Culture of Georgia (country)
The culture of Georgia has evolved over the country's long history, providing it with a unique national culture and a strong literary tradition based on the Georgian language and alphabet. This has provided a strong sense of national identity that has helped to preserve Georgian distinctiveness despite repeated periods of foreign occupation; the Georgian alphabet is traditionally said to have been invented in the 3rd century BC and reformed by King Parnavaz I of Iberia in 284 BC. Most modern scholarship puts its origin date at some time in the 5th century AD, when the earliest examples can be found. Georgia's medieval culture was influenced by Eastern Orthodox Christianity and the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, which promoted and sponsored the creation of many works of religious devotion; these included churches and monasteries, works of art such as icons, hagiographies of Georgian saints. In addition, many secular works of national history and hagiography were written. Medieval Georgian icons are renowned as being among the finest creations of Orthodox religious art.
Notable examples include: The Icon of 886 from Zarzma monastery The Icon of the 9th century from Tsilkani The famous Wonderworking Iberian Icon of the Mother of God The Icon of the 10th century from Okona The Icon of Our Lady of Khakhuli of the 12th century The Icon of St. George of the 11th century from Labechina The Icon of St. George of the 11th century from Nakipari The Icon of the 12th century from Anchiskhati The Icon of the 14th century from Ubisa The Icon of the 16th century from Alaverdi Well-known monuments of Georgian Christian architecture include: The Georgian Church in Bethlehem The Church of Gavazi in Akhalsopeli Akaurta Church in Bolnisi district Ikalto Monastery complex Sioni church in Bolnisi Monastery of Shio Mghvime Davidgareja Monastery complex Jvari Monastery in Mtskheta Anchiskhati Church in Tbilisi Nekresi Monastery Complex in Kakheti Sioni church in Ateni Petritsoni Monastery in Bulgaria The Georgian Monastery on the Black Mountain in Syria The Georgian Iveron Monastery on Athos Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta Opiza Monastery in Tao-Klarjeti Monastery Doliskana in Tao-Klarjeti Monastery Otkhta-Eklesia in Tao-Klarjeti Oshki Monastery in Tao-Klarjeti Gelati Monastery in Kutaisi Sioni Cathedral in Tbilisi Alaverdi church in Kakheti Monastery Samtavro in Mtskheta Vardzia Monastery in Meskheti Gialia Monastery in CyprusWell-known Georgian painters were Damiane, Mamuka Tavakarashvili, etc.
The works of the famous Georgian goldsmiths and Beshken Opizari, are outstanding contributions to world art. Important Georgian literary works of the pre-Christian period are: Amiraniani, ancient Georgian folk epos. Notable Georgian written works from the medieval period include: Martyrdom of the Holy Queen Shushanik by Iakob Tsurtaveli Corpus Areopagiticum, a philosophical and theological work attributed by some to Peter the Iberian The Life of Saint Nino The Martyrdom of Abo Tbileli by Ioane Sabanisdze The Life of Grigol Khandzteli by Giorgi Merchule Ustsoro Karabadini A History of the Georgian Kings by Leonti Mroveli A History of the Royal House of Bagrationi by Sumbat Davitisdze Eteriani, a folk epic Life of the King Farnavaz Tamariani by Ioane Chakhrukhadze Shen Khar Venakhi, the famous Georgian hymn by the King Demetre I Bagrationi Vepkhistkaosani, a national epic poem by Shota Rustaveli Abdulmesiani by Ioane Shavteli Kartlis Tskhovreba, a collection of old Georgian chronicles Starting from the early 16th century, although certain aspects of more recent times were incorporated since the 12th century, until the course of the 19th century, Georgian culture became influenced by Persian culture.
Though notably more visibly amongst the higher classes, Persian cultural aspects were incorporated amongst the existing Georgian columns painting and literature. The French traveller Jean Chardin who visited Georgia in 1672 noted that the Georgians followed Persian customs. Since many Georgian kings and nobles were either born or raised in mainland Iran, it is not surprising that Persian cultural aspects spread in Georgia. During the modern period, from about the 17th century onwards, Georgian culture has been influenced by cultural innovations imported from elsewhere in Europe; the first Georgian-language printing house was established in the 1620s in Italy, the first one in Georgia itself was founded in 1709 in Tbilisi. Georgian theatre has a long history; the Georgian National Theatre was founded in 1791 in Tbilisi, by the writer and diplomat Giorgi Avalishvili. Its leading actors were Dimitri A
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli and Mkhedruli. Although the systems differ in appearance, all three are unicase, their letters share the same names and alphabetical order, are written horizontally from left to right. Of the three scripts, once the civilian royal script of the Kingdom of Georgia and used for the royal charters, is now the standard script for modern Georgian and its related Kartvelian languages, whereas Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri are used only by the Georgian Orthodox Church, in ceremonial religious texts and iconography. Georgian scripts are unique in their appearance and their exact origin has never been established. Consisting of 38 letters, Georgian is presently written in a 33-letter alphabet, as five letters are obsolete in that language; the number of Georgian letters used in other Kartvelian languages varies. Mingrelian uses 36: 33 that are current Georgian letters, one obsolete Georgian letter, two additional letters specific to Mingrelian and Svan.
