Voivode is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. It derives from the word vojevoda, which in early Slavic meant the bellidux, i. e. the military commander of an area, in Byzantine times it referred to mainly military commanders of Slavic populations, especially in the Balkans. In medieval Serbia it meant an official and - before the Ottoman conquest in the 15th century - the commander of a military area. During Ottoman times, Voivode was the title borne by the ruler of a province, whose powers included the administration, the same title was borne by the Ottoman official who oversaw the “Chora Metzovo” each time. The word gradually came to denote the governor of a province, the territory ruled or administered by a voivode is known in English as a voivodeship. In the English language, the title is translated as duke or prince. In Eastern European terminology, the rank of a voivode is considered equal of that of a German Herzog, a voivode was often considered to be an assistant of the Knyaz.
During military actions the voivode was in charge of an army that consisted of the local population, the voj, while the knyaz had its own regular military formation. As of 2016 in Poland the term means the centrally-appointed governor of a Polish province or voivodeship. The Polish title is rendered in English as palatine or prince palatine. Other similar titles include Margrave, Governor-General, and others, with the expansion of the Russian Empire the title of voivode was superseded by namestnik. Later, voivode denoted the highest military rank in the principalities of Montenegro and Serbia, in the Romanian medieval principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, voievode became part of the official titulature of the sovereign prince, showing his right to lead the entire army. Voivode or vajda was the title of the Hungarian governors of Transylvania in the Middle Ages, baida was a title of a Ruthenian nobleman and Cossack leader Dmytro Vyshnevetsky. Similarly, the leaders in the Balkans were called voivodes.
The term derives from Slavic voi or vojsko + vodi, the word has developed to take various forms in the modern Slavic languages, such as vojvoda, wojewoda, воевода, войвода or воевода, воєвода, vévoda and војвода. It has borrowed into some non-Slavic languages, taking such forms as voievod, vajda. Voivode is related to state such as Vojvodina, Polish provinces voivodeship. For this reason, the Slavic terms are translated as duke
Mijaks are an ethnographic group of ethnic Macedonians who live in the Mijačija area, along the Radika river, in western Macedonia, numbering 30, 000-60,000 people. The Mijaks have traditionally occupied the Mala Reka region along with the Torbeš, Slavic-speaking Muslims, the area including the Bistra mountain and Radika region has been termed Mijačija. To the east is the region of the Brsjaks. However the majority of Mijak villages are uninhabited as the majority of the left during the 20th century. Many villages in Mijačija are now uninhabited due to shift towards the cities. Large Mijak concentrations can still be found in villages around Debar. The villages Oreše, Papradište and Melnica in the Veles region were populated by Mijaci during Ottoman rule in Macedonia, the village of Smilevo, in the Bitola region, is considered to be a Mijak village, in regards to its architecture and history. The north-western quarter of Kruševo was populated by Mijaks, a theory is that they derived the name from their way to say the first plural pronoun, while their neighbours use nije.
The Brsjaks and Mijaks did not live geographically scattered prior to the Ottoman conquest, with the fall of medieval Serbia, the Mijaks likely gathered in the Mala Reka region and continued to live as an autonomous tribe. The Mijaks would fly the war flag whenever needed, a proportion of Mijaks converted to Islam during the 16th and 17th centuries, and they are known by the name Torbeši. In the 18th century, the Mijaks had a conflict with the Islamized population regarding pasture lands. In the first half of the 19th century, a part of the population were Albanianized, and also. In 1822, an unpublished work by Panajot Ginovski, Mijački rečnik po našem govoru, was written. After the Treaty of San Stefano, the Debar county, along with 11 other counties of Macedonia, sent deputies and appeals to Prince Milan of Serbia, asking him to annex the region to Serbia. This was made after the Principality of Bulgaria received most of the Macedonia region by the Ottoman Empire, during the Ilinden uprising in Kruševo, a known Mijak involved was Veljo Pecan.
