Bethel Census Area, Alaska
Bethel Census Area is a census area in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population is 17,013, it therefore has no borough seat. Its largest community is the city of Bethel, the largest city in the unorganized borough. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the census area has an area of 45,504 square miles, of which 40,570 square miles is land and 4,934 square miles is water, its territory includes the large Nunivak Island in the Bering Sea. Its land area is comparable to that of Kentucky, which has an area of under forty thousand square miles. Kusilvak Census Area, Alaska - northwest Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska - north Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska - east Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska - southeast Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska - south Dillingham Census Area, Alaska - south Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Bering Sea Wilderness Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Lake Clark Wilderness Togiak National Wildlife Refuge Togiak Wilderness Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge Nunivak Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 16,006 people, 4,226 households, 3,173 families residing in the census area.
The population density was 0 people per square mile. There were 5,188 housing units at an average density of 0/sq mi; the racial makeup of the census area was 12.53% White, 0.38% Black or African American, 81.93% Native American, 1.05% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 3.85% from two or more races. 0.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,226 households out of which 51.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.20% were married couples living together, 15.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.90% were non-families. 19.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.73 and the average family size was 4.41. In the census area the population was spread out with 39.80% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 28.90% from 25 to 44, 16.40% from 45 to 64, 5.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years.
For every 100 females, there were 113.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.80 males. Bethel Census Area is one of only 38 county-level census divisions of the United States where the most spoken language is not English and one of only 3 where it is neither English nor Spanish. 63.14% of the population speak a Yupik language at home, followed by English at 34.71%. Crow Village Georgetown Napaimute Umkumiute List of Airports in the Bethel Census Area Nunathloogagamiutbingoi Dunes Census Area map, 2000 census: Alaska Department of Labor Census Area map, 2010 census: Alaska Department of Labor
Mekoryuk is a city located on Nunivak Island in the Bethel Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 191, down from 210 in 2000. Nunivak Island has been inhabited for 2,000 years by the Nuniwarmiut; the first contact with Europeans was in 1821 by explorers from the Russian-American Company. They recorded 400 people living in 16 villages on the Nunivak Island. While conducting the 1880 United States Census, Ivan Petrof recorded 702 Yup'ik in 9 villages, including 117 people at "Koot", near the site of present-day Mekoryuk. An epidemic in 1900 left only four surviving families in the village. In the 1930s, the Evangelical Covenant Church was built at Mekoryuk, followed by a school in 1939. People moved to the village from other areas of the island to be near the school. Reindeer herding was introduced in 1920 by an Eskimo-Russian trader; the operation was purchased by the United States government in the 1940s and a slaughterhouse was built in 1945. The reindeer were crossed with caribou from Denali Park.
The resulting animals were less tame than other reindeer. 34 musk ox from Greenland were transferred to the Nunivak Island in 1934 in an effort to save the species from extinction. Today, the musk-ox herd numbers around 500, calves from this herd have been relocated and introduced to other areas of Alaska. In the mid-1900s, Mekoryuk became the only permanent population center on the island; until the 1940s, the traditional lifestyle and traditional ceremonies and religious beliefs were practiced. The 1950s and 1960s brought considerable change. Mekoryuk Airport was built in 1957; the Territorial Guard was formed and men were sent to Fort Richardson near Anchorage for training. During this time, many families moved to Bethel during the winter to be near the high school, returning in the spring for fishing and sea mammal hunting. A high school was constructed in Mekoryuk in 1978. Mekoryuk is located at 60°23′21″N 166°12′25″W. Mekoryuk is at the mouth of Shoal Bay on the north shore of Nunivak Island in the Bering Sea.
