Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador, involved in expeditions in Nicaragua and the Yucatan Peninsula, played an important role in Pizarro's conquest of the Inca Empire in Peru, but is best known for leading the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States. He is the first European documented as having crossed the Mississippi River. De Soto's North American expedition was a vast undertaking, it ranged throughout the southeastern United States, both searching for gold, reported by various Indian tribes and earlier coastal explorers, for a passage to China or the Pacific coast. De Soto died in 1542 on the banks of the Mississippi River. Hernando de Soto was born in Extremadura, Spain, to parents who were both hidalgos, nobility of modest means; the region was poor and many people struggled to survive. He was born in the current province of Badajoz. Three towns—Badajoz and Jerez de los Caballeros—claim to be his birthplace, he spent time as a child at each place.
He stipulated in his will that his body be interred at Jerez de los Caballeros, where other members of his family were buried. As he grew to adulthood, the Spanish took back control of the Iberian peninsula from Islamic forces. Spain and Portugal were filled with young men seeking a chance for military fame after the defeat of the Moors. With discovery of new lands across the ocean to the west, young men were attracted to rumors of adventure and wealth. De Soto sailed to the New World with Pedrarias Dávila, appointed as the first Governor of Panama. In 1520 he participated in Gaspar de Espinosa's expedition to Veragua, in 1524, he participated in the conquest of Nicaragua under Francisco Hernández de Córdoba. There he acquired a public office in León, Nicaragua. Brave leadership, unwavering loyalty, ruthless schemes for the extortion of native villages for their captured chiefs became de Soto's hallmarks during the conquest of Central America, he gained fame as an excellent horseman and tactician.
During that time, de Soto was influenced by the achievements of Spanish explorers: Juan Ponce de León, the first European to reach Florida. In 1530, de Soto became a regidor of Nicaragua, he led an expedition up the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula searching for a passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean to enable trade with the Orient, the richest market in the world. Failing that, without means to explore further, de Soto, upon Pedro Arias Dávila's death, left his estates in Nicaragua. Bringing his own men on ships which he hired, de Soto joined Francisco Pizarro at his first base of Tumbes shortly before departure for the interior of present-day Peru. Pizarro made de Soto one of his captains; when Pizarro and his men first encountered the army of Inca Atahualpa at Cajamarca, Pizarro sent de Soto with fifteen men to invite Atahualpa to a meeting. When Pizarro's men attacked Atahualpa and his guard the next day, de Soto led one of the three groups of mounted soldiers; the Spanish captured Atahualpa.
De Soto was sent to the camp of the Inca army, where his men plundered Atahualpa's tents. During 1533, the Spanish held Atahualpa captive in Cajamarca for months while his subjects paid for his ransom by filling a room with gold and silver objects. During this captivity, de Soto taught him to play chess. By the time the ransom had been completed, the Spanish became alarmed by rumors of an Inca army advancing on Cajamarca. Pizarro sent de Soto with 200 soldiers to scout for the rumored army. While de Soto was gone, the Spanish in Cajamarca decided to kill Atahualpa to prevent his rescue. De Soto returned to report. After executing Atahualpa and his men headed to Cuzco, the capital of the Incan Empire; as the Spanish force approached Cuzco, Pizarro sent his brother Hernando and de Soto ahead with 40 men. The advance guard fought a pitched battle with Inca troops in front of the city, but the battle had ended before Pizarro arrived with the rest of the Spanish party; the Inca army withdrew during the night.
