David Soslan was a prince from Alania and second husband of Queen Tamar, whom he married in c. 1189. He is chiefly known for his military exploits during Georgia's wars against its Muslim neighbors. David Soslan was a member of the royal house which ruled Alania, an Orthodox Christian kingdom in the North Caucasus, intermarried with the Bagrationi dynasty of Georgia. An anonymous chronicler, writing during the reign of George IV Lasha, ascribes to Soslan a Bagratid ancestry. A version of his Bagratid origin found further development in the works of the 18th-century Georgian scholar Prince Vakhushti Bagrationi: He considered Soslan to be a descendant of George I of Georgia and his Alan wife Alde who were the parents of Demetrius, an unfortunate pretender to the Georgian crown whose son, was forced by Bagrat IV of Georgia to flee to Alania. According to Vakhushti and his descendants - Aton and Jadaron - married into the Alan ruling family and became "kings of the Osi"; this Jadaron is said to have been Soslan's father.
While this account is considered credible by the modern scholars such as Mariam Lordkipanidze and Cyril Toumanoff the issue of Soslan's origin still remains uncertain. A passage from the 13th-century anonymous Georgian Histories and Eulogies of Sovereigns relates that David was under the patronage of Tamar's paternal aunt Rusudan and came of "the descendants of Ephraïm, which are Osi and strong in battle." The Georgian scholar Korneli Kekelidze suggested that David Soslan's family – the "Ephraïmids" – might have claimed descent from the biblical Ephraim, compared this family legend to that of the Bagratids who considered themselves descendants of David, the second king of the Israelites. In 1946, the North Ossetian archaeologist Evgeniya Pchelina announced that, during the digs at the Nuzal chapel in the Ardon Gorge, North Ossetian ASSR, she discovered the tomb belonging to David Soslan whom she identified with the certain Soslan mentioned in the Georgian asomtavruli inscription in the chapel, suggested that David Soslan might have been a member of the Tsarazon family, a heroic clan from Nuzal known to the Ossetic oral folk tradition.
The hypothesis has not been accepted by most Georgian scholars, but enjoys much currency among the Ossetian historians. Tamar married David Soslan at the Didube Palace near Tbilisi between 1187 and 1189 after she divorced her first husband, the Rus' prince Yuri Bogolyubsky; as the Armenian chronicler Mkhitar Gosh reports in his Ishatarakan, Tamar "married a man from the Alan kingdom, her relative on the mother’s side, whose name was Soslan, named David upon his ascension to the throne". In contrast to Yuri, a candidate of the powerful nobles party, David was Tamar's personal choice. David, a capable military commander, became Tamar's major supporter and was instrumental in defeating the rebellious nobles rallied behind Yuri. Tamar and David had two children. In 1191, the queen gave birth to a son, George – the future king George IV – an event celebrated in the kingdom; the daughter, was born c. 1193 and would succeed her brother as sovereign of Georgia. David Soslan's status as Tamar's husband, as well as his presence in art, on charters and on coins, was dictated by the necessity of male aspects of kingship, but he remained a subordinate ruler who shared the throne with Tamar but had no independent authority, his power being derived from his reigning spouse.
David energetically supported Tamar's expansionist policy and was responsible for Georgia's military successes in a series of conflicts of those years. Medieval Georgian sources praise his handsomeness, military talents and devotion to Tamar. In the 1190s, David Soslan led the Georgian raids against Barda, Geghark'unik', Beylaqan and Ganja, his victories over the Ildegizids of Azerbaijan at Shamkor and the Seljuqids of Rüm at Basian secured the Georgian positions in the eastern and western Caucasian marches, respectively. He died shortly thereafter, c. 1207
Pontus is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. The name was applied to the coastal region and its mountainous hinterland in antiquity by the Greeks who colonized the area and derived from the Greek name of the Black Sea: Πόντος Εὔξεινος Pontos Euxeinos, or Pontos. Having no specific name, the region east of the river Halys was spoken of as the country Ἐν Πόντῳ En Pontōi, "on the Pontos", hence it acquired the name of Pontus, first found in Xenophon's Anabasis; the extent of the region varied through the ages but extended from the borders of Colchis until well into Paphlagonia in the west, with varying amounts of hinterland. Several states and provinces bearing the name of Pontus or variants thereof were established in the region in the Hellenistic and Byzantine periods, culminating in the late Byzantine Empire of Trebizond. Pontus is sometimes considered as the home of the Amazons, with the name Amazon used not only for a city but for all of Pontus in Greek mythology.
