Chattooga County, Georgia
Chattooga County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,015; the county seat is Summerville. The county was created on December 28, 1838. Chattooga County comprises the Summerville, GA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Rome-Summerville Combined Statistical Area. Summerville is the site of the Chattooga County Courthouse; the county is home to several properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Chattooga county is named for the Chattooga River, it was settled by the'mound builder' culture. A few small mounds can be found throughout the Menlo areas. Sometime in the pre-European settlement era, the county was settled by at first the Creek Native Americans and the Cherokee Native Americans; the principal Cherokee towns in Chattooga were Broomtown in Shinbone valley. With the onset of European settlers and after gold was discovered in northern Georgia, the federal government forcibly removed the Cherokees to Oklahoma from Chattooga county in the early 1830s in what has become known as "the Trail Of Tears."
In this removal, thousands of Native Americans died from sickness and abuse. The land was divided amongst white settlers in the Cherokee Land Lottery of 1832; the Lottery transformed Chattooga into a thriving agricultural area in the antebellum South with farms of varying size dotting the fertile landscape of the Chattooga Valley. The coming of the American Civil War saw Chattoogans polarized into anti-union camps. Confederate armies received five regiments from Chattooga. Several engagements were fought in the county prior to the battle of Chickamauga. General Nathan Bedford Forrest fought an engagement near Alpine with Federal cavalry resulting in the Federals being thrown back to the Chattanooga area; the largest single engagement in Chattooga was the "Battle of Trion Factory," fought on Sept. 15th, 1863 on present day First Street near the site of the East Trion Church of God. Confederate Infantry forces under the command of General Benjamin Hardin Helm and cavalry under the command of Gen. Joseph Wheeler defeated Union forces in a running battle that started somewhere near Summerville and ended in Trion.
The front section of the Old Trion Cemetery on First Street contains the remains of fifty-five Union soldiers and seven Confederates killed in this action, but the graves are unmarked. In September 2009, the Chattooga County Camp 507, Sons of Confederate Veterans in conjunction with the Missionary Ridge Camp 63 Sons of Union Veterans, several local groups erected a memorial monument to remember the "First Battle of Trion Factory" and the soldiers who are buried in unmarked graves at Trion. In an interesting side note, Confederate General Helm was a brother-in-law to Mary Lincoln and was killed five days after the Battle of Trion Factory on Sept. 19th at the Battle of Chickamauga in Walker County, GA. After the fall of Atlanta, Confederate General John Bell Hood led his Army of Tennessee from the Atlanta battleground to the north and west, in an attempt to lead General William Tecumseh Sherman's Army of the Cumberland away from Atlanta and out of Georgia. Sherman left a detachment in Atlanta while he took the remainder of his army in pursuit of Hood and the Confederates.
Hood's army passed through Chattooga County in September 1864 en route to Alabama. General Sherman stated, upon first seeing the Chattooga Valley from atop Taylors Ridge, that it "is a good fertile valley suitable for agriculture." Upon reaching Summerville, Sherman was informed of a Confederate training camp several miles up the river from town. He proceeded north about two miles and "fired a few shots at the retreating rear guard" of the Confederate force; every road leading out of Chattooga to the west was filled with retreating Confederate soldiers. Sherman telegraphed General Henry Halleck and President Abraham Lincoln from Summerville, to outline his plan for the "March to the Sea," making Chattooga County the birthplace of his march. Chattooga County is a Republican stronghold in Northwest Georgia; the NW GA region has followed the state the suburbs of Atlanta, in a dramatic political shift to the right. While most counties in Northwest Georgia vote Republican on the local and national levels, Chattooga is still a Democratic County.
The county elected a Republican commissioner in 2016. The county has supported Republicans for national office, but by much closer margins than most areas of the region; the county is in Georgia's 11th state house district. Former Georgia State Patrolman Eddie Lumsden represents the district, which includes all of Chattooga and parts of Floyd County, in the State House of Representatives; the county is represented by Chickamauga Republican Jeff Mullis in the State Senate. Chattooga County is served by a vast array of public offices; the county is one of the few in the State of Georgia that still operates under one county commissioner. Jason Winters, a local businessman defeated incumbent Democratic Commissioner Mike Dawson in the Democratic Primary election in 2008. Winters went on to defeat local businessman Charles Black, a Republican, in the General Election to take the office. Winters' office is on Commerce Street in the county's seat. Sheriff Ralph Kellett served the community as sheriff for two decades before losing the Democratic Primary election to John Everett in 2008.
