In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Queensland Country Women's Association
The Queensland Country Women's Association is the Queensland chapter of the Country Women's Association in Australia. The association seeks to serve the interests of women and children in rural areas in Australia through a network of local branches. Established in 1922, local branches provide friendship and mutual support to their members while contributing to the betterment of life in their local communities. Over time, many branches have evolved to include support for wider issues such as domestic violence campaigns and fund-raising for international initiatives such as orphanages. On 8-11 August 1922, the Brisbane Women's Club held an open conference for countrywomen in Brisbane's Albert Hall during the Exhibition; the conference was opened by Lady Forster, wife of Australian Governor-General and the Queensland Governor Matthew Nathan attended. On 11 August 1922, the outcome of the conference was to establish the Queensland Country Women's Association. Ruth Beatrice Fairfax was elected the first President.
The first meeting of the Toowoomba branch was held at the Toowoomba Town Hall on 12 September 1922. Ruth Fairfax spoke about the objectives of the organisation; the meeting resolved to hold a conference as soon as there were sufficient representatives to attend. The objectives of the association were broad but included some specific items:1. To improve welfare and conditions of women and children in the country2. To draw together all women and children in Country Districts.3. To bring opportunities for recreation and enjoyment within reach of all Members.4. To encourage the active study of Local and State affairs and to promote a wise and kindly spirit.5. To improve educational facilities in the Country.6. To secure better provision for the safeguarding of Public Health of children, the securing of more adequate Medical and Hospital facilities for Country Districts."There was a call for a design for a badge and the winner was Mrs Mabel Chandler of Burra Burri who proposed the letters CWA within a large letter "Q".
It was decided that the royal blue should be adopted as the colours for the organisation. Many QCWA buildings are painted white to approximate the chosen colours; the Queensland chapter was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2013. In 2017 the QWCA created its own perfume,' 1922', it was developed by Damask Perfumery in Brisbane. The artwork and branding of the bottle was supplied by Brisbane watercolour artist Michelle Grayson; as at December 2018, the QWCA has over 240 branches throughout Queensland. The following list includes all branches active in December 2018, some of the former branches. On 9 June 2003 in the Queen's Birthday Honours List, Mrs Jean Eva Anderson of Ballater Station at Stamford was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for her "service to the community of Hughenden through the Country Womens Association", she had given 52 years of service to the Hughenden branch. Her award was presented to her by the Governor of Queensland, Quentin Bryce. Pagliano, Muriel.
Country women: history of the first seventy five years: the Queensland Country Women's Association. Merino Lithographics.—full text available online. The Queensland Country Women's Association, fifty years 1922-1972. Queensland Country Women's Association. 1972. Media related to Queensland Country Women's Association at Wikimedia Commons
Government of Queensland
The Government of Queensland referred to as the Queensland Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Queensland. The Government of Queensland, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1859 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Queensland has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Queensland ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Key state government offices are located at 1 William Street in the Brisbane central business district; the Government of Queensland operates under the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. The Governor of Queensland, as the representative of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, holds nominal power, although in practice only performs ceremonial duties.
The Parliament of Queensland holds legislative power, while executive power lies with the Premier and Cabinet, judicial power is exercised by a system of courts and tribunals. The Parliament of Queensland is the state's legislature, it consists of Her Majesty The Queen, a single chamber. Queensland is the only Australian state with a unicameral parliament after a second chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly has 93 members. Elections for the Legislative Assembly are held every four years; the Cabinet of Queensland is the government's chief policy-making organ, consists of the Premier and all ministers. The Queensland Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility; each portfolio is led by a government minister, a member of the Parliament. As of April 2016 there were nineteen lead agencies, called government departments, that consist of: Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships Department of Agriculture and Fisheries Department of Communities, Child Safety and Disability Services Department of Education and Training Department of Energy and Water Supply Department of Environment and Heritage Protection Queensland Health Department of Housing and Public Works Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning Department of Justice and Attorney-General Department of National Parks and Racing Department of Natural Resources and Mines Queensland Police Service and Queensland Fire and Emergency Services Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation Department of State Development Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland Treasury Department of Tourism, Major Events, Small Business and the Commonwealth GamesA range of other agencies support the functions of these departments.
The judiciary of Queensland consists of the Magistrates Court, the District Court, the Supreme Court, as well as a number of smaller courts and tribunals. The Chief Justice of Queensland is the state's most senior judicial officer; the Magistrates Court is the lowest tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland. The court's criminal jurisdiction covers summary offences, indictable offences which may be heard summarily, but all criminal proceedings in Queensland begin in the Magistrates Court if they are not within this jurisdiction. For charges beyond its jurisdiction, the court conducts committal hearings in which the presiding magistrate decides, based on the strength of the evidence, whether to refer the matter to a higher court or dismiss it; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is less than or equal to $150,000. Appeals against decisions by the Magistrates Court are heard by the District Court; the District Court is the middle tier of the judicial hierarchy of Queensland.
The court has jurisdiction to hear all appeals from decisions made in the Magistrates Court. Its criminal jurisdiction covers serious indictable offences; the court's civil jurisdiction covers matters in which the amount in dispute is more than $150,000 but less than or equal to $750,000. Appeals against decisions by the District Court are heard by the Court of Appeal, a division of the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court is the highest tier of the judicial hierarchy Queensland. The court has two divisions; the Trial Division's jurisdiction covers serious criminal offences, civil matters involving claims of more than $750,000. The Court of Appeal's jurisdiction allows it to hear cases on appeal from the Trial Division, the District Court, a number of other judicial tribunals in Queensland. Appeals against decisions by the Court of Appeal are heard by the High Court of Australia. There are several factors; the legislature has no upper house. For a large portion of its history, the state was under a gerrymander that favoured rural electorates.
This, combined with the decentralised nature of Queensland, meant that politics has been dominated by regional interests. Queensland, along with New South Wales operated a balloting system known as Optional Preferential Voting for state elections; this is different from the predominant Australian electoral system, the instant-runoff voting system, in practice is closer to a first past the post ballot, which some say is to the
Nevil Shute Norway was an English novelist and aeronautical engineer who spent his years in Australia. He used his full name in his engineering career and Nevil Shute as his pen name to protect his engineering career from any potential negative publicity in connection with his novels, which included On the Beach and A Town Like Alice. Born in Somerset Road, Middlesex, he was educated at the Dragon School, Shrewsbury School and Balliol College, Oxford. Shute's father, Arthur Hamilton Norway, became head of the Post Office in Ireland before the First World War and was based at the main post office in Dublin in 1916 at the time of the Easter Rising. Shute himself was commended for his role as a stretcher-bearer during the rising. On 13 June 1915 his elder brother, Fredrick Hamilton Norway, aged 19, was wounded at Epinette, near Armentières, was evacuated to Wimereux where he died, on 4 July, with his parents by his side, he was buried at Pas-de-Calais. Shute attended the Royal Military Academy, but because of his stammer was unable to take up a commission in the Royal Flying Corps, instead serving in the Great War as a soldier in the Suffolk Regiment.
An aeronautical engineer as well as a pilot, he began his engineering career with the De Havilland Aircraft Company. Dissatisfied with the lack of opportunities for advancement, he took a position in 1924 with Vickers Ltd. where he was involved with the development of airships, working as Chief Calculator on the R100 airship project for the Vickers subsidiary Airship Guarantee Company. In 1929 he was promoted to Deputy Chief Engineer of the R100 project under Barnes Wallis and when Wallis left the project he became the Chief Engineer; the R100 was a prototype for passenger-carrying airships that would serve the needs of Britain's empire. The government-funded but developed R100 made a successful 1930 round trip to Canada. While in Canada it made trips from Montreal to Ottawa and Niagara Falls; the fatal 1930 crash in France of its government-developed counterpart R101 ended British interest in dirigibles. The Secretary of State for Air, Lord Thomson, was killed in the crash along with several senior figures in the airship development program.
The R100 was grounded and subsequently scrapped. Shute gives a detailed account of the development of the two airships in his 1954 autobiographical work, Slide Rule, his account is critical of the R101 design and management team, hints that senior team members were complicit in concealing flaws in the airship's design and construction. In The Tender Ship, Manhattan Project engineer and Virginia Tech professor Arthur Squires used Shute's account of the R100 and R101 as a primary illustration of his thesis that governments are incompetent managers of technology projects. In 1931, with the cancellation of the R100 project, Shute teamed up with the talented de Havilland trained designer A. Hessell Tiltman to found the aircraft construction company Airspeed Ltd. A site was available in a former trolleybus garage on York. Despite setbacks, including the usual problems of a new business, Airspeed Limited gained recognition when its Envoy aircraft was chosen for the King's Flight. With the approach of war, a military version of the Envoy was developed, to be called the Airspeed Oxford.