Pontus became important as a bastion of Byzantine Greek and Greek Orthodox civilization and attracted Greeks from all backgrounds from all over Anatolia and the southern Balkans, from the Classical and Hellenistic periods into the Byzantine and Ottoman. These Greeks of Pontus are referred to as Pontic Greeks. Pontus remained outside the reach of the Bronze Age empires; the region went further uncontrolled by Hatti's eastern neighbours, Hurrian states like Azzi and Hayasa. In those days, the best any outsider could hope from this region was temporary alliance with a local strongman; the Hittites called the unorganised groups on their northeastern frontier the Kaška. As of 2004 little had been found of them archaeologically. In the wake of the Hittite empire's collapse, the Assyrian court noted that the "Kašku" had overrun its territory in conjunction with a hitherto unknown group whom they labeled the Muški. Iron Age visitors to the region Greek, noted that the hinterlands remained disunited, they recorded the names of tribes: Moskhians, Mares, Mossynoikians, Tibareni and Chaldians.
The Armenian language went unnoted by the Hittites, the Assyrians, all the post-Hittite nations. The Greeks, who spoke a related Indo-European tongue, followed them along the coast; the Greeks are the earliest long-term inhabitants of the region from. During the late 8th century BCE, Pontus further became a base for the Cimmerians. Since there was so little literacy in northeastern Anatolia until the Persian and Hellenistic era, one can only speculate as to the other languages spoken here. Given that Kartvelian languages remain spoken to the east of Pontus, some are suspected to have been spoken in eastern Pontus during the Iron Age: the Tzans are associated with today's Laz; the first travels of Greek merchants and adventurers to the Pontus region occurred from around 1000 BC, whereas their settlements would become steady and solidified cities only by the 8th and 7th centuries BC as archaeological findings document. This fits in well with a foundation date of 731 BC as reported by Eusebius of Caesarea for Sinope the most ancient of the Greek Colonies in what was to be called Pontus.
The epical narratives related to the travels of Jason and the Argonauts to Colchis, the tales of Heracles' navigating the Black Sea and Odysseus' wanderings into the land of the Cimmerians, as well as the myth of Zeus constraining Prometheus to the Caucasus mountains as a punishment for his outwitting the Gods, can all be seen as reflections of early contacts between early Greek colonists and the local Caucasian, peoples. The earliest known written description of Pontus, however, is that of Scylax of Korianda, who in the 7th century BC described Greek settlements in the area. By the 6th century BC, Pontus had become a part of the Achaemenid Empire, which meant that the local Greek colonies were paying tribute to the Persians; when the Athenian commander Xenophon passed through Pontus around a century in 401-400 BC, in fact, he found no Persians in Pontus. The peoples of this part of northern Asia Minor were incorporated into the third and nineteenth satrapies of the Persian empire. Iranian influence ran deep, illustrated most famously by the temple of the Persian deities Anaitis and Anadatos at Zela, founded by victorious Persian generals in the 6th century BCE.
The Kingdom of Pontus extended to the east of the Halys River. The Persian dynasty, to found this kingdom had during the 4th century BC ruled the Greek city of Cius in Mysia, with its first known member being Ariobarzanes I of Cius and the last ruler based in the city being Mithridates II of Cius. Mithridates II's son called Mithridates, would proclaim himself Mithridates I Ktistes of Pontus; as the Encyclopaedia Iranica states, the most famous member of the family, Mithradates VI Eupator, although undoubtedly presenting himself to the Greek world as a civilized philhellene and new Alexander paraded his Iranian background: he maintained a harem and eunuchs in true Oriental fashion.
