dam was constructed by David Lennox using convict labour at Liverpool in 1836, in February 2007, Liverpool and Campbelltown City Council were awarded a $2 million grant from the NSW Environmental Trust under their Urban Sustainability Initiative.
Bridges over the Georges River include from east to west, Captain Cook Bridge, for cars, Tom Uglys Bridge, for cars and cyclists. Old Como railway bridge, now for pedestrians and cyclists, Como railway bridge on the Illawarra line, connecting Oatley to Como, for trains. Alfords Point Bridge, for cars and cyclists, East Hills rail bridge at East Hills, for trains. Voyager Point footbridge, for pedestrians and cyclists, m5 South Western Motorway Georges River East Bridge Milperra Bridge, for cars and cyclists
The Riverina /rɪvəˈriːnə/ is an agricultural region of south-western New South Wales, Australia. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of plains, warm to hot climate. This combination has allowed the Riverina to develop one of the most productive. In the 20th century, the development of irrigation areas in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys has led to the introduction of crops such as rice. The Riverina has strong ties to Victoria, and the region was the source of much of the impetus behind the federation of Australian colonies. Major population and service centres in the Riverina include the cities of Wagga Wagga, Albury and Wagga Wagga are home to campuses of Charles Sturt University, the only local provider of higher education for the region. Wagga Wagga is home to two major Australian Defence Force establishments, the northern boundary beyond the Riverina is determined by the Lachlan River catchment area and is referred to as the Central West. Along the Murray to the south, the Riverina borders the state of Victoria, West of the confluence of the Murray and Murrumbidgee is the beginning of the more arid Far West region.
In general, the Riverina is a plain formed by deposition carried from the Great Dividing Range by streams between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago. The terrain includes rolling hills to the east but becomes flatter to the west with most of that plain reaching less than 200 metres above sea level, the western Riverina consists largely of featureless saltbush plain. The geology of the Riverina comprises several troughs and sedimentary basins, the western Riverina is presumed to be a continuation of the Ballarat and Bendigo geological zone while eastern sections are underlain by western portions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Riverina soils are generally sandy along the channels, with more saline grey. As the Murrumbidgee passes downstream, the water and soil become more saline, the Riverina is drained by the large Murray-Darling Basin. Rivers and streams in the Riverina generally flow east to west, as well as the Murray and Lachlan, other streams include Billabong Creek and the Edward River, an anabranch of the Murray.
Much of the water carried by these streams is diverted, in 2001–2002, 52% of the Murray and Murrumbidgee water runoff was diverted, 77% of which was used for irrigation. The Bureau of Meteorology classify the Riverina in the Hot Dry Zone climatic zone, places in this zone can be very hot in the summer months while in the winter, nights can be considerably cold with cool to mild days. Mean daily maximum temperatures in the Riverina range from 31.0 °C in January and 12.4 °C in July in Wagga Wagga to 33.2 °C in January and 14.8 °C in July in Hillston. Rainfall levels in the Riverina are generally low with the annual rainfall over most of the region between 250–500 millimetres, rising to between 500–800 mm on the eastern fringe
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Henry Lawson Drive
The Henry Lawson Drive is a 20-kilometre major urban sealed road, located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The roads northwestern terminus is located at the Meccano Set in Villawood, with its terminus located at the roads junction with Forest Road. The road is named in honour of Henry Lawson, one of Australias foremost poets and it is designated as Main Road 508 for administrative purposes. In 1964, on its completion, it was signposted as part of ring road 5, the maximum elevation of the road is 60.9 metres AMSL and at its lowest point it is 1.65 metres AMSL. Other than at its end from Alfords Point Road to Forest Road it is constructed as a single two-lane carriageway. As of September 2015, the road had high congestion levels, Henry Lawson Drive was conceived of as a scenic drive to follow the north bank of the Georges River. Most of it was constructed as an unemployment relief project during the 1930s, with sections in Georges Hall, East Hills. In 1975 the former T-junction with Forest Road at the terminus was reconfigured so that the route from Henry Lawson Drive to Forest Road northbound became the through route.