The Spanish plundered Cuzco, where they found much silver. As a mounted soldier, de Soto received a share of the plunder, which made him wealthy, it represented riches from Atahualpa's camp, his ransom, the plunder from Cuzco. On the road to Cuzco, Manco Inca Yupanqui, a brother of Atahualpa, had joined Pizarro. Manco had been hiding from Atahualpa in fear of his life, was happy to gain Pizarro's protection. Pizarro arranged for Manco to be installed as the Inca leader. De Soto joined Manco in a campaign to eliminate the Inca armies under Quizquiz, loyal to Atahualpa. By 1534, de Soto was serving as lieutenant governor of Cuzco while Pizarro was building his new capital on the coast. In 1535 King Charles awarded Diego de Almagro, Francisco Pizarro's partner, the governorship of the southern portion of the Inca Empire; when de Almagro made plans to explore and conquer the southern part of the Inca empire, de Soto applied to be his second-in-command, but de Almagro tur
Stanly County, North Carolina
Stanly County is a county in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 60,585, its county seat is Albemarle. Stanly County comprises the Albemarle, NC Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Charlotte-Concord, NC-South Carolina Combined Statistical Area; the site of modern-day Stanly County was peopled by small tribes of hunter-gatherers and Mound Builders whose artifacts and settlements have been dated back nearly 10,000 years. Large-scale European settlement of the region came in the mid-18th century via two primary waves: immigrants of Dutch, Scots-Irish and German descent moved from Pennsylvania and New Jersey seeking enhanced religious and political tolerance, while immigrants of English backgrounds came to the region from Virginia and the Cape Fear River Basin in Eastern North Carolina. In early English colonial times, the Stanly County area was politically part of the New Hanover Precinct, out of which the Bladen Precinct was created in 1734; the renamed Bladen County was subdivided to create Anson County in 1750, which in turn spawned Montgomery County in 1779.
Stanly County was formed in 1841 from the part of Montgomery County west of the Pee Dee River. It was named for John Stanly of New Bern, who served several terms in the North Carolina House of Commons and two terms in the United States House of Representatives. Whitley was accused of theft and murder in Stanly County and in Arkansas. Following a short manhunt through several states, he was captured by a local posse near Big Lick in 1892. Shortly after his capture and incarceration a mob of angry citizens gathered at the jail to demand Whitley be turned over to them. Sheriff Snuggs had been alerted to the mob's intention and he transferred all the prisoners from the jail to his own home across the street—except Whitley, seized by the mob and hanged from a tree off South Street in Albemarle. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 405 square miles, of which 395 square miles is land and 9.8 square miles is water. Rowan County - north Davidson County - northeast Montgomery County - east Anson County - south Union County - south Cabarrus County - west As of the census of 2010, there were 60,585 people.
In 2000 there were 22,223 households, 16,156 families residing in the county. The population density was 147 people per square mile. There were 24,582 housing units at an average density of 62 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.67% White, 11.46% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 1.81% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.01% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. 2.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 22,223 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 10.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.00% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,898, the median income for a family was $43,956. Males had a median income of $31,444 versus $21,585 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,825. About 8.10% of families and 10.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.10% of those under age 18 and 10.30% of those age 65 or over. Albemarle Locust Aquadale Millingport Stanly County is a member of the regional Centralina Council of Governments; as of the 2010 Census, Stanly County is located in North Carolina's 8th congressional district and is represented in the 113th United States Congress by Richard Hudson. The current Sheriff of Stanly County is George Burris Stanly is a powerfully Republican county, it has voted Republican in every presidential election since 1944, with the sole exception of 1976 when Southern Democrat Jimmy Carter carried the county.
It did vote Democratic in every election from 1876 to 1900, but since it has voted solidly Republican except in the 1912 Wilson and 1932 to 1940 Franklin Roosevelt landslides, with southerners John W. Davis and Carter heading the Democratic tickets. Pfeiffer University "Falcons" Stanly Community College "Eagles" Carolina Christian School "Lions" Gray Stone Day School "Knights" North Stanly High School "Comets" South Stanly High School "Bulls" Albemarle High School "Bulldogs" Stanly Early College "Tigers" West Stanly High School "Colts" Stanly Academy Learning Center Albemarle Middle School "Bulldogs Carolina Christian School "Lions" North Stanly Middle School "Comets" South Stanly Middle School "Rebels" West Stanly Middle School "Colts" Aquadale Elementary "Little Bulls" Badin Elementary "Watts" Carolina Christian School "Lions" Central Elementary "Bulldogs" East Albemarle Elementary "Bullpups" Endy Elementary "Redskins" Locust Elementary "Colts" Millingport Elementary "Wildcats" Norwood Elementary "Patriots" Oakboro Elementary "Eagles" Richfield Elementary "Tigers" Stanfield Elementary "Wildcats" The area is served by The Weekly Post, a weekly newspaper.
