Fritz Reuter Leiber Jr. was an American writer of fantasy and science fiction. He was a poet, actor in theater and films and chess expert. With writers such as Robert E. Howard and Michael Moorcock, Leiber can be regarded as one of the fathers of sword and sorcery fantasy, having coined the term. Fritz Leiber was born December 24, 1910, in Chicago, Illinois, to the actors Fritz Leiber and Virginia Bronson Leiber. For a time, he seemed inclined to follow in his parents' footsteps, he spent 1928 touring with his parents' Shakespeare company before entering the University of Chicago, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and received an undergraduate Ph. B. degree in psychology and physiology or biology with honors in 1932. From 1932 to 1933, he worked as a lay reader and studied as a candidate for the ministry at the General Theological Seminary in Chelsea, Manhattan, an affiliate of the Episcopal Church, without taking a degree. After pursuing graduate studies in philosophy at the University of Chicago from 1933 to 1934 and failing once more to take a degree, he remained based in Chicago while touring intermittently with his parents' company and pursuing a concurrent literary career.
He appeared alongside his father in uncredited parts in several films, including George Cukor's Camille, James Whale's The Great Garrick and William Dieterle's The Hunchback of Notre Dame. In 1936, he initiated a brief yet intense correspondence with H. P. Lovecraft, who "encouraged and influenced literary development" before succumbing to small intestine cancer and malnutrition in March 1937. Leiber introduced Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser in "Two Sought Adventure", his first professionally published short story in the August 1939 edition of Unknown, edited by John W. Campbell. Leiber married Jonquil Stephens on January 16, 1936. From 1937 to 1941, he was employed by Consolidated Book Publishing as a staff writer for the Standard American Encyclopedia. In 1941, the family moved to California, where Leiber served as a speech and drama instructor at Occidental College during the 1941–1942 academic year. Unable to conceal his disdain for academic politics as the United States entered World War II, he decided that the struggle against fascism was more important than his long-held pacifist convictions.
He accepted a position with Douglas Aircraft in quality inspection working on the C-47 Skytrain. Thereafter, the family returned to Chicago, where Leiber served as associate editor of Science Digest from 1945 to 1956. During this decade, his output was characterized by Poul Anderson as "a lot of the best science fiction and fantasy in the business." In 1958, the Leibers returned to Los Angeles. By this juncture, he was able to relinquish his journalistic career and support his family as a full-time fiction writer. Jonquil's death in 1969 precipitated Leiber's permanent relocation to San Francisco and exacerbated his longstanding alcoholism after twelve years of fellowship in Alcoholics Anonymous. In 1977, he returned to his original form with a fantasy novel set in modern-day San Francisco, Our Lady of Darkness, about a writer of weird tales who must deal with the death of his wife and his recovery from alcoholism; as a result of his substance abuse, Leiber seems to have suffered periods of penury in the 1970s.
Other reports suggest that Leiber preferred to live in the city, spending his money on dining and travel. In the last years of his life, royalty checks from TSR, Inc. were enough in themselves to ensure that he lived comfortably. In 1992, the last year of his life, Leiber married his second wife, Margo Skinner, a journalist and poet with whom he had been friends for many years. Leiber's death occurred a few weeks after a physical collapse while traveling from a science fiction convention in London, with Skinner; the cause of his death was stated by his wife to be stroke. He wrote a 100-page-plus memoir, Not Much Disorder and Not So Early Sex, which can be found in The Ghost Light. Leiber's own literary criticism, including several essays on Lovecraft, was collected in the volume Fafhrd and Me; as the child of two Shakespearean actors—Fritz Sr. and Virginia —Leiber was fascinated with the stage, describing itinerant Shakespearean companies in stories like "No Great Magic" and "Four Ghosts in Hamlet," and creating an actor/producer protagonist for his novel A Specter is Haunting Texas.
Although his Change War novel, The Big Time, is about a war between two factions, the "Snakes" and the "Spiders", changing and rechanging history throughout the universe, all the action takes place in a smal
Henry Kuttner was an American author of science fiction and horror. Henry Kuttner was born in Los Angeles, California in 1915. Naphtaly Kuttner and Amelia Bush, the parents of his father, the bookseller Henry Kuttner, had come from Leszno in Prussia and lived in San Francisco since 1859. Henry Kuttner's great-grandfather was the scholar Josua Heschel Kuttner. Kuttner grew up in relative poverty following the death of his father; as a young man he worked in his spare time for the literary agency of his uncle, Laurence D'Orsay, in Los Angeles before selling his first story, "The Graveyard Rats", to Weird Tales in early 1936. It was while working for the d'Orsay agency that Kuttner picked Leigh Brackett's early manuscripts of the slush pile. Alfred Bester told this anecdote about Kuttner: "Mort Weisinger introduced me to the informal luncheon gatherings of the working science fiction authors of the late thirties. I met Henry Kuttner", whom Bester described as "medium-sized", "very quiet and courteous, without outstanding features.
Once I broke Kuttner up quite unintentionally. I said to Weisinger,'I've just finished a wild story that takes place in a spaceless, timeless locale where there's no objective reality. It's awfully long, 20,000 words, but I can cut the first 5,000.' Kuttner burst out laughing."Kuttner met numerous fellow writers of the time, including E. Hoffman Price and Clark Ashton Smith. Kuttner was known for his literary prose and worked in close collaboration with his wife, C. L. Moore, they met through their association with the "Lovecraft Circle", a group of writers and fans who corresponded with H. P. Lovecraft, their work together spanned the 1940s and 1950s and most of the work was credited to pseudonyms Lewis Padgett and Lawrence O'Donnell. Both admitted that they collaborated in part because his page rate was higher than hers. In fact, several people have written or said that she wrote three stories which were published under his name. "Clash by Night" and The Portal in the Picture are sometimes attributed to her.
In the mid-1940s Kuttner contributed numerous scripts to the Green Lantern comic book. L. Sprague de Camp, who knew Kuttner and Moore well, has stated that their collaboration was so seamless that, after a story was completed, it was impossible for either Kuttner or Moore to recall who had written what. According to de Camp, it was typical for either partner to break off from a story in mid-paragraph or mid-sentence, with the latest page of the manuscript still in the typewriter; the other spouse would continue the story where the first had left off. They alternated in this manner as many times as necessary. Among Kuttner's most popular work were the Gallegher stories, published under the Padgett name, about a man who invented high-tech solutions to client problems when he was stinking drunk, only to be unable to remember what he had built or why after sobering up; these stories were collected in Robots Have No Tails. In her introduction to the 1973 Lancer Books edition, Moore stated that Kuttner wrote all the Gallegher stories himself.
In 2007, New Line Cinema released a feature film loosely based on the Lewis Padgett short story "Mimsy Were the Borogoves" under the title The Last Mimzy. In addition, The Best of Henry Kuttner was republished under the title The Last Mimzy Stories. Marion Zimmer Bradley is among many authors, her novel The Bloody Sun is dedicated to him. Roger Zelazny has talked about the influence of The Dark World on his Amber series. Kuttner's friend Richard Matheson dedicated his 1954 novel I Am Legend to Kuttner, with thanks for his help and encouragement. Ray Bradbury has said that Kuttner wrote the last 300 words of Bradbury's first horror story, "The Candle". Bradbury has referred to Kuttner as a neglected master and a "pomegranate writer: popping with seeds—full of ideas". William S. Burroughs's novel The Ticket That Exploded contains direct quotes from Kuttner regarding the "Happy Cloak" parasitic pleasure monster from the Venusian seas. Mary Elizabeth Counselman believed that Kuttner's habit of writing under varied pseudonyms deprived him of the fame that should have been his.
"I have wondered why Kuttner chose to hide his talents behind so many false faces for no editorial reason... Admittedly, the fun is in pretending to be someone else, but Kuttner cheated himself of much fame that he richly deserved by hiding his light under a bushel of pen names that many fans did not know were his. Seabury Quinn and I both chided him about this."According to J. Vernon Shea, August Derleth "kept promising to publish Hank's and Catherine's books under the Arkham House imprint, but kept postponing them." This may have formed another factor in the situation that Kuttner's work has been forgotten. A friend of Lovecraft's as well as of Clark Ashton Smith, Kuttner contributed several stories to the Cthulhu Mythos genre invented by those authors. Among these were "The Secret of Kralitz", "The Eater of Souls", "The Salem Horror", "The Invaders" and "The Hunt". Kuttner added a few lesser-known deities to the Mythos, including Iod
Roger Joseph Zelazny was an American poet and writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels, best known for The Chronicles of Amber. He won the Nebula award three times and the Hugo Award six times, including two Hugos for novels: the serialized novel... And Call Me Conrad, subsequently published under the title This Immortal and the novel Lord of Light. Roger Joseph Zelazny was born in Euclid, the only child of Polish immigrant Joseph Frank Żelazny and Irish-American Josephine Flora Sweet. In high school, he joined the Creative Writing Club. In the fall of 1955, he began attending Western Reserve University and graduated with a B. A. in English in 1959. He was accepted to Columbia University in New York and specialized in Elizabethan and Jacobean drama, graduating with an M. A. in 1962. His M. A. thesis was entitled Two traditions and Cyril Tourneur: an examination of morality and humor comedy conventions in The Revenger's Tragedy. Between 1962 and 1969 he worked for the U. S. Social Security Administration in Cleveland, Ohio and in Baltimore, Maryland spending his evenings writing science fiction.
He deliberately progressed from short-shorts to novelettes to novellas and to novel-length works by 1965. On May 1, 1969, he quit to become a full-time writer, thereafter concentrated on writing novels in order to maintain his income. During this period, he was an active and vocal member of the Baltimore Science Fiction Society, whose members included writers Jack Chalker and Joe and Jack Haldeman among others, his first fanzine appearance was part one of the story "Conditional Benefit" and his first professional publication and sale was the fantasy short story "Mr. Fuller's Revolt"; as a professional writer, his debut works were the simultaneous publication of "Passion Play" and "Horseman!". "Passion Play" was sold first. His first story to attract major attention was "A Rose for Ecclesiastes", published in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, with cover art by Hannes Bok. Roger Zelazny was a member of the Swordsmen and Sorcerers' Guild of America, a loose-knit group of heroic fantasy authors founded in the 1960s, some of whose works were anthologized in Lin Carter's Flashing Swords! anthologies.
Zelazny died in 1995, aged 58, of kidney failure secondary to colorectal cancer. Zelazny was married twice, first to Sharon Steberl in 1964, to Judith Alene Callahan in 1966, he was engaged to folk singer Hedy West for six months in 1961/62. Roger and Judy had two sons and Trent and a daughter, Shannon. At the time of his death and Judy were separated and he was living with author Jane Lindskold. Raised as a Catholic by his parents, Zelazny declared himself a lapsed Catholic and remained that way for the rest of his life. "I did have a strong Catholic background. Somewhere in the past, I believe I answered in the affirmative once for strange and complicated reasons, but I am not a member of any organized religion." In his stories, Roger Zelazny portrayed characters from myth, depicted in the modern or a future world. Zelazny included many anachronisms, such as cigarette-smoking and references to modern drama, in his work, his crisp, minimalistic dialogue seems to be somewhat influenced by the style of wisecracking hardboiled crime authors, such as Raymond Chandler or Dashiell Hammett.
The tension between the ancient and the modern and familiar was what drove most of his work. A frequent motif in Zelazny's work is immortality or people who become gods; the mythological traditions his fiction borrowed from include: Chinese mythology in "Lord Demon" Christian mythology, in the short story A Rose for Ecclesiastes Egyptian mythology in Creatures of Light and Darkness Greek mythology, in... And Call Me Conrad Hindu mythology, in Lord of Light Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos in A Night in the Lonesome October Navajo mythology, in Eye of Cat Norse mythology, in The Mask of Loki Psychoanalysis, Arthurian mythos, Norse mythology and Kabbalah in The Dream MasterAdditionally, elements from Norse and Irish mythology, Arthurian legend as well as several references to real history appear in his magnum opus, The Chronicles of Amber. Aside from working with mythological themes, the most common recurring motif of Zelazny's is the "absent father". Again, this occurs most notably in the Amber novels: in the first Amber series, the protagonist Corwin searches for his lost, god-like father Oberon.
This somewhat Freudian theme runs through every Zelazny novel to a smaller or larger degree. Roadmarks, Doorways in the Sand, Madwand, A Dark Traveling. Zelazny's father, died unexpectedly in 1962 and never knew his son's successes as a writer. Two other personal characteristics that influenced his fiction were his expertise in martial arts and his addiction to tobacco. Zelazny became expert with the épée in college, thus began a lifelong study of several different martial arts, including judo, aikido (whi
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver and display the content for the same; the word "publisher" can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, blogs, video game publishers, the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, printing and distribution. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation.
Self-publishing: The author has to meet the total expense to get the book published. The author should retain full rights known as vanity publishing. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce, more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.
D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Publishing has been handled by publishers, with the history of self-publishing progressing until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishing, made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are created by anyone with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed by the history of blogging. Commercial publishing progressed, as printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying on commissioned material, but as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review; the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication.
Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent; this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and n
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction between interpreting. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the languages into which they have translated; because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More the rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated "language localization"; the English word "translation" derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, "across" + ferre, "to carry" or "to bring".
Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another. The Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of "translation" on translatio; the Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of "translation" from an alternative Latin word, itself derived from traducere. The Ancient Greek term for "translation", μετάφρασις, has supplied English with "metaphrase" —as contrasted with "paraphrase". "Metaphrase" corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to "formal equivalence". Speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of "word-for-word translation"—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language carries more than one meaning. "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities.
The ancient Greeks distinguished between paraphrase. This distinction was adopted by English poet and translator John Dryden, who described translation as the judicious blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the target language, "counterparts," or equivalents, for the expressions used in the source language: When appear... graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since... What is beautiful in one is barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author's words:'tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense. Dryden cautioned, against the license of "imitation", i.e. of adapted translation: "When a painter copies from the life... he has no privilege to alter features and lineaments..."This general formulation of the central concept of translation—equivalence—is as adequate as any, proposed since Cicero and Horace, who, in 1st-century-BCE Rome and cautioned against translating "word for word".
Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, adapters in various periods, translators have shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" as determined from context. In general, translators have sought to preserve the context itself by reproducing the original order of sememes, hence word order—when necessary, reinterpreting the actual grammatical structure, for example, by shifting from active to passive voice, or vice versa; the grammatical differences between "fixed-word-order" languages and "free-word-order" languages have been no impediment in this regard. The particular syntax characteristics of a text's source language are adjusted to the syntactic requirements of the target language; when a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language.
Thanks in great measure to the exchange of calques and loanwords between languages, to their importation from other languages, there are few concepts that are "untranslatable" among the modern European languages. A greater problem, however, is translating terms relating to cultural concepts that have no equivalent in the target language. For full comprehension, such situations require the provision of a gloss; the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those lang
Philip José Farmer
Philip José Farmer was an American author known for his science fiction and fantasy novels and short stories. Farmer is best known for his sequences of novels the World of Tiers and Riverworld series, he is noted for the pioneering use of sexual and religious themes in his work, his fascination for, reworking of, the lore of celebrated pulp heroes, occasional tongue-in-cheek pseudonymous works written as if by fictional characters. Farmer mixed real and classic fictional characters and worlds and real and fake authors as epitomized by his Wold Newton family group of books; these tie all classic fictional characters together as real people and blood relatives resulting from an alien conspiracy. Such works as The Other Log of Phileas Fogg and Doc Savage: His Apocalyptic Life are early examples of literary mashup. Literary critic Leslie Fiedler compared Farmer to Ray Bradbury as both being "provincial American eccentrics" who "strain at the classic limits of the form," but found Farmer distinctive in that he "manages to be at once naive and sophisticated in his odd blending of theology and adventure."
Farmer was born in Indiana. According to colleague Frederik Pohl, his middle name was in honor of an aunt, Josie. Farmer grew up in Peoria, where he attended Peoria High School, his father was a supervisor for the local power company. A voracious reader as a boy, Farmer said, he became an agnostic at the age of 14. At age 23, in 1941, he married and fathered a son and a daughter. After washing out of flight training in World War II, he went to work in a local steel mill, he continued his education, earning a bachelor's degree in English from Bradley University in 1950. Farmer had his first literary success when his novella The Lovers was published by Samuel Mines in Startling Stories, August 1952, it features a sexual relationship between a human and an extraterrestrial and he won the next Hugo Award as "most promising new writer". Thus encouraged, he quit his job to become a full-time writer, entered a publisher's contest, promptly won the $4,000 first prize for a novel, Owe for the Flesh, that contained the germ of his Riverworld series.
But the book was not published and Farmer did not get the money. Literary success did not translate into financial security so he left Peoria in 1956 to launch a career as a technical writer, he spent the next 14 years working in that capacity for various defense contractors, from Syracuse, New York to Los Angeles, while writing science fiction in his spare time. He won a second Hugo for the 1967 novella Riders of the Purple Wage, a pastiche of James Joyce's Finnegans Wake as well as a satire on a futuristic, cradle-to-grave welfare state. Reinvigorated, Farmer became a full-time writer again in 1969. Upon moving back to Peoria in 1970, he entered his most prolific period, publishing 25 books in 10 years, his novel To Your Scattered Bodies Go won him his third Hugo in 1971. A 1975 novel, Venus on the Half-Shell, created a stir in media, it purported to be written in the first person by one "Kilgore Trout," a fictional character appearing as an underappreciated science fiction writer in several of Kurt Vonnegut's novels.
The escapade did not please Vonnegut when some reviewers not only concluded that it had been written by Vonnegut himself, but that it was a worthy addition to his works. Farmer did have permission from Vonnegut to write the book, though Vonnegut said he regretted giving permission. Farmer had both critical detractors. Leslie Fiedler proclaimed him "the greatest science fiction writer ever" and lauded his approach to storytelling as a "gargantuan lust to swallow down the whole cosmos, present and to come, to spew it out again." Isaac Asimov praised Farmer as an "excellent science fiction writer. But Christopher Lehmann-Haupt dismissed him in The New York Times in 1972 as "a humdrum toiler in the fields of science fiction."In 2001 Farmer won the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement and the Science Fiction Writers of America made him its 19th SFWA Grand Master in the same year. Farmer died on February 25, 2009. At the time of his death, he and his wife Bette had two children, five grandchildren and six great-grandchildren.
The Riverworld series follows the adventures of such diverse characters as Richard Francis Burton, Hermann Göring, Samuel Clemens through a bizarre afterlife in which every human to have lived is resurrected along a single river valley that stretches over an entire planet. The series consists of To Your Scattered Bodies Go, The Fabulous Riverboat, The Dark Design, The Magic Labyrinth and Gods of Riverworld. Although Riverworld and Other Stories is not part of the series as such, it does include the second-published Riverworld story, free-standing rather than integrated into one of the novels; the first two Riverworld books were published as novellas, "The Day of the Great Shout" and "The Suicide Express," and as a two-part serial, "The Felled Star," in the science fiction magazines Worlds of Tomorrow and If between 1965 and 1967. The separate novelette "Riverworld" ran in Worlds of Tomorrow in January 1966. A final pair of linked novelettes appeared in the 1990s: "Crossing the Dark River" and "Up the Bright River".
Farmer introduced himself into the series as Peter Jairus Frigate. The
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is thus a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.
Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. An interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a fun