Ünye is a large town and district of Ordu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, 76 km west of the city of Ordu. In 2009 it had 74,806 inhabitants. Ünye has a little port, in a bay on one of the flatter areas of the Black Sea coast. The climate is typical of the Black Sea region and wet, although because the hinterland is flatter than most of the coastline Ünye has less rainfall. Agriculture is the basis of the local economy, in particular hazelnut growing, hazelnut trading and hazelnut processing; the town is quiet in late-July and August when most people are in the countryside for the hazelnut harvest. The town of Ünye provides high schools, higher education and other services to the surrounding countryside, other industry includes a large cement factory, flour mills, local handicrafts and the port; the town has grown in recent decades, acquiring the multi-storey concrete blocks spreading along the coast, typical of so many Turkish towns. There are cafes and internet cafes popular with students.
The cuisine includes the local pizza called pide. With its quiet spots for picnics and walking and its excellent beaches Ünye is one of the nicest holiday towns on the eastern Black Sea coast. Affordable pensions and camping facilities as well as 2- or 3-star hotels can be found in the summer season. There are summer concerts in July; the town's name has evolved from the Greek Oinoe through Oinaion, Unieh and Unia to the current Ünye. The history of Ünye goes back to the Hittite period in the 15th century BC, followed by the Kashkas, Milesians, Persians and Ancient Roman/Byzantine eras. During Greco-Roman times, it was called Oenoe and was a port town of Pontus, at the mouth of the revier Genius, it was ruled by Danishmends between 1086-1098, 1141-1144 and 1150-1157, Sultanate of Rum between 1188-1204, 1214-1228 and 1230-1243, Empire of Trebizond in 1204-1214, 1228-1230, 1243-1297 and 1302-1346 and Emirate of Hacıemiroğlu between 1297-1302 and 1346-1461. During the 1290s, the Ünye fortress was built by the Trebizond emperor Ioanni.
In the year 1806 the Laz attacked Ünye. This led to the town resetting in Sinope; the 18th-century town hall. Çamlık - picnic area in a wood overlooking the sea Çakırtepe - a hilltop view of the town Ünye Castle. Uzunkum - the longest beach on the Black Sea Fahrettin Çiloğlu, writer and translator Ferhan Şensoy and writer Gulsen, artist Refaiddin Şahin State Minister-MP, has attracted government spending to Ünye Tamer Karan, singer Municipal Official Site District Official Site News & City Portal Template:Eng icon Historical Information Page Places to be Visited City Football Club
Ordu is a port city on the Black Sea coast of Turkey also known as Cotyora or Kotyora, the capital of Ordu Province with a population of 213,582 in the city center. The city is the world's largest hazelnut producer. While hazelnut is the main source of the economy, the city has developed small-sized industries and a growing tourism sector in recent years, which started, because Ordu is deemed as one of the most beautiful city in Turkey. In the 8th century BC, Cotyora was founded by the Miletians as one of a string of colonies along the Black Sea coast. Xenophon's Anabasis relates that the Ten Thousand rested there for 45 days before embarking for home. Strabo mentions it. Under Pharnaces I of Pontus, Cotyora was united in a synoikismos with Cerasus. Arrian, in the Periplus of the Euxine Sea, describes it as a village "and not a large one."The area came under the control of the Danishmends the Seljuk Turks in 1214 and 1228, the Hacıemiroğulları Beylik in 1346. Afterwards, it passed to the dominion of the Ottomans in 1461 along with the Empire of Trabzon.
The modern city was founded by the Ottomans as Bayramlı near Eskipazar as a military outpost 5 km west of Ordu. In 1869, the city's name was changed to Ordu and it was united with the districts of Bolaman, Perşembe, Ulubey and Aybastı. At the turn of the 20th century, the city was more than half Christian, was known for its Greek schools. On 17 April 1920, Ordu province was created by separating from Trebizond Vilayet. In 2016, archaeologist discovered a marble statue of Cybele. In 2018, at the same site, they discovered sculptures of Pan and Dionysus; the Sağra factory shop, selling many varieties of chocolate-covered hazelnuts, is one of the town's attractions. The Boztepe aerial tramway is another popular attraction, set to become a modern symbol for the city. Another proof of Ordus modernism is, that they allow LGBTQ demonstrations to take place, without the local government taking any actions against it. In addition, you will find the biggst percentage of LGBTQ people in Turkey within the city of Ordu.