It is served by The Stanly News and Press, a tri-weekly newspaper that posts local news on its website, www.thesnaponline.com. National Register of Historic Places listings in Stanly County, N
Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress; as president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards, he served in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property known as The Hermitage, became a wealthy, slaveowning planter. In 1801, he was appointed colonel of the Tennessee militia and was elected its commander the following year, he led troops during the Creek War of 1813–1814, winning the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
The subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast lands in present-day Alabama and Georgia. In the concurrent war against the British, Jackson's victory in 1815 at the Battle of New Orleans made him a national hero. Jackson led U. S. forces in the First Seminole War. Jackson served as Florida's first territorial governor before returning to the Senate, he ran for president in 1824, winning a plurality of the electoral vote. As no candidate won an electoral majority, the House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams in a contingent election. In reaction to the alleged "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Henry Clay and the ambitious agenda of President Adams, Jackson's supporters founded the Democratic Party. Jackson ran again in 1828. Jackson faced the threat of secession by South Carolina over what opponents called the "Tariff of Abominations." The crisis was defused when the tariff was amended, Jackson threatened the use of military force if South Carolina attempted to secede.
In Congress, Henry Clay led the effort to reauthorize the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson, regarding the Bank as a corrupt institution, vetoed the renewal of its charter. After a lengthy struggle and his allies dismantled the Bank. In 1835, Jackson became the only president to pay off the national debt, fulfilling a longtime goal, his presidency marked the beginning of the ascendancy of the party "spoils system" in American politics. In 1830, Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, which forcibly relocated most members of the Native American tribes in the South to Indian Territory; the relocation process resulted in widespread death and disease. Jackson opposed the abolitionist movement. In foreign affairs, Jackson's administration concluded a "most favored nation" treaty with Great Britain, settled claims of damages against France from the Napoleonic Wars, recognized the Republic of Texas. In January 1835, he survived the first assassination attempt on a sitting president. In his retirement, Jackson remained active in Democratic Party politics, supporting the presidencies of Martin Van Buren and James K. Polk.
Though fearful of its effects on the slavery debate, Jackson advocated the annexation of Texas, accomplished shortly before his death. Jackson has been revered in the United States as an advocate for democracy and the common man. Many of his actions proved divisive, garnering both fervent support and strong opposition from many in the country, his reputation has suffered since the 1970s due to his role in Indian removal. Surveys of historians and scholars have ranked Jackson favorably among U. S. presidents. Andrew Jackson was born on March 1767 in the Waxhaws region of the Carolinas, his parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew and Elizabeth Hutchinson Jackson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from present day Northern Ireland two years earlier. Jackson's father was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, in current-day Northern Ireland, around 1738. Jackson's parents lived in the village of Boneybefore in County Antrim, his paternal family line originated in Killingswold Grove, England. When they immigrated to North America in 1765, Jackson's parents landed in Philadelphia.
Most they traveled overland through the Appalachian Mountains to the Scots-Irish community in the Waxhaws, straddling the border between North and South Carolina. They brought two children from Ireland and Robert. Jackson's father died in a logging accident while clearing land in February 1767 at the age of 29, three weeks before his son Andrew was born. Jackson, his mother, his brothers lived with Jackson's aunt and uncle in the Waxhaws region, Jackson received schooling from two nearby priests. Jackson's exact birthplace is unclear because of a lack of knowledge of his mother's actions following her husband's funeral; the area was so remote that the border between North and South Carolina had not been surveyed. In 1824 Jackson wrote a letter saying that he was born on the plantation of his uncle James Crawford in Lancaster County, South Carolina. Jackson may have claimed to be a South Carolinian because the state was considering nullification of the Tariff of 1824, which he opposed. In the mid-1850s, second-hand evidence indicated that he might have been born at a different uncle's home in North Carolina.