During the guerilla period, the Mijaks were divided into Serbs and Bulgarians, one Serbian vojvoda was Doksim Mihailović from Galičnik, the Mijaks are well known for the extent to which old customs are preserved in their every day life. Mijaks had mastered the craft of woodcarving, and for years a wood carving school operated in the Mala Reka region. They were responsible for the wood carving which is found inside the Saint Jovan Bigorski Monastery
National Assembly (Bulgaria)
The National Assembly is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of Bulgaria. The National Assembly was established in 1879 with the Tarnovo Constitution, the National Assembly consists of 240 members elected for a four-year term elected by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies. Political parties must gather a minimum of 4% of the vote in order to enter the Assembly. It is headed and presided by the Chairperson of the National Assembly of Bulgaria, the Assembly administers the publication of the State Gazette, Bulgarias gazette of record. By the Constitution, the National Assembly is inaugurated by the eldest elected member of Parliament, on the first day of sitting, he or she presides over the election of the Speaker and two deputies. Once elected, the Speakers retain their party allegiances, which means that remain as MPs and are allowed to take part in debates. 121 MPs must be present in order for any session to commence, ministers may be chosen from among the MPs or they may be experts outside Parliament.
All MPs picked to be Cabinet ministers lose their MP status, Parliament sits Wednesday to Friday, and sessions begin at 9 am. Parliamentary committees sit in the afternoons, the Chamber is made up of 286 seats, all facing the 5-seat speakers bench in a 26 x 11 arrangement. In front of the Speaker, facing the chamber, is the pulpit, parties sit in parliamentary groups, loosely following the rule that the political left sit to the Speakers left and the political right to his right. Generally, the largest parties choose the left, right or centre wings of the chamber, individual MPs will sometimes sit entirely outside of their block or stand, since compulsory electronic registration was implemented, may even vote from any seat in the house. To the speakers right, facing the chamber, is a section with 17 seats reserved for the Cabinet, any of them may, however, be called up by Parliament at any time if needed. g. Those related with the civil rights, 3) Changes in the territory of the Republic. Before the World War II the Grand National Assembly was competent in electing the Regency of the Bulgarian Kingdom if the tzar had not come to age.
As an organ, the Grand National Assembly was introduced with the Tarnovo Constitution of 1879, abolished in 1947, in different constitutional provisions, it was constituted by a different number of representatives. According to the 1991 Constitution, it consists of 400 deputies, the Constitution provides that the elections for Grand National Assembly shall be conducted in the same manner as those for the Ordinary National Assembly. A qualified majority of 2/3 during three voting procedures on separate dates is required for a decision to be made, the Grand National Assembly can serve as an ordinary National Assembly, taking care of regular legislative activities, in urgent cases only. A total of seven Grand National Assemblies have been in operation in Bulgaria, the National Assemblys main building has been proclaimed a monument of culture for its historic significance
Principality of Bulgaria
The Principality of Bulgaria was a de facto independent, and de jure vassal state under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. It was established by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878, after the Russo-Turkish War ended with a Russian victory, the Treaty of San Stefano was signed by Russia and the Ottoman Empire on 3 March 1878. However, the United Kingdom and Austria-Hungary were against the establishment of such a large Russian client state in the Balkans, due to this, the great powers convened and signed the Treaty of Berlin, superseding the Treaty of San Stefano, which never went into effect. This created a smaller principality, alongside an autonomous Eastern Rumelia within the Ottoman Empire. Although an Ottoman vassal, Bulgaria only acknowledged the authority of the Sublime Porte in a formal way and it had its own Constitution and anthem, and conducted its own foreign policy. In 1885, a bloodless revolution resulted in Eastern Rumelia being de facto annexed by Bulgaria, on 5 October 1908, Bulgaria declared its independence as the Kingdom of Bulgaria.
In 1396 the Bulgarian–Ottoman Wars ended with the fall of the Bulgarian Empire, due to the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans, under Ottoman rule, the Bulgarian nobility was destroyed and the national consciousness suppressed. The Bulgarian National Revival, emerging in the late 18th century, revived Bulgarian identity, numerous revolutionary movements and uprisings against the Ottomans occurred alongside similar movements in the rest of the Balkans, culminating in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 to 1878. The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3,1878 proposed a Bulgarian state, based on that date Bulgarians celebrate Bulgarias national day each year. Fearing the establishment of a large Russian client state on the Balkans, a widely autonomous Principality of Bulgaria was created, between the Danube and the Stara Planina range, with its seat at the old Bulgarian capital of Veliko Turnovo, and including Sofia. This state was to be under nominal Ottoman sovereignty but was to be ruled by an elected by a congress of Bulgarian notables.