The Island lies 48 km west of the Alaska coast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.4 square miles of it is land and 0.14% is water. Mekoryuk first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as "Mekoryok." It appeared as the current spelling in 1960. It formally incorporated in 1969; as of the census of 2000, there were 210 people, 73 households, 48 families residing in the city. The population density was 28.5 people per square mile. There were 96 housing units at an average density of 13.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 3.33% White, 90.48% Native American, 6.19% from two or more races. 0.48% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 73 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.88 and the average family size was 3.77. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 32.4% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 116.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 136.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,833, the median income for a family was $33,750. Males had a median income of $25,417 versus $11,667 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,958. About 13.7% of families and 21.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 15.8% of those sixty five or over. Lower Kuskokwim School District operates the Nuniwarmiut School, K-12. In 1984 the building was constructed. Historic photos of Mekoryuk
Oscarville is a census-designated place in Bethel Census Area, United States. The population was 70 at the 2010 census, up from 61 in 2000. Oscarville is located at 60°43′17″N 161°46′6″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.6 square miles, of which, 1.5 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Oscarville first reported on the 1940 U. S. Census as an unincorporated native village. In 1980, it was made a census-designated place; as of the census of 2000, there were 61 people, 15 households, 12 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 40.6 people per square mile. There were 20 housing units at an average density of 13.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 0.00% White, 98.36% Native American, 1.64% from two or more races. There were 15 households out of which 53.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.7% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.0% were non-families.
20.0% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.07 and the average family size was 4.58. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 42.6% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 14.8% from 45 to 64, 8.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 133.3 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $8,125, the median income for a family was $16,250. Males had a median income of $24,375 versus $0 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $5,824. There were 50.0% of families and 40.0% of the population living below the poverty line, including 18.8% of under eighteens and 100.0% of those over 64. Lower Kuskokwim School District operates the Qugcuun Memorial School, K-12; as of 2018 the school had 13 students. It is a bilingual English-Yup'ik school
Akiak is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. The population was 346 at the 2010 census, up from 309 in 2000. Akiak is located at 60°54′36″N 161°13′6″W, on the west bank of the Kuskokwim River, 42 miles northeast of Bethel, on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta. Akiak is located in the Bethel Recording District. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.1 square miles, of which 2.1 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile, or 32.58%, is water. Precipitation averages 16 inches with snowfall of 50 inches. Summer temperatures range from 42 °F to 62 °F. Winter temperatures range from −2 °F to 19 °F. In 1880, the village of "Akairmiut" had a population of 175; the name Akiak means "the other side", since this place was a crossing to the Yukon River basin during the winter for area Yup'ik Eskimos. The Akiak post office was established in 1916. A U. S. Public Health Service hospital was built in the 1920s; the city was incorporated in 1970. A federally recognized Alaska Native tribal entity is located in the community—the Akiak Native Community.
Akiak is a Yup ` ik Eskimo village with a reliance on fishing activities. The sale or importation of alcohol is banned in the village. Akiak first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of "Akiarmiut." All 175 residents were Inuit. In 1890, it returned as "Akiagamiut" with 97 residents, it did not appear on the census again until 1920 as Akiak. It has returned in every successive census, it formally incorporated in 1970. As of the census of 2000, there were 309 people, 69 households, 54 families residing in the city; the population density was 157.2 people per square mile. There were 76 housing units at an average density of 38.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4.85% White, 92.88% Native American, 2.27% from two or more races. 0.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 69 households out of which 53.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 20.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.7% were non-families.
18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.48 and the average family size was 5.24. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 43.4% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 14.6% from 45 to 64, 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 122.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,250, the median income for a family was $36,875. Males had a median income of $21,875 versus $11,667 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,326. About 25.0% of families and 33.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 6.7% of those sixty five or over. A new well, water treatment plant and storage tank were completed; the school and clinic are connected directly to the water plant.
Individual wells, septic systems and plumbing were installed in 14 HUD homes during 1997. Sewage disposal is by septic tanks, honey buckets or privies, but major improvements are underway. A piped water and gravity sewer system is with household plumbing. 67 homes need sewer service. Most residents are dependent upon the washeteria for bathing; the city provides septic pumping services. Electricity is provided by the city of Akiak. There is one school located in the community, attended by 99 students; the city is home to the world's third largest museum of taxidermy. Local hospitals or health clinics include Edith Kawagley Memorial Clinic. Edith Kawagley Memorial Clinic is a Primary Health Care facility. Akiak is classified as an isolated village. Emergency services are provided by a health aide; the majority of the year-round employment in Akiak is with the city, schools or other public services. Commercial fishing or BLM fire-fighting provide seasonal income. 27 residents hold commercial fishing permits.