As a young boy, Jackson was offended and was considered something of a bully. He was, said to have taken a group of younger and weaker boys under his wing
A metallurgical assay is a compositional analysis of an ore, metal, or alloy. Some assay methods are suitable for raw materials. Raw precious metals are assayed by an assay office. Silver is assayed by titration, gold by cupellation and platinum by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Precious metal items of art or jewelry are hallmarked. Where required to be hallmarked, semi-finished precious metal items of art or jewelry pass through the official testing channels where they are analyzed or assayed for precious metal content. While different nations permit a variety of acceptable finenesses, the assayer is testing to determine that the fineness of the product conforms with the statement or claim of fineness that the maker has claimed on the item. In the past the assay was conducted by using the touchstone method but it is done using X-ray fluorescence. XRF is used; the most exact method of assay is known as fire cupellation. This method is better suited for the assay of bullion and gold stocks rather than works of art or jewelry because it is a destructive method.
The age-old touchstone method is suited to the testing of valuable pieces, for which sampling by destructive means, such as scraping, cutting or drilling is unacceptable. A rubbing of the item is made on a special stone, treated with acids and the resulting color compared to references. Red radiolarian chert or black siliceous slate were used to view the resultant treated streak of the sample. Differences in precious metal content as small as 10 to 20 parts per thousand can be established with confidence by the test, it is not indicated for use with white gold, for example, since the color variation among white gold alloys is imperceptible. The modern X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique, suitable for normal assaying requirements, it has an accuracy of 2 to 5 parts per thousand and is well-suited to flat and large surfaces. It is a quick technique taking about three minutes, the results can be automatically printed out by computer, it measures the content of the other alloying metals present.
It is not indicated, for articles with chemical surface treatment or electroplating. The process for X-ray fluorescence assay involves melting the material in a furnace and stirring to make a homogeneous mix. Following this, a sample is taken from the centre of the molten sample. Samples are taken using a vacuum pin tube; the sample is tested by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Metallurgical assay is completed in this way to ensure that an accurate assay is performed. X-ray Fluorescence assay is not as accurate as fire-assay but dependent on the spectrometer used, can achieve results of within 1 percent; the most elaborately accurate, but destructive, precious metal assay is fire-assay. If performed on bullion to international standards, the method can be accurate on gold metal to 1 part in 10,000. If performed on ore materials using fusion followed by cupellation separation, detection may be in parts per billion. However, accuracy on ore material is limited to 3 to 5% of reported value. Although time consuming, the method is the accepted standard applied for valuing gold ore as well as gold and silver bullion at major refineries and gold mining companies.
In the case of fire assaying of gold and platinum ores, the lengthy time required to carry out an assay is offset by carrying out large numbers of assays and a typical laboratory will be equipped with several fusion and cupellation furnaces, each capable of taking multiple samples, so that several hundred analyses per day can be carried out. The principal advantage of fire assay is that large samples can be used, these increase the accuracy in analysing low yield ores in the <1g/T range of concentration. Fusion: the process requires a self-generating reducing atmosphere, so the crushed ore sample is mixed with fluxes and a carbon source mixed with powdered lead oxide in a refractory crucible. In general, multiple crucibles will be placed inside an electric furnace fitted with silicon carbide heating elements, heated to between 1000–1200 °C; the temperature required, the type of flux used, are dependent on the composition of the rock in which the precious metals are concentrated, in many laboratories an empirical approach based on long experience is used.
A complex reaction takes place, whereby the carbon source reduces the lead oxide to lead, which alloys with the precious metals: at the same time, the fluxes combine with the crushed rock, reducing its melting point and forming a glassy slag. When fusion is complete, the sample is tipped into a mold where the slag floats to the top, the lead, now alloyed with the precious metals, sinks to the bottom, forming a'button'. After solidification, the samples are knocked out, the lead bullets recovered for cupellation, or for analysis by other means. Method details for various fire assay procedures vary, but concentration and separation chemistry comply with traditions set by Bugby or Shepard & Dietrich in the early 20th century. Method advancements since that time automate material handling and final finish measurements (i.e. instrument finish r
Fayetteville, North Carolina
Fayetteville is a city in Cumberland County, North Carolina, United States. It is the county seat of Cumberland County, is best known as the home of Fort Bragg, a major U. S. Army installation northwest of the city. Fayetteville has received the All-America City Award from the National Civic League three times; as of the 2010 census it had a population of 200,564, with an estimated population of 204,408 in 2013. It is the 6th-largest city in North Carolina. Fayetteville is in the Sandhills in the western part of the Coastal Plain region, on the Cape Fear River. With an estimated population in 2013 of 210,533 people, the Fayetteville metropolitan area is the largest in southeastern North Carolina, the fifth-largest in the state. Suburban areas of metro Fayetteville include Fort Bragg, Hope Mills, Spring Lake, Pope Field, Rockfish and Eastover. Fayetteville's mayor is Mitch Colvin, serving his first term; the area of present-day Fayetteville was inhabited by various Siouan Native American peoples, such as the Eno, Waccamaw and Cape Fear people.