They insisted that the Prince could not be a Russian, but in a compromise Prince Alexander of Battenberg, an autonomous Ottoman province under the name of Eastern Rumelia was created south of the Stara Planina range, whereas Macedonia was returned under the sovereignty of the Sultan. The Bulgarians adopted a democratic constitution, and power soon passed to the Liberal Party led by Stefan Stambolov. He supported the Unification of Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia, which was brought about by a coup in Plovdiv in September 1885, the Powers did not intervene because of the power struggles between them. Shortly after, Serbia declared war on Bulgaria in the hope of grabbing territory while the Bulgarians were distracted and these events made Alexander very popular in Bulgaria, but Russia was increasingly dissatisfied at the liberal tendencies under his reign. In August 1886 they fomented a coup, in the course of which Alexander was forced to abdicate and was exiled to Russia, however, acted quickly and the participants in the coup were forced to flee the country.
Stambolov tried to reinstate Alexander, but strong Russian opposition forced the prince to abdicate again, in July 1887 the Bulgarians elected Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha as their new Prince. Ferdinand was the Austrian candidate and the Russians refused to recognise him, Ferdinand initially worked with Stambolov, but by 1894 their relationship worsened
Hajduk is a term most commonly referring to outlaws, highwaymen or freedom fighters in Southeastern Europe, and parts of Central and Eastern Europe. In the Ottoman Empire, the term hajduk was used for Balkan bandits, brigands, in the 17th century, the concept was firmly established in the Ottoman Balkans, related to increased taxes, Christian victories against the Ottomans, and general security decline. Hajduk bands predominantly numbered one hundred men each, with a hierarchy under one leader. They targeted Ottoman representatives and rich people, mainly Muslims, for plunder or punishment to oppressive Ottomans, in Balkan folkloric tradition, the hajduk is a romanticised hero figure who steals from, and leads his fighters into battle against, the Ottoman or Habsburg authorities. They are comparable to the English legend of Robin Hood and his merry men, as such, the term could refer to any robber and carry a negative connotation. The etymology of the hajduk is unclear. One theory is that hajduk was derived from the Turkish word haidut or haydut, another theory suggests that the word comes from the Hungarian hajtó or hajdó, meaning a drover.
Indeed, these two theories do not necessarily contradict each other, as the Balkan word is said to be derived from the Turkish word haiduk or hayduk, other spellings in English include ajduk, haiduk, hayduck, hayduk. In 1604–1606, István Bocskay, Lord of Bihar, led an insurrection against the Habsburg Emperor, whose army had recently occupied Transylvania and begun a reign of terror. The bulk of Bocskays army was composed of serfs who had fled from the war. These peasants, freelance soldiers, were known as the hajduk, as a reward for their service, Bocskay emancipated the hajduk from the jurisdiction of their lords, granted them land, and guaranteed them rights to own property and to personal freedom. The emancipated hajduk constituted a new warrior estate within Hungarian feudal society, and the whole area is called Hajdúság. Unusually for this period, Polish-Lithuanian hajduks wore uniforms, typically of grey-blue woolen cloth, with red collar and their principal weapon was a small calibre matchlock firearm, known as an arquebus.
For close combat they carried a variety of sabre, capable of hacking off the heads of enemy pikes. Contrary to popular opinion, the small axe they often wore tucked in their belt was not a combat weapon, in the mid-17th century hajduk-style infantry largely fell out of fashion in Poland-Lithuania, and were replaced by musket-armed infantry of Western style. The Serbs established a Hajduk army that supported the Austrians, the army was divided into 18 companies, in four groups. In this period, the most notable obor-kapetans were Vuk Isaković from Crna Bara, Mlatišuma from Kragujevac, the term haiduci was used by the Romanian resistance movement Haiducii Muscelului, between 1947 and 1959, which opposed the Soviet occupation and the Communist government. Hobsbawm invented the social bandit to describe outlaws who operate on the edges of rural societies by fighting against authorities and sometimes helping the ordinary people
Bulgarians are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions. Bulgarian citizenship shall further be acquirable through naturalization, the population of Bulgaria descend from peoples with different origins and numbers. They became assimilated by the Slavic settlers in the First Bulgarian Empire, from the indigenous Thracian people certain cultural and ethnic elements were taken. Other pre-Slavic Indo-European peoples, including Dacians, Goths, Greeks, the Thracian language has been described as a southern Baltic language. Some pre-Slavic linguistic and cultural traces might have preserved in modern Bulgarians. Medieval historians claimed that the Triballi are the largest tribe and that subsequently changed their name to Bulgarians or Serbs. Others claimed that the Paeonians are Bulgarians, others claimed that the Moesi, according to archeological evidence from the late periods of Roman rule, the Romans did not decrease the number of Thracians significantly in major cities.