Laz uses the same 33 current Georgian letters as Mingrelian plus that same obsolete letter and a letter borrowed from Greek for a total of 35. The fourth Kartvelian language, Svan, is not written, but when it is, it uses Georgian letters as utilized in Mingrelian, with an additional obsolete Georgian letter and sometimes supplemented by diacritics for its many vowels. Georgian scripts were granted the national status of intangible cultural heritage in Georgia in 2015 and inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2016; the origin of the Georgian script is poorly known, no full agreement exists among Georgian and foreign scholars as to its date of creation, who designed the script, the main influences on that process. The first version of the script attested is Asomtavruli which dates back at least to the 5th century. Most scholars link the creation of the Georgian script to the process of Christianization of Iberia, a core Georgian kingdom of Kartli.
The alphabet was therefore most created between the conversion of Iberia under King Mirian III and the Bir el Qutt inscriptions of 430, contemporaneously with the Armenian alphabet. It was first used for translation of the Bible and other Christian literature into Georgian, by monks in Georgia and Palestine. Professor Levan Chilashvili's dating of fragmented Asomtavruli inscriptions, discovered by him at the ruined town of Nekresi, in Georgia's easternmost province of Kakheti, in the 1980s, to the 1st or 2nd century has not been accepted. A Georgian tradition first attested in the medieval chronicle Lives of the Kings of Kartli, assigns a much earlier, pre-Christian origin to the Georgian alphabet, names King Pharnavaz I as its inventor; this account is now considered legendary, is rejected by scholarly consensus, as no archaeological confirmation has been found. Rapp considers the tradition to be an attempt by the Georgian Church to rebut the earlier tradition that the alphabet was invented by the Armenian scholar Mesrop Mashtots, is a Georgian application of an Iranian model in which primordial kings are credited with the creation of basic social institutions.
Georgian linguist Tamaz Gamkrelidze offers an alternate interpretation of the tradition, in the pre-Christian use of foreign scripts to write down Georgian texts. Another point of contention among scholars is the role played by Armenian clerics in that process. According to medieval Armenian sources and a number of scholars, Mesrop Mashtots acknowledged as the creator of the Armenian alphabet created the Georgian and Caucasian Albanian alphabets; this tradition originates in the works of Koryun, a fifth-century historian and biographer of Mashtots, has been quoted by Donald Rayfield and James R. Russell, but has been rejected by Georgian scholarship and some Western scholars who judge the passage in Koryun unreliable or a interpolation. In his study on the history of the invention of the Armenian alphabet and the life of Mashtots, the Armenian linguist Hrachia Adjarian defended Koryun as a reliable source and rejected criticisms of his accounts on the invention of the Georgian script by Mashtots.
Some Western scholars quote Koryun's claims without taking a stance on its validity. Many agree, that Armenian clerics, if not Mashtots himself, must have played a role in the creation of the Georgian script. Another controversy regards the main influences at play in the Georgian alphabet, as scholars have debated whether it was inspired more by the Greek alphabet, or by Semitic alphabets such as Aramaic. Recent historiography focuses on greater similarities with the Greek alphabet than in the other Caucasian writing systems, most notably the order and numeric value of letters; some scholars have suggested certain pre-Christian Georgian cultural symbols or clan markers as a possible inspiration for particular letters. Asomtavruli is the oldest Georgian script; the name Asomtavruli means "capital letters", from aso "letter" and mtavari "principal/head". It is known as Mrgvlovani "rounded", from mrgvali "round", so named because of its round letter shapes. Despite its name, this "capital" script is unicameral, just like the modern Georgian script, Mkhedruli.
The oldest Asomtavruli inscri
History of Georgia (country)
The nation of Georgia was first unified as a kingdom under the Bagrationi dynasty by the King Bagrat III of Georgia in the 8th to 9th century, arising from a number of predecessor states of the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia. The Kingdom of Georgia flourished during the 10th to 12th centuries under King David IV the Builder and Queen Tamar the Great, fell to the Mongol invasion by 1243, after a brief reunion under George V the Brilliant to the Timurid Empire. By 1490, Georgia was fragmented into a number of petty kingdoms and principalities, which throughout the Early Modern period struggled to maintain their autonomy against Ottoman and Iranian domination until Georgia was annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. After a brief bid for independence with the Democratic Republic of Georgia of 1918–1921, Georgia was part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic from 1922 to 1936, formed the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The current republic of Georgia has been independent since 1991. The first president Zviad Gamsakhurdia stoked Georgian nationalism and vowed to assert Tbilisi's authority over Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Gamsakhurdia was deposed in a bloody coup d'état within the same year and the country became embroiled in a bitter civil war, which lasted until 1995. Supported by Russia and South Ossetia achieved de facto independence from Georgia; the Rose Revolution forced Eduard Shevardnadze to resign in 2003. The new government under Mikheil Saakashvili prevented the secession of a third breakaway republic in the Adjara crisis of 2004, but the conflict with Abkhazia and South Ossetia led to the 2008 Russo–Georgian War and tensions with Russia remain unresolved; the history of Georgia is inextricably linked with the history of the Georgian people. Evidence for the earliest occupation of the territory of present-day Georgia goes back to c. 1.8 million years ago, as evident from the excavations of Dmanisi in the south-eastern part of the country.
This is the oldest evidence of humans anywhere in the world outside Africa. Prehistoric remains are known from numerous cave and open-air sites in Georgia; the earliest agricultural Neolithic occupation is dated sometime between 6000 and 5000 BC. known as the Shulaveri-Shomu culture, where people used local obsidian for tools, raised animals such as cattle and pigs, grew crops, including grapes. Numerous excavations in tell settlements of the Shulaveri-Shomu type have been conducted since the 1960s. Early metallurgy started in Georgia during the 6th millennium BC, associated with the Shulaveri-Shomu culture. From the beginning of the 4th millennium, metals became used to larger extend in East Georgia and in the whole Transcaucasian region. In the 1970s, archaeological excavations revealed a number of ancient settlements that included houses with galleries, carbon-dated to the 5th millennium BC in the Imiris-gora region of Eastern Georgia; these dwellings were circular or oval in plan, a characteristic feature being the central pier and chimney.
These features were used and further developed in building Georgian dwellings and houses of the'Darbazi' type. In the Chalcolithic period of the fourth and third millennia BC, Georgia and eastern Asia Minor were home to the Kura-Araxes culture, giving way in the second millennium BC. to the Trialeti culture. Archaeological excavations have brought to light the remains of settlements at Beshtasheni and Ozni, barrow burials in the province of Trialeti, at Tsalka. Together, they testify to an well-developed culture of building and architecture. Diauehi, a tribal union of early-Georgians, first appear in written history in the 12th century BC. Archaeological finds and references in ancient sources reveal elements of early political and state formations characterized by advanced metallurgy and goldsmith techniques that date back to the 7th century BC and beyond. Between 2100 and 750 BC, the area survived the invasions by the Hittites, Medes, Proto-Persians and Cimmerians. At the same period, the ethnic unity of Proto-Kartvelians broke up into several branches, among them Svans, Zans/Chans and East-Kartvelians.
That led to the formation of modern Kartvelian languages: Georgian, Svan and Laz. By that time Svans were dominant in modern Svaneti and Abkhazia, Zans inhabited modern Georgian province of Samegrelo, while East-Kartvelians formed the majority in modern eastern Georgia; as a result of cultural and geographic delimitation, two core areas of future Georgian culture and statehood formed in western and eastern Georgia by the end of the 8th century BC. The first two Georgian states emerged in the west known as the Kingdom of Colchis and in the east as the Kingdom of Iberia. A second Georgian tribal union emerged in the 13th century BC on the Black Sea coast under the Kingdom of Colchis in western Georgia; the kingdom of Colchis, which existed from the 6th to the 1st centuries BC is regarded as the first early Georgian state formation and the term Colchians was used as the collective term for early Georgian-Kartvelian tribes such as Mingrelians and Chans who populated the eastern coast of the Black Sea.
According to the scholar of the Caucasian studies Cyril Toumanoff: Colchis appears as the first Caucasian State to have achieved the coalescence of the newcomer, Colchis can be justly regarded as not a proto-Georgian, but a Georgian kingdom.... It would seem natural to seek the beginnings of Georgian social history in Colchis, the ea
Christmas is an annual festival, commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians, as well as culturally by many non-Christians, forms an integral part of the holiday season centered around it; the traditional Christmas narrative, the Nativity of Jesus, delineated in the New Testament says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, in accordance with messianic prophecies. When Joseph and Mary arrived in the city, the inn had no room and so they were offered a stable where the Christ Child was soon born, with angels proclaiming this news to shepherds who further disseminated the information.
Although the month and date of Jesus' birth are unknown, the church in the early fourth century fixed the date as December 25. This corresponds to the date of the solstice on the Roman calendar. Most Christians celebrate on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, adopted universally in the civil calendars used in countries throughout the world. However, some Eastern Christian Churches celebrate Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to a January date in the Gregorian calendar. For Christians, the belief that God came into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity, rather than the exact birth date, is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas; the celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, viewing a Nativity play, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, pulling Christmas crackers and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, wreaths and holly.
In addition, several related and interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses; the economic impact of Christmas has grown over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. "Christmas" is a shortened form of "Christ's mass". The word is recorded as Crīstesmæsse in 1038 and Cristes-messe in 1131. Crīst is from Greek Khrīstos, a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ, "Messiah", meaning "anointed"; the form Christenmas was historically used, but is now considered archaic and dialectal. Xmas is an abbreviation of Christmas found in print, based on the initial letter chi in Greek Khrīstos, "Christ", though numerous style guides discourage its use.
In addition to "Christmas", the holiday has been known by various other names throughout its history. The Anglo-Saxons referred to the feast as "midwinter", or, more as Nātiuiteð. "Nativity", meaning "birth", is from Latin nātīvitās. In Old English, Gēola referred to the period corresponding to December and January, equated with Christian Christmas. "Noel" entered English in the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself from the Latin nātālis meaning "birth". The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. In Luke and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, Jesus is born there and laid in a manger. Angels proclaimed him a savior for all people, shepherds came to adore him. Matthew adds that the magi follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and returns to Nazareth.
The nativity stories recounted in Matthew and Luke prompted early Christian writers to suggest various dates for the anniversary. Although no date is indicated in the gospels, early Christians connected Jesus to the Sun through the use of such phrases as "Sun of righteousness." The Romans marked the winter solstice on December 25. The first recorded Christmas celebration was in Rome on December 25, 336. Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy was played out, the prominence of the holiday declined; the feast regained prominence after 800. Associating it with drunkenness and other misbehavior, the Puritans banned Christmas during the Reformation, it remained disreputable. In the early 19th century, Christmas was reconceived by Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, other authors as a holiday emphasizing family, kind-heartedness, gift-giving, Santa Claus. Christmas does not appear on th
The Georgians or Kartvelians are a nation and indigenous Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia. Large Georgian communities are present throughout Russia, Greece, Ukraine, United States, throughout the European Union. Georgians arose from the ancient Iberian civilizations. After Christianization of Iberia by Saint Nino they became one of the first who embraced the faith of Jesus in the early 4th century and now the majority of Georgians are Eastern Orthodox Christians and most follow their national autocephalous Georgian Orthodox Church. There are small Georgian Catholic and Muslim communities in Tbilisi and Adjara, as well as a significant number of irreligious Georgians. A complex process of nation formation has resulted in a diverse set of geographic subgroups of Georgians, each with its characteristic traditions, dialects and, in the case of Svans and Mingrelians, own regional languages; the Georgian language, with its own unique writing system and extensive written tradition, which goes back to the 5th century, is the official language of Georgia as well as the language of education of all Georgians living in the country.
Located in the Caucasus, on the crossroads of predominantly Christian Europe and Muslim Western Asia, Georgian people formed a unified Kingdom of Georgia in the early 11th century and inaugurated the Georgian Golden Age, a height of political and cultural power of the nation. This lasted until being weakened by Mongol invasions, as well as internal divisions following the death of George V the Brilliant, the last of the great kings of Georgia. Thereafter and throughout the early modern period, Georgians became politically fractured and were dominated by the Ottoman Empire and successive dynasties of Iran. To ensure the survival of his polity, in 1783, Heraclius II of the eastern Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire; the Russo-Georgian alliance, backfired as Russia was unwilling to fulfill the terms of the treaty, proceeding to annex the troubled kingdom in 1801, as well as the western Georgian kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans, the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century.
Georgians reasserted their independence from Russia under the First Georgian Republic from 1918 to 1921, in 1991 from the Soviet Union. Georgians call themselves Kartvelebi, their land Sakartvelo, their language Kartuli. According to The Georgian Chronicles, the ancestor of the Kartvelian people was Kartlos, the great-grandson of the Biblical Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the latter being one of the proto-Georgian tribes that emerged as a dominant group in ancient times. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians; the term "Georgians" is derived from the country of Georgia. In the past, lore based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians, while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός, as when the Greeks came into the region they encountered a developed agricultural society.
However, as Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these explanations for the word Georgians/Georgia are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān as the root of the word. Starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages; this term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region, referred to as Gorgan. The eighteenth century German professor of medicine and member of the British Royal Society Johann Friedrich Blumenbach regarded one of the founders of the discipline of anthropology, regarded Georgians the most beautiful race of people. Caucasian variety – I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighborhood, its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian. Most historians and scholars of Georgia as well as anthropologists and linguists tend to agree that the ancestors of modern Georgians inhabited the southern Caucasus and northern Anatolia since the Neolithic period.
Scholars refer to them as Proto-Kartvelian tribes. The Georgian people in antiquity have been known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Colchians and Iberians. East Georgian tribes of Tibarenians-Iberians formed their kingdom in 7th century BCE. However, western Georgian tribes established the first Georgian state of Colchis before the foundation of the Iberian Kingdom in the east. According to the numerous scholars of Georgia, the formations of these two early Georgian kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia, resulted in the consolidation and uniformity of the Georgian nation; the ancient Jewish chronicle by Josephus mentions Georgians as Iberes who were called Thobel. Diauehi in Assyrian sources and Taochi in Greek lived in the northeastern part of Anatolia, a region, part of Georgia. Th
Islam in Georgia (country)
Islam in Georgia was introduced in 654 when an army sent by the Third Caliph of Islam, conquered Eastern Georgia and established Muslim rule in Tbilisi. Muslims constitute 9.9% of the Georgian population. According to other sources, Muslims constitute 10-11% of Georgia's population. In July 2011, Parliament of Georgia passed new law allowing religious minority groups with “historic ties to Georgia” to register; the draft of the law mentions Islam and four other religious communities. Mosques in Georgia operate under the supervision of the Georgian Muslim Department, established in May 2011; until the affairs of Georgia's Muslims had been governed from abroad by the Baku-based Caucasus Muslims Department. In 2010, Turkey and Georgia signed an agreement by which Turkey will provide funding and expertise to rehabilitate three mosques and to rebuild a fourth one in Georgia. While Georgia will rehabilitate four Georgian monasteries in Turkey; the Georgia-Turkey agreement will allow the reconstruction of the historical Azize mosque in Batumi, Ajaria demolished in the middle of the last century.
Turkey will rehabilitate the mosques at Samtskhe-Javakheti and Akhaltsikhe regions, Kobuleti District, build the Azize mosque burned down in 1940 and restore the Turkish bathhouse in Batumi. The Arabs first appeared in Georgia in 645, it was not, until 735, when they succeeded in establishing their firm control over a large portion of the country. In that year, Marwan II took hold of Tbilisi and much of the neighbouring lands and installed there an Arab emir, to be confirmed by the Caliph of Baghdad or by the ostikan of Armīniya. During the Arab period, Tbilisi grew into a center of trade between the Islamic world and northern Europe. Beyond that, it functioned as a key Arab outpost and a buffer province facing the Byzantine and Khazar dominions. Over time, Tbilisi became Muslim. Between 1386 and 1404, Georgia was subjected to invasions by the armies of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, whose vast empire stretched, at its greatest extent, from Central Asia into Anatolia. In the first of at least seven invasions, Timur sacked Georgia's capital and captured the king Bagrat V in 1386.
In late 1401, Timur invaded the Caucasus once again. The King of Georgia had to sue for peace, sent his brother with the contributions. Timur was preparing for a major confrontation with the Ottoman dynasty and wished to freeze the prevailing situation in Georgia, until he could return to deal with it more decisively and at his leisure. Thus, he made peace with George on condition; the Safavid dynasty was in constant conflict with the Ottomans over full control and influence in the Caucasus. From the early 16th to the course of the second half of the 18th century, the Safavids had to deal with several independent kingdoms and principalities, as Georgia was not a single state at the time; these entities followed divergent political courses. Safavid interests were directed at Eastern and Southern Georgia while Western Georgia came under Ottoman influence; these independent kingdoms became vassals of Persia as early as in 1503. On May 29, 1555, the Safavids and the Ottoman Empire concluded a treaty at Amasya following the Ottoman–Safavid War by which the Caucasus was divided between the two.
Western Georgia and the western part of southern Georgia fell to The Ottomans, while Eastern Georgia and the eastern part of southern Georgia fell to Safavid Iran. The bulk of Georgia and the region which had always been the most dominant stayed therefore in the Iranian sphere; this partition of the Caucasus and therefore including Georgia under Islamic rule was again confirmed in 1639. In 1703, Vakhtang VI became the ruler of the kingdom of Kartli. In 1716, he adopted the Safavid ruler confirmed him as King of Kartli. However, at a decisive moment Vakhtang was ordered to discontinue military campaigns, leading Vakhtang to adopt a pro-Russian orientation, though the Russian failed to tender him the promised military aid. For several centuries, the Georgian kings and aristocrats converted to Islam and served as courtiers to the Iranian Safavid and Qajar dynasties, who ruled them; the Muslims constitute from 9.9% to 10-11% of Georgia's population. There are two major Muslim groups in Georgia; the ethnic Georgian Muslims are Sunni Hanafi and are concentrated in the Autonomous Republic of Adjara of Georgia bordering Turkey.
The ethnic Azerbaijani Muslims are predominantly Shia Ithna Ashariyah and are concentrated along the border with Azerbaijan and Armenia. The Meskhetian Turks a Sunni Hanafi group, are the former inhabitants of the Meskheti region of Georgia, along the border with Turkey, they were deported to Central Asia during November 15–25, 1944 by Joseph Stalin and settled within Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Of the 120,000 forcibly deported in cattle-trucks a total of 10,000 perished. Today they are dispersed over a number of other countries of the former Soviet Union. There are 500,000 to 700,000 Meskhetian Turks in exile in Central Asia. There are smaller numbers of Muslims in Georgia belonging to other ethnic groups of the South Caucasus, such as Ossetians and Pontic Greeks; these are descended from Ottoman-era Christian Orthodox converts to Turkish Islam. Many of Georgia's Muslims defined as'Ottoman' following Lala Mustafa Pasha's Caucasian campaign that led to the Ottoman conquest of Georgia in the 1570s were of Armenian or
Cinema of Georgia
The cinema of Georgia has been noted for its cinematography in Europe. Italian film director Federico Fellini was an admirer of the Georgian film: "Georgian film is a unique phenomenon, philosophically inspiring wise, childlike. There is everything that can make me cry and I ought to say that it is not an easy thing." 1992 The Sun of the Sleepless 1994 Iavnana 1996 A Chef in Love 1999 Here Comes the Dawn 2000 27 Missing Kisses 2001 The Migration of the Angel 2005 A trip to Karabakh Tbilisi, Tbilisi 2007 The Russian Triangle 2008 Three Houses Mediator 2009 The Other Bank 2010 Street Days Chantrapas 2011 Salt White Born in Georgia The Watchmaker 2012 Keep Smiling 2013 Tangerines Blind Dates In Bloom 2014 Corn Island Brides Tbilisi, I Love You Line of Credit 2015 Moira God of Happiness The Village The Summer of Frozen Fountains 2016 House of Others Khibula 2017 My Happy Family Scary Mother Hostages Dede Namme Georgian cinematography’s reputation has been built by known cinema directors such as: Vasil Amashukeli Alexandre Tsutsunava Nikoloz Shengelaia Mikheil Chiaureli Mikhail Kalatozov Revaz Chkheidze Tengiz Abuladze Eldar Shengelaia Giorgi Shengelaia Otar Ioseliani Mikheil Kobakhidze Sergei Parajanov Lana Gogoberidze Goderdzi Chokheli Temur Babluani Dito Tsintsadze Nana Jorjadze Zaza Urushadze Giorgi Ovashvili Levan Koguashvili Nana Ekvtimishvili Rusudan Chkonia Zaza RusadzeFrom 2012, the main focus of Georgian cinema is supporting script writing and European co-productions.
Cinema of the world List of Georgian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Lauren Ninoshvili, Ph. D.: Singing between the Words: The Poetics of Georgian Polyphony', New York: Columbia University, 2011, ISBN 978-1-124-33459-2 Georgian National Film Center