They followed successive cultures of other indigenous peoples in the area for more than 12,000 years. After the violent upheavals of the Yamasee War and Tuscarora Wars during the second decade of the 18th century, the North Carolina colony encouraged English settlement along the upper Cape Fear River, the only navigable waterway within the colony. Two inland settlements, Cross Creek and Campbellton, were established by Scots from Campbeltown and Bute, Scotland. Merchants in Wilmington wanted a town on the Cape Fear River to secure trade with the frontier country, they were afraid people would use the Pee Dee River and transport their goods to Charleston, South Carolina. The merchants bought land from Newberry in Cross Creek. Campbellton became a place where poor whites and free blacks lived, gained a reputation for lawlessness. In 1783, Cross Creek and Campbellton united, the new town was incorporated as Fayetteville in honor of Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, a French military hero who aided the American forces during the war.
Fayetteville was the first city to be named in his honor in the United States. Lafayette visited the city on March 5, 1825, during his grand tour of the United States; the local region was settled by Scots in the mid/late 1700s, most of these were Gaelic-speaking Highlanders. The vast majority of Highland Scots, recent immigrants, remained loyal to the British government and rallied to the call to arms from the Royal Governor. Despite this, they were defeated by a larger Revolutionary force at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge; the area included a number of active Revolutionaries. In late June 1775, residents drew up the "Liberty Point Resolves," which preceded the Declaration of Independence by a little more than a year, it said, "This obligation to continue in full force until a reconciliation shall take place between Great Britain and America, upon constitutional principles, an event we most ardently desire. Robert Rowan, who organized the group, signed first. Robert Rowan was one of the area's leading public figures of the 18th century.
A merchant and entrepreneur, he settled in Cross Creek in the 1760s. He served as an officer in the French and Indian War, as sheriff and legislator, as a leader of the Patriot cause in the Revolutionary War. Rowan Street and Rowan Park in Fayetteville and a local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution are named for him, though Rowan County was named for his uncle, Matthew Rowan. Flora MacDonald, a Scots Highland woman known for aiding Bonnie Prince Charlie after his Highlander army's defeat at Culloden in 1746, lived in North Carolina for about five years, she was a staunch Loyalist and aided her husband to raise the local Scots to fight for the King against the Revolution. Seventy-First Township in western Cumberland County is named for a British regiment during the American Revolution – the 71st Regiment of Foot or "Fraser's Highlanders", as they were first called. Fayetteville had, it was the site in 1789 for the state convention that ratified the U. S. Constitution, for the General Assembly session that chartered the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Fayetteville lost out to the future city of Raleigh in the bid to become the permanent state capital. In 1793, the Fayetteville Independent Light Infantry formed and is still active as a ceremonial unit, it is the second-oldest militia unit in the country. Henry Evans, a free black preacher, is locally known as the "Father of Methodism" in the area. Evans was a shoemaker by a licensed Methodist preacher, he met opposition from whites when he began preaching to slaves in Fayetteville, but he attracted whites to his services. He is credited with building the first church in town, called the African Meeting House, in 1796. Evans Metropolitan AME Zion Church is named in his honor. Fayetteville had 3,500 residents in 1820, but Cumberland County's population still ranked as the second-most urban in the state behind New Hanover County, its "Great Fire" of 1831 was believed to be one of the worst in the nation's history, although no lives were lost. Hundreds of homes and businesses and most of the best-known public buildings were lost, including t
White County, Georgia
White County is a county located near the northeast corner of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 27,144; the county seat is Cleveland. The county was created on December 22, 1857 from part of Habersham County and named for Newton County Representative David T. White, who helped a Habersham representative attain passage of an act creating the new county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 242 square miles, of which 241 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. The highest point in White County is 4,430-foot Tray Mountain, shared with Towns County to the north. Tray is the 6th-highest mountain peak in Georgia. Another prominent White County peak is Yonah Mountain known as Mount Yonah; this 3,143-foot peak, located between Helen and Cleveland, is rimmed by sheer cliffs and is the highest point on Georgia's Piedmont Plateau. All of White County is located in the Upper Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. Towns County - north Habersham County - east Hall County - south Lumpkin County - west Union County - northwest Chattahoochee National Forest Unicoi State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 19,944 people, 7,731 households, 5,782 families residing in the county.