Kellett died in 2011. Sheriff Everett kept the seat in Democratic hands in the General Election. In 2012, Everett faced a federal lawsuit regarding questionable practices as sheriff, ended up losing in the 2012 primary, the only incumbent to do so. Democrat Mark Schrade
Heard County, Georgia
Heard County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,834; the county seat is Franklin. The county was created on December 22, 1830. Heard County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Heard County is the only county in Georgia. Heard County was created by Act of the Legislature on December 22, 1830, it was named for Stephen Heard, elected President of the Council on February 18, 1781, thus, in the absence of Governor Howley, becoming Governor de facto. Heard moved to Wilkes County from Virginia and fought in the American Revolutionary War where he distinguished himself at Kettle Creek; the first Sheriff, Jonathan Mewsick, was commissioned in 1832. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 301 square miles, of which 296 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. The vast majority of Heard County is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Lake Harding sub-basin of the ACF River Basin, with just a small northwestern corner of the county, west of Ephesus, located in the Upper Tallapoosa River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin.
U. S. Route 27 State Route 1 State Route 34 State Route 100 State Route 219 Carroll County Coweta County Troup County Randolph County, Alabama As of the census of 2000, there were 11,012 people, 4,043 households, 3,040 families residing in the county; the population density was 14/km². There were 4,512 housing units at an average density of 6/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 87.48% White, 10.82% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.47% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. 1.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,043 households out of which 37.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 12.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.80% were non-families. 21.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.12.
In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 30.70% from 25 to 44, 22.00% from 45 to 64, 11.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,038, the median income for a family was $39,306. Males had a median income of $31,900 versus $22,492 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,132. About 10.50% of families and 13.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.60% of those under age 18 and 17.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 11,834 people, 4,400 households, 3,157 families residing in the county; the population density was 40.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,148 housing units at an average density of 17.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 86.9% white, 9.8% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.2% were American, 11.6% were Irish, 9.0% were German, 7.4% were English. Of the 4,400 households, 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families, 23.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.14. The median age was 39.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,685 and the median income for a family was $47,591. Males had a median income of $41,185 versus $31,507 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,077. About 16.7% of families and 19.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.6% of those under age 18 and 16.4% of those age 65 or over. Centralhatchee Corinth Ephesus Franklin Glenn Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Heard County, Georgia Heard County historical marker Heard County Jail historical marker
Georgia Department of Transportation
The Georgia Department of Transportation is the organization in charge of developing and maintaining all state and federal roadways in the U. S. state of Georgia. In addition to highways, the department has a limited role in developing public transportation and general aviation programs. GDOT is part of the executive branch of state government. GDOT has broken up the state of Georgia into seven districts in order to facilitate regional development; each district is responsible for the planning, design and maintenance of the state and federal highways in their region. The State Highway Department was created on August 16, 1916 by an act of the Georgia General Assembly. Two years in 1918, the creation of the State Highway Department was followed by creation of the Georgia State Highway Commission, which made surveys and oversaw plans for road projects in Georgia. In 1972, it was followed by the creation of the Georgia Department of Transportation by former Governor Jimmy Carter; the Georgia Department of Transportation plans, constructs and improves the state's road and bridges.
The Department provides administrative support to the State Road and Tollway Authority and the Georgia Rail Passenger Authority. A majority of the Department's resources are directed toward maintaining and improving the state's network of roads and bridges. Proceeds from the state's motor fuel taxes are constitutionally earmarked for use on Georgia's roads and bridges. Non-road and bridge construction projects are supported by a combination of state general funds, federal funds and local funds; the Department is responsible for waterways, including the intercoastal waterway and the Savannah and Brunswick ports. Additionally, the department is responsible for rail transit. Jim L. Gillis Sr. Thomas B. Lance Downing Musgrove Thomas D. Moreland Hal Rives Robert Wayne Shackleford J. Tom Coleman Jr. Harold E. Linnenkohl Gena Abraham Evans Vance C. Smith Jr. Keith Golden Russell R. McMurry The state of Georgia has 1,244 miles of Interstate highways within its state lines. Georgia's major Interstate Highways are I-95, I-75, I-16, I-85, I-20.