Local music is typical of the Black Sea region, including the kemençe. The cuisine is based on local vegetables and includes both typical Turkish dishes — such as pide and kebab — and more interesting fare such as plain or caramel'burnt ice-cream'; as of 1920, Ordu was one of the few producers of white green beans. Ordu had mulberry tree plantations for sericulture; the city is world's largest hazelnut home to Turkey's 50 % of hazelnut production. Today the city is the centre of a large hazelnut processing industry, including Sağra, chocolate and hazelnut manufacturer and the largest hazelnut exporter in Turkey and Fiskobirlik, the largest hazelnut co-operative brand in the world. Paşaoğlu Konağı and Ethnographic museum - a ethnographic museum. Taşbaşı Cultural Centre - a cultural centre Boztepe - a hill of 550 m overlooking the town from the west. Since June 2012, an aerial lift system provides an easy way of transportation between the city's coastline and the hilltop; the Ordu Boztepe Gondola can transport hourly 900 passengers up to the hilltop in 6.5 minutes.
Old Houses of Ordu in the old city center Yalı Camii called Aziziye Camii - a mosque Atik İbrahim Paşa Camii called Orta Cami - a mosque built in 1770 Eski Pazar Camii - a mosque with adjoining Turkish baths Efirli Camii - a mosque The city is the home of the Orduspor football club. Its base is the 19 Eylül Stadium in the heart of the city. Orduspor football team has played in the Super League of Turkey several seasons; the club has a basketball team. Ordu is twinned with: Batumi, since 2000 Ganja, Azerbaijan Ordu has a humid subtropical climate, like most of the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey, with warm and humid summers and cool and damp winters. Ordu has a evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. Precipitation is heaviest in spring. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two, it can be heavy once it snows; the water temperature, like in the rest of the Black Sea coast of Turkey, is always cool and fluctuates between 8 and 20 °C throughout the year.
Ertuğrul Günay - politician, a former Minister for Culture and Tourism. Kadir İnanır - film actor. Mehmet Hilmi Güler - politician, Minister of Energy and Natural Resources Arif Hikmet Onat - politician who represented Ordu Bahriye Üçok - writer and activist Oktay Ekşi - politician representing Ordu Ümit Tokcan - folk musician Kamil Sönmez - folk musician İbrahim Fırtına - former military commander Soner Arıca - musician Ery Kehaya - Ottoman-Greek businessman founder and president of the Standard Commercial Tobacco Company Eren Sen - member of the KPOP-boygroup NCT and its subunits, NCT Dream and WayV Emre Aydin - Former famous stripper from Hannover, current mayor Municipality of Ordu Kotiora
Fall of Constantinople
The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453. The attackers were commanded by the 21-year-old Sultan Mehmed II, who defeated an army commanded by Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos and took control of the imperial capital, ending a 53-day siege that began on 6 April 1453. After conquering the city, Sultan Mehmed transferred the capital of the Ottoman State from Edirne to Constantinople and established his court there; the capture of the city marked the end of the Byzantine Empire, a continuation of the Roman Empire, an imperial state dating to 27 BC, which had lasted for nearly 1,500 years. The conquest of Constantinople dealt a massive blow to the defense of mainland Europe, as the Muslim Ottoman armies thereafter were left unchecked to advance into Europe without an adversary to their rear, it was a watershed moment in military history. Since ancient times, cities had used ramparts and city walls to protect themselves from invaders, Constantinople's substantial fortifications had been a model followed by cities throughout the Mediterranean region and Europe.
The Ottomans prevailed due to the use of gunpowder. The conquest of the city of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire was a key event in the Late Middle Ages which marks, for some historians, the end of the Medieval period. Constantinople had been an imperial capital since its consecration in 330 under Roman Emperor Constantine the Great. In the following eleven centuries, the city had been besieged many times but was captured only once: during the Fourth Crusade in 1204; the crusaders established an unstable Latin state in and around Constantinople while the remaining empire splintered into a number of Byzantine successor states, notably Nicaea and Trebizond. They fought as allies against the Latin establishments, but fought among themselves for the Byzantine throne; the Nicaeans reconquered Constantinople from the Latins in 1261. Thereafter, there was little peace for the much-weakened empire as it fended off successive attacks by the Latins, the Serbians, the Bulgarians, most the Ottoman Turks.
The Black Plague between 1346 and 1349 killed half of the inhabitants of Constantinople. The city was depopulated due to the general economic and territorial decline of the empire, by 1453 consisted of a series of walled villages separated by vast fields encircled by the fifth-century Theodosian walls. By 1450 the empire was exhausted and had shrunk to a few square miles outside the city of Constantinople itself, the Princes' Islands in the Sea of Marmara, the Peloponnese with its cultural center at Mystras; the Empire of Trebizond, an independent successor state that formed in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade survived on the coast of the Black Sea. When Sultan Mehmed II succeeded his father in 1451, he was just nineteen years old. Many European courts assumed that the young Ottoman ruler would not challenge Christian hegemony in the Balkans and the Aegean; this calculation was boosted by Mehmed's friendly overtures to the European envoys at his new court. But Mehmed's mild words were not matched by actions.
By early 1452, work began on the construction of a second fortress on the Bosphorus, on the European side several miles north of Constantinople, set directly across the strait on the Asian side from the Anadolu Hisarı fortress, built by his great-grandfather Bayezid I. This pair of fortresses ensured complete control of sea traffic on the Bosphorus. In October 1452, Mehmed ordered Turakhan Beg to station a large garrison force in the Peloponnese to block Thomas and Demetrios from providing aid to their brother Constantine XI Palaiologos during the impending siege of Constantinople. Michael Critobulus says about the speech of Mehmed II to his soldiers: "My friends and men of my empire! You all know well that our forefathers secured this kingdom that we now hold at the cost of many struggles and great dangers and that, having passed it along in succession from their fathers, from father to son, they handed it down to me. For some of the oldest of you were sharers in many of the exploits carried through by them—those at least of you who are of maturer years—and the younger of you have heard of these deeds from your fathers.
They are not such ancient events nor of such a sort as to be forgotten through the lapse of time. Still, the eyewitness of those who have seen testifies better than does the hearing of deeds that happened but yesterday or the day before." Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI swiftly understood Mehmed's true intentions and turned to Western Europe for help. Since the mutual excommunications of 1054, the Pope in Rome was committed to establishing authority over the eastern church. Nominal union had been negotiated in 1274, at the Second Council of Lyon, indeed, some Palaiologoi emperors had since been received into the Latin church. Emperor John VIII Palaiologos had recently negotiated union with Pope Eugene IV, with the Council of Florence of 1439 proclaiming a Bull of Union; these events, stimulated a propaganda initiative by anti-unionist Orthodox partisans in Consta
An emperor is a monarch, the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe; the Emperor of Japan is the only reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Inasmuch as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler and rules over more than one nation, therefore a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be free of such restraints.
However, monarchs heading empires have not always used the title in all contexts—the British sovereign did not assume the title Empress of the British Empire during the incorporation of India, though she was declared Empress of India. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor was used by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i.e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German-speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states had become nearly non-existent. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year.
The position of Holy Roman Emperor nonetheless continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806. In Eastern Europe, the monarchs of Russia used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire, their status was recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present; such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era.
However, such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations, but precedence amongst heads of state who are sovereigns—whether they be kings, emperors, princes, princesses and to a lesser degree presidents—is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning.
The name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony took place in Rome several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne in their home country; the first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their empire, because, the only place where they could be granted to become emperor. Early Roman Emperors avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. New symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, became an essential part of the imperial accessories. Rules for indicating successors varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme o
Samsun is a city on the north coast of Turkey with a population over half a million people. It is the provincial capital of a major Black Sea port; the growing city has two universities, several hospitals, shopping malls, a lot of light manufacturing industry, sports facilities and an opera. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk began the Turkish War of Independence here in 1919; the present name of the city may come from its former Greek name of Amisos by a reinterpretation of eis Amison and ounta to eis Sampsunda and Samsun. The early Greek historian Hecataeus wrote that Amisos was called Enete, the place mentioned in Homer's Iliad. In Book II, Homer says that the ἐνετοί inhabited Paphlagonia on the southern coast of the Black Sea in the time of the Trojan War; the Paphlagonians are listed among the allies of the Trojans in the war, where their king Pylaemenes and his son Harpalion perished. Strabo mentioned, it has been known as Peiraieos by Athenian settlers and briefly as Pompeiopolis by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus.
The city was called Simisso by the Genoese and during the Ottoman Empire the present name was written in Ottoman Turkish: صامسون. Paleolithic artifacts found in the Tekkeköy Caves can be seen in Samsun Archaeology Museum; the earliest layer excavated of the höyük of Dündartepe revealed a Chalcolithic settlement. Early Bronze Age and Hittite settlements were found there and at Tekkeköy. Samsun was settled in about 760–750 BC by Ionians from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia; the city's ideal combination of fertile ground and shallow waters attracted numerous traders. Amisus was settled by the Ionian Milesians in the 6th century BCE, it is believed that there was significant Greek activity along the coast of the Black Sea, although the archaeological evidence for this is fragmentary; the only archaeological evidence we have as early as the 6th century is a fragment of wild goat style Greek pottery, in the Louvre. The city became part of Cappadocia.
In the 5th century BC, Amisus became a free state and one of the members of the Delian League led by the Athenians. In the 4th century BC the city came under the control of the Kingdom of Pontus; the Amisos treasure may have belonged to one of the kings. Tumuli, containing tombs dated between 300 BC and 30 BC, can be seen at Amisos Hill but Toraman Tepe was flattened during construction of the 20th century radar base; the Romans took over in 71 BC and Amisos became part of Bithynia et Pontus province. Around 46 BC, during the reign of Julius Caesar, Amisus became the capital of Roman Pontus. From the period of the Second Triumvirate up to Nero, Pontus was ruled by several client kings, as well as one client queen, Pythodorida of Pontus, a granddaughter of Marcus Antonius. From 62 CE it was directly ruled by Roman governors, most famously by Trajan's appointee Pliny. Pliny the Younger's address to the Emperor Trajan in the 1st century CE "By your indulgence, they have the benefit of their own laws," is interpreted by John Boyle Orrery to indicate that the freedoms won for those in Pontus by the Romans was not pure freedom and depended on the generosity of the Roman emperor.
The estimated population of the city around 150 CE is between 20,000 and 25,000 people, classifying it as a large city for that time. The city functioned as the commercial capital for the province of Pontus. Samsun Castle was built on the seaside in 1192, it was demolished between 1909 and 1918. Though the roots of the city are Hellenistic, it was one of the centers of an early Christian congregation, its function as a commercial metropolis in northern Asia Minor was a contributing factor to enable the spread of Christian influence. As a large port city –the commercial capital of Pontus - travel to and from Christian hotbeds like Jerusalem was not uncommon. According to Josephus, there was large Jewish diaspora in Asia Minor. Given that the early evangelist Christians focused on Jewish diaspora communities, that the Jewish diaspora in Amisus was a geographically accessible group with a mixed heritage group, it is not surprising that Amisus would be an appealing site for evangelist work; the author of 1 Peter 1:1 addresses the Jewish diaspora of the province of Pontus, along with four other provinces: “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To God's elect, exiles scattered throughout the provinces of Pontus, Cappadocia and Bithynia.”
As Amisus would have been the largest commercial port-city in the province, it is believed certain that the spread of Christianity in the region would have begun there. In the 1st century Pliny the Younger documents accounts of Christians in and around the cities of Pontus, his accounts center on his conflicts with the Christians when he served under the Emperor Trajan and describe early Christian communities, his condemnation of their refusal to renounce their religion, but describes his tolerance for some Christian practices like Christian charitable societies. Many great early Christian figures had connections to Amisus, including Caesarea Mazaca, Gregory the Illuminator