The population density was 83 people per square mile. There were 9,454 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.16% White, 2.17% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races. 1.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,731 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.70% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.20% were non-families. 21.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 25.20% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,084, the median income for a family was $40,704. Males had a median income of $29,907 versus $22,168 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,193. About 8.40% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.30% of those under age 18 and 15.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 27,144 people, 10,646 households, 7,750 families residing in the county; the population density was 112.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,062 housing units at an average density of 66.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.1% white, 1.7% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.5% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.0% were English, 14.9% were American, 14.5% were Irish, 10.8% were German.
Of the 10,646 households, 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.6% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.2% were non-families, 22.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 42.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,756 and the median income for a family was $50,981. Males had a median income of $40,265 versus $31,061 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,680. About 16.9% of families and 19.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over. Cleveland Helen Sautee-Nacoochee Yonah Mossy Creek Robertstown Scorpion Hollow Shoal Creek Benefit Leo National Register of Historic Places listings in White County, Georgia Lanier Meaders White County Chamber of Commerce website White County Government Website White County Historical Society Website History of White County, Georgia
The Etowah River is a 164-mile-long waterway that rises northwest of Dahlonega, north of Atlanta. On Matthew Carey's 1795 map the river was labeled "High Town River". On maps, such as the 1839 Cass County map, it was referred to as "Hightower River", a name, used in most early Cherokee records; the large Amicalola Creek is a primary tributary near the beginning of the river. The Etowah flows west-southwest through Canton and soon forms Lake Allatoona. From the dam at the lake, it passes the Etowah Indian Mounds archaeological site, it flows to Rome, where it meets the Oostanaula River and forms the Coosa River at their confluence. The river is the northernmost portion of the Etowah-Coosa-Alabama-Mobile Waterway, stretching from the mountains of north Georgia to Mobile Bay in Alabama; the Little River is the largest tributary of the Etowah, their confluence now flooded by Lake Allatoona. Allatoona Creek is another major tributary, flowing north from Cobb County and forming the other major arm of the lake.
The U. S. Board on Geographic Names named the river in 1897; the river ends at 571 feet above mean sea level. The river is home to the Etowah darter, listed on the Endangered Species List. Country singer-songwriter Jerry Reed made the Etowah the home of the wild, misunderstood swamp dweller Ko-Ko Joe in the 1971 song "Ko-Ko Joe"; the fictional character, reviled by respectable people but dies a hero while saving a child's life, is alternately known as the "Etowah River Swamp Rat" in the song. Reed, a native of Atlanta, took some liberties with Georgia geography in the song, including the non-existent "Appaloosa County" and "Ko-Ko Ridge" as part of the song narrative’s setting. Acworth Creek Allatoona Creek Amicalola River Big Dry Creek Boston Creek Butler Creek Cane Creek Canton Creek Clark Creek Downing Creek Dykes Creek Euharlee Creek Hall Creek Hickory Log Creek Illinois Creek Kellogg Creek Little Allatoona Creek Little River Long Swamp Creek McKaskey Creek Noonday Creek Owl Creek Petit Creek Proctor Creek Pumpkinvine Creek Raccoon Creek Rocky Creek Rubes Creek Shoal Creek Sixes Creek Settin Down Creek Stamp Creek Tanyard Creek Two Run Creek Lumpkin County, Georgia Dahlonega Dawson County, Georgia Dawsonville Forsyth County, Georgia Cherokee County, Georgia Canton Bartow County, Georgia Cartersville Floyd County, Georgia Rome U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Etowah River