The Oxford became the standard advanced multi-engined trainer for the RAF and British Commonwealth, with over 8,500 being built. For the innovation of developing a hydraulic retractable undercarriage for the Airspeed Courier, his work on R100, Shute was made a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society. On 7 March 1931, Shute married a 28-year-old medical practitioner, they had two daughters and Shirley. By the outbreak of the Second World War, Shute was a rising novelist; as war seemed imminent he was working on military projects with his former boss at Vickers, Sir Dennistoun Burney. He was commissioned into the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve as a sub-lieutenant and ended up in what would become the Directorate of Miscellaneous Weapons Development. There he was a head of engineering, working on secret weapons such as Panjandrum, a job that appealed to the engineer in him, he developed the Rocket Spear, an anti-submarine missile with a fluted cast iron head. After the first U-boat was sunk by it, Charles Goodeve sent him a message concluding "I am pleased as it substantiates the foresight you showed in pushing this in its early stages.
My congratulations."His celebrity as a writer caused the Ministry of Information to send him to the Normandy Landings on 6 June 1944 and to Burma as a correspondent. He finished the war with the rank of lieutenant commander in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserves. Shute's first novel, Stephen Morris, was written in 1923, but not published until 1961, his first published novel was Marazan, which came out in 1926. After that he averaged one novel every two years through the 1950s, with the exception of a six-year hiatus while he was establishing his own aircraft construction company, Airspeed Ltd, his popularity grew with each novel, but he became much more famous after the publication of On the Beach in 1957. Shute's novels are written in a simple readable style, with delineated plot lines. Where there is a romantic element, sex is referred to only obliquely. Many of the stories are introduced by a narrator, not a character in the story; the most common theme in Shu
Forsayth is a town and locality in the Shire of Etheridge, Far North Queensland, Australia 415 kilometres by road from Cairns. In the 2011 census, Forsayth had a population of 347 people; the town is the terminus of the Etheridge Railway, built by the Chillagoe Railway and Mining Company. It reached Forsayth in 1911. Queensland Railways took the line over in 1918, it is now serviced by a weekly operated, tourist train, The Savannahlander. Known as Finnigan's Camp after the prospector who discovered gold nearby in 1871, within a year the settlement had become Charleston township, it continued to grow despite near desertion when its inhabitants rushed to the Palmer River Goldfield in 1874 and to the Hodgkinson in 1876. Charleston Post Office opened on 1 February 1876, was renamed Charleston West in 1910 and closed in 1915. After a slump in the mid-1880s the township was again a flourishing centre by the mid-1890s, having five hotels, a school and a court of petty sessions. By the late 1890s base metal prices were high: a number of promising copper deposits were opened up in the Etheridge district at Charleston and Ortona, several were acquired by a subsidiary of the Chillagoe Company.
This led the company to commence a rail link in 1907 from Almaden to Einasleigh and the Charleston area, completed in January 1910. The Etheridge Railway terminated at a new settlement on the other side of the Delaney River. First known as New Charleston, it was renamed Forsayth after the railways commissioner, James Forsayth Thallon. During the year, all the buildings in Charleston, including the police station and the school, at Gilberton, were moved across the Delaney River to Forsayth; the second Charleston Post Office opened here by April 1910 and was renamed Forsayth in December 1910. New buildings and services followed the opening of the railway. In 1914 the Chillagoe smelters were shut down and the town's importance as an ore-loading facility and centre for miners and their families declined as mining activity in the area was scaled back. Forsayth remained the railhead for transport to the west, although plans in the 1930s to extend the railway to connect to the Normanton-Croydon railway did not proceed.
From the 1980s, renewed mining activity in the area and increased livestock traffic revived the town. Today Forsayth is a service centre for regional tourism. At the 2006 census, Forsayth had a population of 101. Forsayth has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Fourth Street: Station Master's Residence Etheridge railway line: Forsayth railway station The Forsayth branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association has its QCWA Hall in Fourth Street. In 2014, the Forsayth State School had an enrolment of 8 students with 2 teachers; the school caters for students from Prep to Year 6. The school opened on 1 June 1963. Ryle, Where the old Delaney flows: the Forsayth century, Forsayth Centenary Committee.
Mount Isa is a city in the Gulf Country region of Queensland, Australia. It came into existence because of the vast mineral deposits found in the area. Mount Isa Mines is one of the most productive single mines in world history, based on combined production of lead, silver and zinc. With an estimated urban population of 21,998 as at June 2016, Mount Isa is the administrative and industrial centre for the state's vast north-western region. Although situated in an arid area, the artificial Lake Moondarra 19 kilometres north of the city on the Leichhardt River provides both drinking water and an area for watersports and recreation. Locals refer to Mount Isa as "The Isa". Due to the lead production in the city, Mount Isa has one of the most intensive air quality monitoring systems in Australia. Concerns have been raised over childhood lead air pollution within the city; the Mount Isa Mines in particular are a source of significant lead pollution. The land around the present day city of Mount Isa was home to the Kalkadoon aboriginal tribe.
The Kalkadoon tribe led a subsistence lifestyle on this land that the white settlers looked at as nothing but poor grazing land, with the odd mineral deposit. As settlers and prospectors pressed further into their lands the Kalkadoon tribe members set out on one of Australia's most successful guerrilla wars in a fight for their lands, their success continued until at Battle Mountain in 1884, with what some historians have called a rush of blood, the tribe attacked a fortified position in large numbers and suffered terrible losses. The weakened state of the tribe made their land more vulnerable to the settlers and soon much of the land was lost. Armed patrols chasing the surviving tribe members and poor grazing lands for the settlers made times hard in the area over the following decades, it is said that a lone prospector, John Campbell Miles, stumbled upon one of the world's richest deposits of copper and zinc during his 1923 expedition into the Northern Territory, but many people do not know that he was taken to the deposits by a young aboriginal man by the name of Kabalulumana.
When Miles inspected the yellow-black rocks in a nearby outcrop, they reminded him of the ore found in the Broken Hill mine that he had once worked at. Upon inspection these rocks were weighty and mineralised. A sample sent away to the assayer in Cloncurry confirmed their value. Miles and four farmers staked out the first claims in the area. Taken with friend's stories of the Mount Ida gold mines in Western Australia, Miles decided upon Mount Isa as the name for his new claim. Mount Isa Post Office opened on 1 August 1924. A location for the town's hospital was chosen in 1929, with a small building completed the following year. In 1931, a larger structure was moved to the site from the closed mining town of Kuridala; the Mount Isa City Library opened in 1974. Mount Isa has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Camooweal Street: Underground Hospital Camooweal Street: Tent House Mount Isa Mining District: Bower Bird Battery on Mount Isa Mine Lease: Mount Isa Mine Early Infrastructure Nettle Street: Casa Grande Mount Isa at local level is part of the City of Mount Isa, at state level is part of the electoral district of Mount Isa in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland, at federal level is part of the Division of Kennedy in the Australian House of Representatives.
The mayor of Mount Isa, after the 2016 Local Government Elections, is Joyce McCulloch. The City of Mount Isa LGA jurisdiction, covering 43,188 km2, is one of the largest in the world in terms of area and takes in the border town of Camooweal, 188 km to the north-west of Mount Isa and 12 km from the border of the Northern Territory. Mount Isa's industry is dependent on mining. Glencore operates the Mount Isa Mines lease adjacent to the city, which comprises the "Enterprise" underground copper mine, X41 underground copper mine, "Black Star Open Cut" silver-lead zinc mine, metallurgical processing facilities. Silver-lead-zinc ore is mined 20 km to the north at Hilton from the "George Fisher" underground mine, the adjoining "Handlebar Hill" open cut, trucked back to Mount Isa for processing. Mount Isa is in the top two of smelting operations in the country. Copper and lead are smelted on site, with copper anodes and zinc concentrate being transported 900 km to the city and port of Townsville on the east coast.
The lead ingots are transported to a refinery in Britain. The mine is the most significant landmark in the area, with the stack from the lead smelter, standing 270 m tall, visible from all parts of the city and up to 40 km out. In 2008 a Queensland Health report found that more than 10% of children in Mount Isa had blood lead levels above World Health Organization recommendations; the mining operator Glencore denied responsibility and stated that the town has high levels of lead in the soil. However, a more recent study led by Macquarie University environmental engineers has used lead isotope analysis to show conclusively that the lead ingested had originated from smelted ore and not surface deposits. Attractions include the Hard Times Mine at "Outback at Isa" and The Mount Isa Rodeo and Mardi Gras has given Mount Isa the title of "Rodeo Capital of Australia"; the occasion may well triple the city's population in these few days. A memorial has been made for the Rodeo, down Rodeo Drive; the burial place of John Campbell Miles, the founder of Mount Isa, is on the corner of