Other important interstate highways are I-24 and I-59. I-285 is Atlanta's perimeter route and I-575 connects with counties in north Georgia on I-75 and I-675 connects to I-285 on the south side of Atlanta. I-475 is a western bypass of Macon; the Georgia Department of Transportation maintains only 16 percent of the roads in the state. The other 84 percent are the responsibility of the cities; the Freeing the Freeways program is a project which involved widening some of the freeways in Atlanta. The project took 17 years to create, cost $1.5 billion, doubled Atlanta's freeway lane miles from 900 to 1,851 miles. One freeway, involved in the project was the I-75/I-85 Downtown Connector. Another project was the construction of the Tom Moreland Interchange. Georgia boasts one of the most extensive freight rail systems in the U. S. with some 5,000 miles of track that run through all of the state's 159 counties. The system consists of two Class 1 railroads—Norfolk Southern and CSX—and 25 shortlines. Georgia DOT owns nearly 540 miles of light density rail line.
90 percent of the 540 miles is leased to a shortline operator. The remaining 10 percent is leased to the Georgia Department of Natural Resources for use as a bicycle and pedestrian trail, is inactive, or is not leased. 29 percent of the state's railroad system is operated by 25 short-line operators. Norfolk Southern has 851 miles of light density lines and CSX has another 242 miles. Georgia's light density lines carry less than 5 million gross tons of freight per year and function as local shortline service operators in rural agricultural areas. 2,463 miles of the rail system are classified as "mainline track". Some Georgia mainlines transport more than 80 million gross tons per year, ranking them among the most used in the country. Aviation Programs is tasked to assure a safe and well-maintained system of public-use airports, to promote and encourage the use of aviation facilities, to guide airport development, to promote viable scheduled air service throughout the state, to foster safer operating conditions at these facilities.
Other Responsibilities Aviation Programs is responsible for inspecting and licensing all open-to-the-public general aviation airports in the state. State law requires public-use airports to have a state airport license. Licensing occurs on a biennial basis. Aviation Programs publishes and distributes to the airports and aviation community the Georgia Airport Directory and the Georgia Aeronautical Chart in alternating years. Georgia was designated by the FAA as the 10th participant in the State Block Grant Program beginning October 1, 2008; this mandates the Department to accept and administer millions of dollars in federal funding for improvements at federally eligible general aviation airports. Aviation Programs assumes additional responsibility for project oversight, airport planning and environmental review at these airports; the Airport Development program is responsible for developing and administering programs to satisfy these goals. The Georgia Airport Aid Program is designed to pro
U.S. Route 278 in Georgia
U. S. Route 278 in the U. S. state of Georgia is an east–west United States Highway traversing the north-central portion of the state. The highway travels from its western terminus as US 278/SR 74 at the Alabama state line near Esom Hill to its eastern terminus at US 1/US 25/US 78/US 278/SC 121 in the Augusta metropolitan area where it crosses the Savannah River into South Carolina; the route is concurrent with SR 6 from the Alabama state line to Lithia Springs, SR 100 and SR 1 in Cedartown, SR 8 from Lithia Springs to Decatur, SR 5 from Lithia Springs to Austell, SR 10 from Atlanta to Avondale Estates, again from Thomson to the South Carolina state line. It is concurrent with SR 12 for 118 miles, is concurrent with the southern terminus of SR 124 in Lithonia. Concurrencies of US 278 with US highways in Georgia include two long ones with its parent route US 78 from Lithia Springs to Druid Hills, again from east of Thomson to the South Carolina state line. Others include US 19/US 41 in the vicinity of Georgia Tech in Atlanta, US 29 from Georgia Tech to Druid Hills, US 23 from the eastern part of Atlanta to Druid Hills, US 129/US 441 in the vicinity of Madison, US 1 from Augusta to the South Carolina state line, US 25 from Augusta to the South Carolina state line.