The latter gradually inflicting total linguistic replacement of Thracian if the Thracians had not already been Romanized or Hellenized and they continued coming to the Balkans in many waves, but leaving, most notably Justinian II settled as many as 30,000 Slavs from Thrace in Asia Minor. The Byzantines grouped the numerous Slavic tribes into two groups, the Sklavenoi and Antes, some Bulgarian scholars suggest that the Antes became one of the ancestors of the modern Bulgarians. The control of the Bulgars in the west was indirect and in the hands of the Slavic chiefs, the Bulgars are first mentioned in the 4th century in the vicinity of the North Caucasian steppe. However, any connection between the Bulgars and postulated Asian counterparts rest on little more than speculative and contorted etymologies. The Bulgars are not thought to have numerous, becoming a ruling elite in the areas they controlled. Their archeological evidence is concentrated in northeast Bulgaria and in Macedonia, mixed Bulgar-Slavic settlements emerged according to archeological evidence.
Omurtag was the last ruler with a Turkic name and during the reign of Boris the Slavonic language reached an official level, a substantional number of loan words of the Bulgar language remained in the Medieval Bulgarian Slavic language and fewer survived in the modern. During the Early Byzantine Era, the Roman provincials in Scythia Minor and Moesia Secunda were already engaged in economic, the major port towns in Pontic Bulgaria remained Byzantine Greek in their outlook. The establishment of a new state molded the various Slav, Bulgar, in different periods to the ethnogenesis of the local population contributed different Indo-European and Turkic people, who settled or lived on the Balkans. The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681, after the adoption of Orthodox Christianity in 864 it became one of the cultural centres of Slavic Europe. Its leading cultural position was consolidated with the invention of the Cyrillic script in its capital Preslav at the eve of the 10th century
The Macedonians were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece. They spoke a dialect of Greek, although the lingua franca of the region was at first Attic. Aside from the monarchy, the core of Macedonian society was its nobility, similar to the aristocracy of neighboring Thessaly, their wealth was largely built on herding horses and cattle. Although composed of clans, the kingdom of Macedonia, established around the 8th century BC, is mostly associated with the Argead dynasty. The dynasty was founded by Perdiccas I, descendant of the legendary Temenus of Argos, while the region of Macedon perhaps derived its name from Makedon. Traditionally ruled by independent families, the Macedonians seem to have accepted Argead rule by the time of Alexander I, under Philip II, the Macedonians are credited with numerous military innovations, which enlarged their territory and increased their control over other areas extending into Thrace.
There is debate over the classification of the native Macedonian language as a dialect of the Greek language or as its own subdivision of the Hellenic languages. With the scant amount of evidence, the extent to which the native Macedonian tongue may have been influenced by the Phrygian, Thracian. The ancient Macedonians participated in the production and fostering of Classical, in terms of visual arts, they produced frescoes, mosaics and decorative metalwork. The performing arts of music and Greek theatrical dramas were highly appreciated, the kingdom attracted the presence of renowned philosophers, such as Aristotle, while native Macedonians contributed to the field of ancient Greek literature, especially Greek historiography. Their sport and leisure activities included hunting, foot races, and chariot races, the expansion of the Macedonian kingdom has been described as a three-stage process. Macedonia led a military force against their primary objective—the conquest of Persia—which they achieved with remarkable ease.
With Alexanders conquest of the Achaemenid Empire, Macedonians colonized territories as far east as Central Asia, the Macedonians continued to rule much of Hellenistic Greece, forming alliances with Greek leagues such as the Cretan League and Epirote League. In the aftermath of the Third Macedonian War, the Romans abolished the Macedonian monarchy under Perseus of Macedon, a brief revival of the monarchy by the pretender Andriscus led to the Fourth Macedonian War, after which Rome established the Roman province of Macedonia and subjugated the Macedonians. In Greek mythology, Makedon is the hero of Macedonia and is mentioned in Hesiods Catalogue of Women. The first historical attestation of the Macedonians occurs in the works of Herodotus during the mid-5th century BC, the Macedonians are absent in Homers Catalogue of Ships and the term Macedonia itself appears late. The Iliad states that upon leaving Mount Olympus, Hera journeyed via Pieria and Emathia before reaching Athos and this is re-iterated by Strabo in his Geography.
Nevertheless, archaeological evidence indicates that Mycenaean contact with or penetration into the Macedonian interior possibly started from the early 14th century BC, in their new Pierian home north of Olympus, the Macedonian tribes mingled with the proto-Dorians
After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe