The Santee River is a river in South Carolina in the United States, is 143 miles long. The Santee and its tributaries provide the principal drainage for the coastal areas of southeastern South Carolina and navigation for the central coastal plain of South Carolina, emptying into the Atlantic Ocean 440 miles from its farthest headwater on the Catawba River in North Carolina; the Santee River is the second largest river on the eastern coast of the United States, second only to the Susquehanna River in drainage area and flow. Much of the upper river is impounded by the expansive, horn-shaped Lake Marion reservoir, formed by the 8-mile -long Santee Dam; the dam was built during the Great Depression of the 1930s as a Works Progress Administration project to provide a major source of hydroelectric power for the state of South Carolina. The Santee is formed in central South Carolina 25 miles southeast of Columbia by the confluence of the Wateree and Congaree rivers, it flows southeast for 5 miles before entering the northwest corner of Lake Marion, which stretches in a long wide arc to the southeast for 30 miles to Santee Dam.
A navigable diversion canal first built in the 1970s at the southern tip of the lake connects to Lake Moultrie, a reservoir on the nearby Cooper River. The modern canal is operated by Santee Cooper as part of the larger hydroelectric project on both rivers; the dam was finished in 1941. Downstream from the reservoir it flows east southeast, forming the northeast boundary of Francis Marion National Forest. 10 miles from its mouth it bifurcates into two channels, called the North Santee and South Santee, that flow parallel and separated by 2 miles, creating Cedar Island. The two channels reach the ocean at Santee Point 15 miles south of Georgetown, not far from the mouth of the Pee Dee River; the river was named by early English settlers after the Santee tribe, which inhabited areas on the middle part of the river. The first European contact was by a Spanish party led by Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526; the Spaniards called the river the Jordan in honor of the Jordan River. After suffering a defeat by the English and their allies during the Yamasee War in 1715–1716, the Santee were relocated.
Many were shipped as slaves to the West Indies, opening up the river for British settlement as part of the Carolina Colony. Most of the Siouan peoples had migrated into the upper Midwest before European encounter. In the late 18th century, the upper river was the site of the homestead of Francis Marion, a patriot of the American Revolutionary War; the original site of his homestead has been flooded by Lake Marion, named in his honor. Construction of the 22-mile -long Santee Canal, linking the river to the Cooper, was begun in 1793 and finished in 1800, it allowed direct water transportation between the Upcountry of central South Carolina and Charleston, at the mouth of the Cooper and the harbor. The canal operated for 50 years before being made obsolete by the introduction of railroads. During the Great Depression, the state of South Carolina created the Santee Cooper power utility; the main source of electric power for the utility came through federal construction during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt of a hydroelectric project inland from Charleston.
Starting in 1939, the Santee River was dammed, forming lakes Marion and Moultrie, diverting the river's flow into the Cooper River through a hydroelectric plant at Pinopolis. The WPA project was completed in 1941. Though the project succeeded in providing cheap electricity to modernize rural South Carolina, unintended consequences were changes to the character of both the Cooper and Santee rivers below the project. Deprived of most its water flow, the Santee River became more saline and its ecosystem changed below the dam; the Cooper River received more of the freshwater and sediment loads that used to flow into the Santee and carried them downstream. This has resulted in increasing the dredging costs to keep Charleston Harbor operating as a port. In the 1980s, the Army Corps of Engineers built a "rediversion" canal to send most of the water back into the Santee mitigating this problem; this is a partial list of crossings of the Santee River Lake Marion Railroad bridge between Lone Star and Rimini.
Former US 15 and US 301 bridge at Santee Interstate 95, US 15 and US 301 bridge at Santee Lower Santee Highway 52 bridge Railroad bridge near St. Stephen ALT US 17 bridge and adjacent railroad bridge US 17 bridge over North Santee River and South Santee River List of South Carolina rivers South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region South Carolina Dept. of Health and Environmental Control: Santee Basin Santee Nation History Santee Cooper Lake System Old Santee Canal Park Carolina Living: History of the Carolina Lakes Santee Canal U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Santee River
Clemson University is an American public, land-grant research university in Clemson, South Carolina, United States. Founded in 1889, Clemson is the second-largest university in student population in South Carolina. For the fall 2017 semester, the university enrolled a total of 19,402 undergraduate students and 4,985 graduate students, the student/faculty ratio was 18:1. Clemson's 1,400 acre campus is in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains and sits next to Lake Hartwell; the university manages the nearby 17,500 acre Clemson Experimental Forest, used for research and recreation. Clemson University consists of seven colleges: Agriculture and Life Sciences. U. S. News & World Report ranks Clemson University 21st among all "national" public universities. Clemson University is classified as a "Doctoral university highest research activity". Thomas Green Clemson, the university's founder, came to the foothills of South Carolina in 1838, when he married Anna Maria Calhoun, daughter of John C. Calhoun, a South Carolina statesman and seventh U.