Widening of the section from Alfords Point Road to Forest Road occurred incrementally, initially by reconfiguring pavement markings and it was widened to four lanes in places and six lanes. This work was completed in conjunction with the duplication of the Salt Pan Creek Bridge
Alfords Point Bridge
The first bridge opened on 7 September 1973 and carried traffic in both north and southbound directions. When the original bridge was built and abutments were built a few metres downstream, a second bridge was opened for southbound traffic on 22 August 2008 leaving the older bridge for northbound use only. The two other road crossings over the Georges River downstream of the Alfords Point Bridge are the Captain Cook Bridge, which opened in 1965 and Tom Uglys Bridge, Tom Uglys Bridge connects Blakehurst to Sylvania. Captain Cook Bridge connects Sans Souci to Taren Point, the bridge replaced a vehicular punt that previously operated between Lugarno and Illawong. The 2008 bridge replaced a tidal flow system that was in operation on the crossing, providing for greater traffic capacity in the off-peak direction
The Hunter Region, commonly known as the Hunter Valley, is a region of New South Wales, extending from approximately 120 km to 310 km north of Sydney. It contains the Hunter River and its tributaries with highland areas to the north and south, the Hunter Valley is one of the largest river valleys on the NSW coast, and is most commonly known for its wineries and coal industry. Most of the population of the Hunter Region lives within 25 km of the coast, with 55% of the population living in the cities of Newcastle. There are numerous towns and villages scattered across the region in the eleven local government areas that make up the region. At the 2011 census the population of the region was 620,530. The main river in the region is the Hunter River, after which the region is named, fresh water supply for the region is provided from a number of sources, which are managed by the Hunter Water and State Water Corporations. State Water Corporations dams supply water for irrigation, industrial use at coal mines, Hunter Water Corporations dams supply the large urban population of more than 500,000 living near the coast and centered on the cities of Newcastle and Lake Macquarie.
State Water Corporations Glenbawn, the largest dam in the region and Lostock are dams on the Hunter, the dam itself has only a small natural catchment and relies mainly on the pumped water from the Williams River. A proposal to build Tillegra Dam on the Williams River existed since the 1950s, in addition to the dams, fresh water for the lower Hunter Region is supplied from the Tomago Sandbeds, via a series of bores. Other major centres of the Hunter Region are Dungog, Forster/Tuncurry, Kurri Kurri, Raymond Terrace, the Hunter Region is one of Australias most famous wine-growing regions, known for both its red and white wine varieties. The most important economic activity in the valley is coal mining, the port at Newcastle is the worlds largest export facility for coal, most of which is brought to the port via railway. Coal ships are seen off the coast of Newcastle. Climate change activists have staged direct actions at the port on a number of occasions. Electricity generation at the Eraring, Liddell, Redbank, the Hunter Valley is Australias main region for the breeding and rearing of Thoroughbred horses and most of the countrys best racehorses.
The Upper Hunter area around Scone is one of the largest horse breeding areas in the world, the Hunter Valley is a major tourist destination in New South Wales and is the 6th most visited place in Australia attracting more than 2.5 million people annually. Pokolbin is the centre of the Hunter Valley wine country and it is located between the towns of Cessnock and Branxton, about 50 km west of Newcastle. The wine country is located within the Cessnock and Singleton [LGAs. Its proximity to Sydney has been an influence on the investments in wine production
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
Cocoparra National Park
The Cocoparra National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Riverina region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 8, 357-hectare national park is situated 457 kilometres southwest of Sydney and 25 kilometres northeast of Griffith. The park includes a prominent range of such as Bingar Mountain,455 metres above sea level and Brogden Mountain,390 metres above sea level. Adjoining the national park to the north is the Cocoparra Nature Reserve, the national park was gazetted in December 1969. The nature reserve was dedicated in 1963 with an area of 4,647 hectares, the vegetation communities reflect this, with wattles, orchids and blue-tinged cypress pines. The geology comprises Upper Devonian sandstones and conglomerates, there are a number of day use areas in the park and a campground at Woolshed Flat. Protected areas of New South Wales List of national parks of Australia