It is concurrent with I-20 from exit 75 in Lithonia until it reaches exit 90 in Covington in Newton County. US 278 travels parallel to I-20 from DeKalb County, near Atlanta, to McDuffie County; the highway starts at the Alabama state line, near Esom Hill in Polk County, is concurrent with SR 6 from its western terminus. It travels southeast as a two-lane undivided highway until the intersection with Hardin Road, where it curves northeast. Along the way, it travels straight east along the north edge of a waterway known as Esom Slough turns to the northeast again at the intersection with Brewster Field Road. Getting away from Esom Hill, it travels through a community known as Akes, only has intersections with three local roads. At some point, it passes a short proposed eastbound right-of-way. Just before entering Cedartown, the road is joined by a concurrency with SR 100. At a bridge over an abandoned Seaboard Air Line Railroad line, it travels over a connecting spur to the Silver Comet Trail, enters the City of Cedartown.
The spur leads to a trailhead on the northeast corner of the bridge, while the trail itself travels along the south side of the road beginning at the southeast corner of the bridge. The trail continues to run along the south side of the road as it passes an Underwriters Laboratory building, crosses a bridge over Dry Creek, where it loops around like the inner ramps of a cloverleaf interchange and leaves the side of the road to travel along the east bank of the creek. Condominiums are along the north side of the road and single-family houses line the south side until it reaches U. S. Route 27 Bus./SR 1 Bus.. From there, Canal Street becomes Junior Boulevard; this segment of the highway shifts between southeast and east trajectories and, at one point, crosses an at-grade former Central of Georgia Railway line. MLK Jr Boulevard travels southeast for the last time and ends at a short concurrency with US 27/SR 1, where SR 100 turns south and US 278/SR 6 turns north; that concurrency ends at an overpass with two connecting roads on the southwest and northeast corners.
The Silver Comet Trail, which travels in close proximity with US 278 from the Alabama state line flanks the highway directly along the south side for the second time east of the bridge over Fish Creek. At the border with Rockmart, US 278 Bus./SR 6 Bus. branches off to the southeast, while mainline US 278/SR 6 curves to the northeast onto Nathan Dean Parkway. Before the intersection of Calloway Drive, the Silver Comet Trail makes a sharp turn south; the eastern terminus of US 278 Bus./SR 6 Bus. is the west end of the concurrency with SR 101. US 278/SR 6/SR 101 makes a slight turn to the southeast where it encounters the intersection with SR 113, that route joins them as they all turns south. US 278/SR 6/SR 101/SR 113 leaves the city limits at a bridge over Braswell Road and a parallel railroad line. Just after the intersection with Fairview Road, the routes curve to the southeast; the concurrency travels over a bridge above the Silver Comet Trail again, just before the intersection with Atlanta Highway and Coots Lake Road, the former of, once a segment of US 278/SR 6/SR 101/SR 113.
Not long after this, the highway passes by Coots Lake. SR 101/SR 113 leaves the concurrency a little further southeast, after descending into a slight valley, US 278/SR 6 crosses the Polk–Paulding county line, where the street name is changed to Rockmart Highway. Along the way, it passes by few sites of any note other than Paulding Northwest Atlanta Airport. Further east, a former segment on the opposite side called "Wayside Lane" begins, which serves the Lillian C. Poole Elementary School, Wayside Baptist Church. Wayside Lane ends west of a power line right-of-way. After the west end of Olivet Loop and at a break in the median, the route enters Dallas. At the intersection of the east end of Olivet Loop and Vista Lake Drive, Rockmart Highway becomes the Jimmy Campbell Parkway. What passes for a major intersection after this is West Memorial Drive, another former segment of the highways. A real major intersection follows shortly Buchanan Street, where SR 120 and SR 6 Bus. meet. SR 120 joins US 278/SR
Polk County, Georgia
Polk County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,475; the county seat is Cedartown. The county was created on December 20, 1851 by an act of the Georgia General Assembly and named after James K. Polk, the eleventh President of the United States. Polk County comprises the Cedartown, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Atlanta-Athens-Clarke County-Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 312 square miles, of which 310 square miles is land and 1.8 square miles is water. Most of eastern Polk County, centered on Rockmart, is located in the Etowah River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin, while most of western Polk County, centered on Cedartown, is located in the Upper Coosa River sub-basin of the same ACT River Basin. Small slivers of the southern edges of the county are located in the Upper Tallapoosa River sub-basin of the same larger ACT River Basin.
Floyd County – north Bartow County – northeast Paulding County – east Haralson County – south Cleburne County, Alabama – southwest Cherokee County, Alabama – west As of the census of 2000, there were 38,127 people, 14,012 households, 10,340 families residing in the county. The population density was 122 people per square mile. There were 15,059 housing units at an average density of 48 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.52% White, 13.34% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.62% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. 7.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,012 households out of which 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.90% were married couples living together, 13.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.20% were non-families. 22.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.20 males. For every 100 women age 18 and over, there were 95.70 men. The median income for a household in the county was $32,328, the median income for a family was $37,847. Males had a median income of $29,985 versus $21,452 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,617. About 11.20% of families and 15.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.70% of those under age 18 and 12.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 41,475 people, 15,092 households, 10,908 families residing in the county; the population density was 133.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,908 housing units at an average density of 54.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 77.1% white, 12.5% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 7.5% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 11.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.2% were English, 15.2% were American, 13.0% were Irish, 5.3% were German. Of the 15,092 households, 38.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families, 23.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.20. The median age was 36.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,646 and the median income for a family was $43,172. Males had a median income of $37,070 versus $27,758 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,214. About 15.6% of families and 19.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over.
Silver Comet Trail Nathan Dean Complex and Park Aragon Braswell Cedartown Rockmart National Register of Historic Places listings in Polk County, Georgia Polk County Historical Society Polk County Genealogy Polk County Courthouse – Carl Vinson Institute of Government, University of Georgia Polk County Tourism website – Polk on Purpose
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Cave Spring, Georgia
Cave Spring is a city in Floyd County, United States. It is located 16 miles southwest of the county seat; the population of Cave Spring was 1,200 at the 2010 census, up from 975 at the 2000 census. It is part of Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area; the town was named after the water spring located in Rolater Park. The cave has the legendary "Devil's Stool" formation; the spring water has won awards for taste. Many visitors bring jugs to take home for drinking. Cave Spring is located in southwestern Floyd County at 34°6′32″N 85°20′10″W. U. S. Route 411 passes through the city, leading northeast to Rome and west 46 miles to Gadsden, Alabama; the Alabama border is 5 miles west of Cave Spring. Georgia State Route 100 leads north from Cave Spring 12 miles to Coosa and southeast 11 miles to Cedartown. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Cave Spring has a total area of 4.1 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.36%, is water. Cave Spring is well known for the natural AIR wonders of the cave and spring site where indigenous peoples came to the area.
Legend has it that tribal games used to be held at the site. In 1832, Cave Spring was formed as a small town, founded by Baptists who were among the early settlers; the cave and spring site is now part of Rolater Park used by educational institutions such as Cave Spring Manual Labor School and others including Georgia School for the Deaf. During the Atlanta Campaign of the Civil War in 1864, both Confederate and Union troops came to Cave Spring for hospitalization and rest; the spring flows into a sparkling pond from Rolater Park and into a 1.5-acre swimming pool shaped like the state of Georgia. The pool is constructed out of stones. Cave Spring has historic homes and buildings from its early years, such as the 1867 Presbyterian Church, 1880 train depot, 19th century hotels and boarding houses; as of the census of 2000, there were 975 people, 404 households, 281 families residing in the city. The population density was 242.7 people per square mile. There were 431 housing units at an average density of 107.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 84.82% White, 12.41% African American, 0.62% Native American, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 1.44% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.15% of the population. There were 404 households, out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families. 29.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.7% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 22.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,750, the median income for a family was $47,917.
Males had a median income of $35,395 versus $20,962 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,850. About 14.0% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.6% of those under age 18 and 13.9% of those age 65 or over. Cave Spring is the home of the Georgia School for the Deaf, established in 1846, it is a state-funded residential school operating under the auspices of the Office of Special Services of the Georgia State Department of Education and the Georgia State Board of Education. It aims to ensure that appropriate educational programs are available for hearing-impaired and multi-handicapped hearing-impaired students residing in Georgia. GSD was once a field hospital for both Confederate and Union troops during the Civil War. City of Cave Spring official website Georgia School for the Deaf