In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
Minister for Home Affairs (Australia)
The Australian Minister for Home Affairs is a ministerial portfolio formed at the Federation of Australia and has undergone numerous changes in ministerial responsibility since 1901. Much like the history of the United Kingdom Home Office, the Australian Department of Home Affairs has been responsible for a vast array for internal matters since Federation including immigration, agriculture, territories, women's affairs, the National Archives, the public service; the Home Affairs portfolio has responsibility for national security, law enforcement, transport security, cyber policy, diplomatic protective services, critical infrastructure protection, Commonwealth emergency management, natural disaster relief. On 18 July 2017, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull announced the creation of a new Home Affairs portfolio to be headed by Immigration Minister Peter Dutton as the designated Minister for Home Affairs with responsibilities for immigration, border control, domestic security, law enforcement..
When Prime Minister Scott Morrison assumed office he has removed immigration and multicultural affairs from the Home Affairs portfolio. The current Minister for Home Affairs is Peter Dutton since 26 August, 2018; the Minister for Home Affairs was a ministerial portfolio that existed continuously from 1901 to 12 April 1932, when Archdale Parkhill became Minister for the Interior in the first Lyons Ministry—subsuming his portfolios of Home Affairs and Transport. The Home Affairs or Interior portfolio was responsible for various internal matters not handled by other ministries. In due course, other portfolios were established that took over functions from it, including: Transport from 1928 to 1932 and continuously since 1941 Immigration since 1945 Agriculture since 1942 Industry from 1928 to 1945 and since 1963The Minister for the Interior existed from 1932 to 1972; the Territories of Australia portfolio has been the responsibility for the varying titles of the Minister for Territories. The Home Affairs Ministry was re-established in 2007, assuming the responsibilities of the Minister for Justice and Customs within the Attorney-General's Department with policy responsibilities for criminal justice, law enforcement, border control and national security and with oversight responsibilities of the Australian Customs Service and the Border Protection Command, the Australian Federal Police, the Australian Crime Commission, the Office of Film and Literature Classification.
From September 2010 to September 2013, the Minister for Home Affairs held the position of Minister for Justice. In September 2013 with the change of government, the position Minister for Home Affairs was disbanded and its responsibilities were assumed by the newly created Minister for Immigration and Border Protection for border control and by the Minister for Justice for law enforcement. On 20 December 2017, the Governor-General swore Dutton into the position of Minister for Home Affairs; the Home Affairs portfolio was formed by way of an Administrative Arrangements Order issued on 20 December 2017 with responsibilities for national security including cybersecurity and counterterrorism, law enforcement, emergency management, transport security, citizenship, border control, multicultural affairs. The Minister for Home Affairs is assisted by the Minister for Law Enforcement and Cybersecurity, the Minister for Citizenship and Multicultural Affairs, the Assistant Minister for Home Affairs; the following individuals have been appointed as Minister for Home Affairs, or any of its related titles: The following individuals have been appointed as Minister for Law Enforcement and Cybersecurity, or any of its related titles: The following individuals have been appointed as Minister for Citizenship and Multicultural Affairs, or any of its related titles: The following individuals have been appointed as Assistant Minister for Home Affairs, or any of its related titles: Department of Home Affairs Department of Home and Territories Department of Home Affairs Department of the Interior Department of the Interior Department of Home Affairs Department of Home Affairs and Environment Department of Home Affairs
Australian Capital Territory
The Australian Capital Territory known as the Federal Capital Territory until 1938 and referred to as the ACT, is a federal territory of Australia containing the Australian capital city of Canberra and some surrounding townships. It is enclaved within the state of New South Wales. Founded after federation as the seat of government for the new nation, all important institutions of the Australian federal government are centred in the Territory. On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies of Australia was achieved. Section 125 of the new Australian Constitution provided that land, situated in New South Wales and at least 100 miles from Sydney, would be ceded to the new federal government. Following discussion and exploration of various areas within New South Wales, the Seat of Government Act 1908 was passed in 1908 which specified a capital in the Yass-Canberra region; the territory was transferred to the Commonwealth by New South Wales in 1911, two years prior to the capital city being founded and formally named as Canberra in 1913.
While the overwhelming majority of the population reside in the city of Canberra in the ACT's north-east, the Territory includes some surrounding townships such as Williamsdale, Uriarra and Hall. The ACT includes the Namadgi National Park which comprises the majority of land area of the Territory. Despite a common misconception, the Jervis Bay Territory is not part of the ACT although the laws of the Australian Capital Territory apply as if Jervis Bay did form part of the ACT; the Territory has a dry, contintental climate experiencing warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters. The Australian Capital Territory is home to many important institutions of the federal government, national monuments and museums; this includes the Parliament of Australia, the High Court of Australia, the Australian Defence Force Academy and the Australian War Memorial. It hosts the majority of foreign embassies in Australia as well as regional headquarters of many international organisations, not-for-profit groups, lobbying groups and professional associations.