S. Vice President; when Clemson died on April 6, 1888, he left most of his estate, which he inherited from his wife, in his will to be used to establish a college that would teach scientific agriculture and the mechanical arts to South Carolinians. His decision was influenced by future South Carolina Governor Benjamin Tillman. Tillman lobbied the South Carolina General Assembly to create the school as an agricultural institution for the state and the resolution passed by only one vote. In his will, Clemson explicitly stated he wanted the school to be modeled after what is now Mississippi State University: "This institution, I desire, to be under the control and management of a board of trustees, a part of whom are hereinafter appointed, to be modeled after the Agricultural College of Mississippi as far as practicable." In November 1889, South Carolina Governor John Peter Richardson III signed the bill, thus establishing the Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina. As a result, federal funds for agricultural education from the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act and the Hatch Act of 1887 were transferred from South Carolina College to Clemson.
Construction of the college began with Hardin Hall in 1890 and main classroom buildings in 1891. Henry Aubrey Strode became the first president of Clemson from 1890 to 1893. Edwin Craighead succeeded Strode in 1893. Clemson Agricultural College formally opened in July 1893 with an initial enrollment of 446; the common curriculum of the first incoming students was English, botany, mathematics and agriculture. Until 1955, the college was an all-white male military school. On May 22, 1894, the main building was destroyed by a fire, which consumed the library and offices. Tillman Hall still stands today; the first graduating class of Clemson was in 1896 with degrees in mechanical-electrical engineering and agriculture. Clemson's first football team began in 1896 led by trainer Walter Riggs. Henry Hartzog, graduate of The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, became president of Clemson in 1897. Hartzog created a textile department in 1898. Clemson became the first Southern school to train textile specialists.
Hartzog expanded the curriculum with more industrialization skills such as foundry work, agriculture studies and mechanics. In 1902 a large student walkout over the use of rigid military discipline escalated tensions between students and faculty forcing Hartzog to resign. Patrick Mell succeeded Hartzog from 1902 to 1910. Following the resignation of Mell in 1910 former Clemson Tigers football coach Walter Riggs became president of Clemson from 1910 to 1924; the Holtzendorff Hall the Holzendorff YMCA, was built in 1914 designed by Rudolph E. Lee of the first graduating class of Clemson in 1896. In 1915 Riggs Field was dedicated after Walter Riggs and is the Clemson Tigers men's soccer home field. During World War I enrollment in Clemson declined. In 1917 Clemson formed a Reserve Officers' Training Corps and in 1918 a Student Army Training Corps was formed. Effects of World War I made Clemson hire the first women faculty due to changes in faculty. Riggs accepted a six-month army educational commission in 1919 overseas in France leaving Samuel Earle as acting president.
On March 10, 1920 a large walkout occurred protesting unfair "prison camp" style military discipline. The 1920 walkout led to the creation of a Department of Student Affairs. On January 22, 1924 Riggs died on a business trip to Washington, D. C. leaving Earle the acting president. In October 1924 another walkout of around 500 students occurred when Earle rejected their demands of better food and the dismissal of mess officer Harcombe and the reinstatement of their senior class president; the 1924 walkout resulted in 112 suspended. On April 1, 1925 a fire destroyed the interior of the agricultural building and with it many research projects and an agricultural museum; the exterior of the building survived, leading to the construction of Sikes Hall to hold the library from Tillman Hall. On May 27, 1926 Mechanical Hall was destroyed in a fire. Present-day Freeman Hall, built in 1926, was the reconstructed shop building. In 1928 Riggs Hall was established in honor of Walter Riggs. President Enoch Sikes increased student enrollment by over 1,000 students and expanded the degree programs with an addition of the first graduate degree.
The Department of Arts and Sciences was formed in 1926 with the addition of modern languages programs. Programs at Clemson were reorgan
Brookgreen Gardens is a sculpture garden and wildlife preserve, located just south of Murrells Inlet, in South Carolina. The 9,100-acre property includes several themed gardens with American figurative sculptures placed in them, the Lowcountry Zoo, trails through several ecosystems in nature reserves on the property, it was founded by Archer Milton Huntington, stepson of railroad magnate Collis Potter Huntington, his wife Anna Hyatt Huntington to feature sculptures by Anna and her sister Harriet Randolph Hyatt Mayor along with other American sculptors. Brookgreen Gardens was opened in 1932, is built on four former rice plantations, taking its name from the former Brookgreen Plantation. What is now Brookgreen Gardens was four rice plantations; the plantations from south to north were The Oaks, Brookgreen and Laurel Hill. The current gardens and surrounding facilities lie on the former Brookgreen Plantation, owned by Joshua John Ward, the largest American slaveholder. Only a handful of relics survive on the former plantations.
The Alston cemetery survives on the grounds of The Oaks plantation. Gov. Joseph Alston and his child are buried in the cemetery; the same grave is a memorial to the governor's wife Theodosia Burr Alston, daughter of Vice President Aaron Burr, lost at sea. Her ghost is said looking for her father; the rice mill at Laurel Hill is all. During the American Civil War, Confederates built an earthen structure on the grounds to block Union Navy ships from coming into the tidal rivers, it is the creation of Archer and Anna Hyatt Huntington of Connecticut, who purchased four plantations to open the garden to showcase her sculptures. Situated on Waccamaw Neck in Georgetown County, South Carolina, between the Waccamaw River and the Atlantic coast, it is the country's first public sculpture garden and has the largest collection of figurative sculpture by American artists in an outdoor setting in the world, it is a nature and historical preserve with a small zoo and a nature exhibition center. Archer and Anna Hyatt Huntington first visited the property in 1929.
Because they were captivated by the beauty of it, they purchased nearly 9,100 acres of forest, rice fields and beachfront. They intended to establish a winter home on the coast, but Anna saw the potential of the property and they began to develop her vision of making it the showcase for her sculptures. Archer, son of philanthropists Arabella Worsham Huntington and stepson of Collis Huntington, Anna have donated property and contributed much to U. S. arts and culture in a number of states. Her sculpture of Joan of Arc is a feature of New York City's Riverside Park. About 1445 works of American figurative sculpture are displayed at the Archer and Anna Hyatt Huntington Sculpture Garden. Many of the works are creations of sculptress Hyatt Huntington, but other artists are featured. Walkways and garden paths link the sculptures in their distinctive garden, fountain, or landscape settings, with vistas of the scenery surrounding them. A 1,600-acre area of Brookgreen Gardens was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.
The sculpture garden portion, 551 acres, of Brookgreen Gardens was included in the designation of Atalaya and Brookgreen Gardens as a National Historic Landmark in 1984. Atalaya Castle is just across U. S. 17 which cuts through the former combined Huntington property. The sculpture gardens includes works by: Winner of the South Carolina Heritage Tourism Award, the Lowcountry Trail consists of a beautiful boardwalk that crosses the hillside overlooking Mainfield, a restored rice field of the former Brookgreen Plantation. For enslaved Africans on Brookgreen Plantation, this hill was a bridge between the world of daily work and the familiarity of life in the slave village beyond the crest of the hill; the rhythms of life – planting, harvesting, threshing – changed seasonally for everyone on the rice plantation. Archaeological projects have revealed the remains of four structures on the hillside: the site of the overseer's residence at the apex of the hill, its kitchen and dependency closer to the edge of the rice field.
Along the trail, interpretive panels that describe life on a rice plantation and four stainless steel figures have been placed to represent the Plantation Owner, the Overseer, an Enslaved African Male and an Enslaved African Female. These figures, created in stainless steel by Babette Bloch, serve as visually compelling landmarks to draw visitors along the trail and to interpret a revealing story about each one's role in the economic and social system of a Lowcountry plantation; the Lowcountry Trail Audio Tour is a public education program. The tour winds along the Ricefield Overlook and adjacent rice field and is free with garden admission. A 30-minute fictional story about life on Brookgreen Plantation unwinds progressively as listeners walk the trail; the Lowcountry Zoo and the Lowcountry Center are on the property. This is. Recent Archeological efforts have unearthed the foundations of several buildings at'The Oaks' plantation. Ponds have been created from the former'Brookgreen' plantation house sites.
The Atlantic Coast side was leased to South Carolina to form Huntington Beach State Park. There are boat tours with views of Sandy Island and a self-guided tour nature trail to show off the 2000 identified species of life, including majestic longleaf pines, Spanish moss draped live oaks, vistas of the river and nearby marshland; the gardens make every effort to preserve the natural environment. Top 10 Publ
Pawleys Island, South Carolina
Pawleys Island is a town in Georgetown County, South Carolina, United States, the Atlantic coast barrier island on which the town is located. Pawleys Island's population was 103 at the 2010 census, down from 138 in 2000; the post office address includes an unincorporated area on the mainland adjacent to the island, which includes a commercial district along the Ocean Highway and a residential area between the highway and the Waccamaw River. The island is on the southern end of The Grand Strand and is one of the oldest resort areas of the US East Coast; the town of Pawleys Island, though, is only on the island. The island lies off the Waccamaw Neck, a long, narrow peninsula between the ocean and the river, is connected to the mainland by two bridges, the North Causeway and the South Causeway; the earliest known inhabitants of the Pawleys Island area were Winyah Native Americans. They called the area "Chiquola" or "Chicora", meaning "the land"; the Waccamaw tribe got its name from the nearby Waccamaw river.
The river is referred to the natives as "going" which influenced their name. These tribes lived off of the sea, they embellished many amenities that it came including Oysters. The ocean winds and the abundant source of wildlife made it ideal for these tribes. Today there is some evidence left such as "middens", these are huge plies of shells from the oysters that were harvested by these tribes. There are still a few Waccamaw natives left unlike their neighboring tribe, the Winyahs who are extinct; the Winyahs inherit their name from the Winyah Bay, an area known for its surplus of wildlife much like Pawleys Island. In the early 1700s the colonists from Europe began to set up markets and shops to barter and sell items with these tribes; this was short lived, soon fights began to breakout and many problems arose causing complete destruction of these tribes. The island became a refuge from summer mosquitoes because of common windy conditions; the town's namesake George Pawley owned the island during the colonial era, sold portions of it to other planters seeking to escape malaria.
In 1791, two years after he was elected president, George Washington toured the Grand Strand, travelling The King's Highway in the unincorporated portion off Pawleys Island to visit the Alstons, wealthy planters who owned several plantations in the area. Rice fields occupied the Waccamaw River side of the neck. With Hurricane Hugo in 1989, some island cottages have since been replaced; the island bans commercial or industrial buildings on the island with the exception of a'70s condominium complex and a few grandfathered inns, including the SeaView Inn and the PCJ Weston House, now the Pelican Inn. The town government was incorporated in 1985; the water temperature is comfortable from May to October, there is abundant fishing, crabbing and birdwatching most months of the year. All Saints' Episcopal Church, Cedar Grove Plantation Chapel, Pawleys Island Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Town of Pawleys Island is located just off U. S. Route 17 10 miles east of Georgetown.
The island itself, located at 33°25′47″N 79°07′18″W, is a little over three miles long and about one-quarter of a mile wide. To the east-southeast lies the Atlantic Ocean; the island is a sandy barrier, with some dunes on the northern end up to about 15 feet high. The southern end is low. Behind the island is a tidal creek/marsh. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.0 square miles, of which 0.7 square mile is land and 0.3 square mile is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 138 people, 81 households, 43 families residing in the town; the population density was 196.9 people per square mile. There were 521 housing units at an average density of 743.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.03% White, 7.25% African American, 0.72% from two or more races. There were 81 households out of which 9.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 1.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 46.9% were non-families.
45.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.70 and the average family size was 2.30. In the town, the population was spread out with 8.0% under the age of 18, 15.9% from 25 to 44, 50.7% from 45 to 64, 25.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 55 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $51,964, the median income for a family was $97,125. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $27,500 for females; the per capita income for the town was $48,183. There were none of the families and 1.5% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. The Gray Man is a famous purported ghost local to Pawleys Island and is said to have walked the coastline for nearly 200 years, his presence is said to warn of other dangers.
The most common origin story of the Gray Man is that in 1822 a young woman was staying on the island with her family when she received word that her fiancé was going to join her there. Delighted with the news, she prepared all of his favorite dishes in anticipation of his arrival; however as her fiancé was traveling to the house he challenged his servants to a race on their horses. As they raced he decided to take it; the horse stumbled in the marsh, throwing hi
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Huntington Beach State Park
Huntington Beach State Park is a small coastal preserve and state park near Murrells Inlet, in Georgetown County, South Carolina. It has a large sandy beach, few beach-goers, numerous wild birds to watch over the seasons; the park property of Anna Hyatt Huntington and Archer M. Huntington, was leased after his death and takes its name from him The 2500 acre tract was leased to the state in 1960 for use as a state park. Mrs. Huntington died in 1973. Atalaya was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984, was included in the designation of Atalaya and Brookgreen Gardens as a National Historic Landmark in 1984. Atalaya and BrookgreenHe and his wife's winter home, Atalaya Castle, is located in the park. Built during the Great Depression by only local workers, the residence was designed to withstand hurricanes; the studio of his wife, the noted 20th-century American sculptor Anna Hyatt Huntington, was part of the compound. Many of her significant sculptures are in nearby Brookgreen Gardens, an extension of the former Huntington estate, now a public sculpture garden.
The Friends of Huntington Beach State Park offer scheduled tours of Atalaya Castle, operate the Atalaya Visitor Center with exhibits about the house and the Huntingtons. Local birders refer to the park as "HBSP" in communications; the park features various species of birds of the Southeast coast of the United States for bird watching. It hosts many types of ducks and waders like roseate spoonbills in winter in both fresh and saltwater marshes, it has a jetty where oceanbirds like gannets, loons and alcids like razorbills and murres can be found. The large tree swallow flocks here; the original Education Center featured natural history displays and live animals, including a saltwater touch tank and a live baby alligator among its exhibits. Park naturalists offered free programs about the park's habitat; the center located at the marsh boardwalk, was destroyed in a fire in the early morning hours on Wednesday, July 20, 2016 caused by a lightning strike. All of the animals on display within the Education Center were lost in the fire.
Other park features include: the beach and jetty and nature trails and boardwalks, the gift shop and a public campground. Atalaya Castle Brookgreen Gardens — adjacent sculpture park. Anna Hyatt Huntington Hot and Hot Fish Club Media related to Atalaya Castle at Wikimedia Commons South Carolina State Parks: official Huntington Beach State Park website Huntington Beach State Park website Friends of Huntington Beach State Park photo gallery of Huntington Beach State Park southcarolinaparks.com: "Details about Atalaya Castle"
South Carolina's 7th congressional district
The 7th Congressional District of South Carolina is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives in South Carolina, established in 2011 following apportionment of another seat to the state following the 2010 census. It includes all of Chesterfield, Georgetown, Marlboro and Marion counties and parts of Florence county; the first US representative from this new district, Tom Rice, was elected in 2012 and took office on January 3, 2013. The 7th Congressional District of South Carolina existed in the 19th century but it was eliminated in 1853 as a result of the 1850 Census. After the 1880 Census, Congress apportioned the state another seat, the state legislature re-established the district. By that time, the Reconstruction era had ended and the state legislature was controlled by Democrats, who wrested control by a mixture of violence and fraud, they defined the boundaries of the 7th district, called the "shoestring district" because of its long, narrow shape that included many black precincts.
In 1892 and 1894 the majority-black voters of the district elected George W. Murray to Congress. In 1895, the Democrat-dominated state legislature passed a new constitution, disfranchising black voters by changes to voter registration and electoral rules that were applied against them in a discriminatory way. For decades after 1896, only white Democrats were elected to Congress from the state. During the first half of the 20th century, 6.5 million blacks in total left South Carolina and other southern states in the Great Migration to the North and West. Following cumulative declines in state population, after the 1930 Census, South Carolina lost a seat and the 7th district was eliminated in redistricting, it was last represented by Democrat Hampton P. Fulmer, redistricted into the 2nd District. South Carolina had only six districts for the next 80 years. African Americans were barred from voting until after passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Increases in population led to the state's receiving another congressional seat following the 2010 Census.
The 7th district is located in the developing area of northeastern South Carolina, including the Myrtle Beach metropolitan area and the Pee Dee region. It is a white-majority district and its voters elected Republican Tom Rice as US Representative from the district in 2012. Due entirely to the presence of Republican Horry County, which has as many people as the rest of the district combined, it tilts Republican; the district boundaries are similar to the configuration of the 6th congressional district before it was reconfigured after the 1990 census as a black-majority district. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present