The community is interested in developing tourism. Subsistence activities are important to residents. Poor fish returns since 1997 have affected the community; the airport has a gravel runway in good condition, measuring 3,196 feet long by 75 feet wide, at an elevation of 30 feet. The strip provides private air access year-round. Arctic Circle Air Service, Grant Aviation and Hageland Aviation offer passenger flight service. Snow machines, ATVs and skiffs are used extensively for local transportation to nearby villages. There are no docking facilities. Taxes: Sales: None, Property: None, Special: None Akiak at the Community Database Online from the Alaska Division of Community and Regional Affairs Maps from the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development: 2000, 2010
Bethel is the largest community on the Kuskokwim River, located 50 mi upriver from where the river flows into Kuskokwim Bay. Bethel is the largest community in western Alaska and in the Unorganized Borough, as well as the 9th largest in the state, with a population of 6,080 as of the 2010 Census. Bethel is home to the lone detention center in southwestern Alaska, the Yukon Kuskokwim Correction Center. Annual events in Bethel include a noted dogsled race, the Kuskokwim 300, Camai, a traditional Yup'ik dance festival held each spring, the Bethel Fair held in August. Southwestern Alaska was the traditional place of Yup'ik people and their ancestors for thousands of years, they called their village Mamterillermiut, meaning "Smokehouse People", after their nearby fish smokehouse. It was an Alaska Commercial Company trading post during the late 19th century, had a population of 41 people in the 1880 U. S. Census. In 1885, the Moravian Church established a mission in the area under the leadership of Rev. William Weinland and Caroline and John Henry Kilbuck, Jr. a Lenape, his wife Edith, a daughter and granddaughter of Moravian missionaries in Kansas.
They both learned Yup'ik, which enhanced their effectiveness as missionaries. He made Yup'ik the language of the Moravian Church in the community and region, helped translate scripture into the people's language; the missionaries moved Bethel from Mamterillermiut to its present location on the west side of the Kuskokwim River. A United States post office was opened in 1905. Alaska Natives in this area have had a long Christian history, in part from Russian Orthodox and Moravian influence; as in many Alaska Native villages, Christian tradition has become interwoven with the people's original culture. Development came to the area during and after World War II, causing a great social disruption among the Alaska Natives. In 1971, Bethel established a community radio, a strong influence in the redevelopment and revival of Yup'ik culture and self-definition, it was the first Native-owned and operated radio station in the US. Similar stations were soon started in Kotzebue, by 1990, there were 10 stations in communities of fewer than 3,500 people.
On February 19, 1997, a school shooting attracted widespread media attention to Bethel when 16-year-old Evan Ramsey, a student at Bethel Regional High School and killed his principal and one student and wounded two others, for which he received a 210-year prison sentence. In 2009, Bethel opted out of status as a "Local Option" community, theoretically opening the door to allowing alcohol sales in the city. In October 2015, though, a vote for allowing alcohol sales in Bethel passed and two liquor licenses were approved for existing stores in the city. On November 3, 2015, the Kilbuck building housing both the Ayaprun Elitnaurviat Yup’ik immersion school and the Kuskokwim Learning Academy caught fire, destroying the immersion school and damaging the boarding school. Fire fighters demolished part of the building in an effort to save a media center containing Yup'ik artifacts and elder interviews. Bethel is located at 60°47′32″N 161°45′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 48.7 square miles, of which 43.2 square miles is land and 5.5 square miles, or 11.34%, is water.
Though the region is flat and treeless, Bethel lies inside the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, the second largest wildlife refuge in the United States. Bethel has a subarctic climate, with long, somewhat snowy, moderately cold winters, short, mild summers. Monthly daily average temperatures range from 6.6 °F in January to 56.0 °F in July, with an annual mean of 29.9 °F. Warm days of above 70 °F can be expected on 13 days per summer. Precipitation is both most frequent and greatest during the summer months, averaging 16.2 inches per year. Snowfall falls in light bouts, is greater in November and December than in January and February, averaging 45 inches a season. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −48 °F to 90 °F; the first settlement at the location of Bethel reported on the 1880 U. S. Census as "Mumtrekhlagamute Station." It had 29 Inuit. 1/2 mile away was the adjacent Mumtrekhlagamute Village (1880 population: 41. Bethel was established at Mumtrekhlagamute Station in 1885 and supplanted it by the 1890 U.
S. Census, it reported 20 residents. Mumtrekhlagamiut would be absorbed into Bethel. Bethel did not appear on the 1900 Census, but has on every census since 1910, it would formally incorporate as a city in 1957. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,471 people, 1,741 households, 1,190 families residing in the city; the population density was 125.0 people per square mile. There were 1,990 housing units at an average density of 45.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 26.83% White, 0.93% Black or African American, 61.78% Native American, 2.87% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 6.91% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1.70% of the population. There were 1,741 households out of which 44.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.2% had someone living alone, 65
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Chefornak is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 418, up from 394 in 2000. Chefornak is located at 60°9′33″N 164°16′10″W on the south bank of the Kinia River 16 miles upriver from its mouth in Etolin Strait, an arm of the Bering Sea, it is within the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.4 square miles, of which 5.7 square miles is land and 0.66 square miles, or 10.56%, is water. Located in a region where the arctic tundra meets and interacts with the Bering Sea, as well as being in a region impacted by past volcanism, Chefornak has many interesting local landmarks. An extinct volcano, Tern Mountain, is visible in the distance to the south. Large, igneous rocks are a common sight in the village and the surrounding tundra; the Kinia River and its many tributaries are important to the people of the village, because of water travel to hunting and fishing areas, as well as because of difficulties presented by flooding and erosion.
Chefornak first appeared on the 1950 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1974. As of the census of 2000, there were 394 people, 75 households, 63 families residing in the city; the population density was 68.8 people per square mile. There were 82 housing units at an average density of 14.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.40% Alaska Native, 2.03% White, 4.57% from two or more races. There were 75 households out of which 60.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.3% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.0% were non-families. 14.7% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 5.25 and the average family size was 5.98. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 45.2% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 16.5% from 45 to 64, 4.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,556, the median income for a family was $36,042. Males had a median income of $15,000 versus $20,833 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,474. About 21.3% of families and 25.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.0% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. Yup'ik dancing is popular in the village; the high school has an Yup'ik Dance Team which visits other villages for feasts and festivals. The village hosts a dance festival in the Spring, the large Camai-i festival in Bethel attracts many from Chefornak and the surrounding villages to display their dances and to see the dances of other regions. Many of the villagers live a subsistence lifestyle, which means that they continue to carry out the traditional hunter-gatherer activities of their ancestors.
One of the foods that they rely on is fish such as halibut and herring, which are dried and eaten like jerky. Berries such as salmonberries, black berries, blueberries are gathered and used to prepare akutaq. Other native foods that are gathered include mousefood, Labrador tea, greens such as sourdock. Beside houses, there are only a handful of buildings in the village: Chefarnrmute, Inc. the village corporation Avugiak's Store The post office The town hall/bingo hall The school The Old School St. Catherine of Siena Catholic Church The power plant The Chaputnguak School & Amaqigciq School is operated by the Lower Kuskokwim School District. "Chaputnguak," an old name for Chefornak, is a Yup'ik word referring to an object or thing obstructing a pathway. "Chaputnguak," an old name for Chefornak, is a Yup'ik word referring to an object or thing obstructing a pathway, while the latter is named after the first inhabitant of Chefornak, Alexie Amaqigciq. He was the Yup ` ik elder. Chaputnguak School is the primary school and Amaqigciq School is the secondary school.
Transportation into the village of Chefornak occurs by small aircraft, although in the winter the village can be reached by snow machine as well. Goods and mail are brought into the village by plane, during the summer months are brought up the Kinia River by barge. Chefornak's airport has been moved further from the village due to concerns with its proximity to the school; the new airstrip is now in operation. Within the village, transportation options include four-wheel, snow machine, on foot. Chaputnguak School Alaska Community Database