Several major universities have campuses in the ACT including the Australian National University, the University of Canberra, the University of New South Wales, Charles Sturt University and the Australian Catholic University. A locally elected legislative assembly has governed the Territory since 1988. However, the Commonwealth may overturn local laws, it still maintains control over the area known as the Parliamentary Triangle through the National Capital Authority. Residents of the Territory elect three members to the House of Representatives and two Senators to the Australian Senate. With 419,200 residents, the Australian Capital Territory is second smallest mainland state or territory by population. At the 2016 census, the median weekly income for people in the Territory aged over 15 was $998 and higher than the national average of $662; the average level of degree qualification in the ACT is higher than the national average. Within the ACT, 37.1% of the population hold a bachelor degree level or above education compared to the national figure of 20%.
Indigenous Australian peoples have long inhabited the area. Evidence indicates habitation dating back at least 21,000 years, it is possible that the area was inhabited for longer, with evidence of an Aboriginal presence in south-western New South Wales dating back around 40,000–62,000 years. The principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal people. Following European settlement, the growth of the new colony of New South Wales led to an increasing demand for arable land. Governor Lachlan Macquarie supported expeditions to open up new lands to the south of Sydney; the 1820s saw further exploration in the Canberra area associated with the construction of a road from Sydney to the Goulburn plains. While working on the project, Charles Throsby learned of a nearby lake and river from the local Indigenous peoples and he accordingly sent Wild to lead a small party to investigate the site; the search was unsuccessful, but they did discover the Yass River and it is surmised that they would have set foot on part of the future territory.
A second expedition was mounted shortly thereafter and they became the first Europeans to camp at the Molonglo and Queanbeyan Rivers. However, they failed to find the Murrumbidgee River; the issue of the Murrumbidgee was solved in 1821 when Charles Throsby mounted a third expedition and reached the watercourse, on the way providing the first detailed account of the land where Canberra now resides. The last expedition in the region prior to settlement was undertaken by Allan Cunningham in 1824, he reported that the region was suitable for grazing and the settlement of the Limestone Plains followed thereafter. The first land grant in the region was made to Joshua John Moore in 1823 and European settlement in the area began in 1824 with the construction of a homestead by his stockmen on what is now the Acton Peninsula. Moore formally named the property Canberry or Canberra. A significant influx of population and economic activity occurred around the 1850s goldrushes; the goldrushes prompted the establishment of communication between Sydney and the region by way of the Cobb & Co coaches, which transported mail and passengers.
The first post offices opened in Ginninderra in 1859 and at Lanyon in 1860. During colonial times, the European communities of Ginninderra and Tuggeranong settled and farmed the surrounding land; the region was called the Queanbeyan-Yass district, after the two largest towns in the area. The villages of Ginninderra and Tharwa developed to service the local agra
The petroleum industry known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, refining and marketing of petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel gasoline. Petroleum is the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, synthetic fragrances, plastics; the extreme monetary value of oil and its products has led to it being known as "black gold". The industry is divided into three major components: upstream and downstream. Petroleum is vital to many industries, is necessary for the maintenance of industrial civilization in its current configuration, making it a critical concern for many nations. Oil accounts for a large percentage of the world’s energy consumption, ranging from a low of 32% for Europe and Asia, to a high of 53% for the Middle East. Other geographic regions' consumption patterns are as follows: South and Central America and North America; the world consumes 30 billion barrels of oil per year, with developed nations being the largest consumers.
The United States consumed 25% of the oil produced in 2007. The production, distribution and retailing of petroleum taken as a whole represents the world's largest industry in terms of dollar value. Governments such as the United States government provide a heavy public subsidy to petroleum companies, with major tax breaks at every stage of oil exploration and extraction, including the costs of oil field leases and drilling equipment. In recent years, enhanced oil recovery techniques — most notably multi-stage drilling and hydraulic fracturing — have moved to the forefront of the industry as this new technology plays a crucial and controversial role in new methods of oil extraction. Petroleum is a occurring liquid found in rock formations, it consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds. It is accepted that oil is formed from the carbon rich remains of ancient plankton after exposure to heat and pressure in Earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years.
Over time, the decayed residue was covered by layers of mud and silt, sinking further down into Earth’s crust and preserved there between hot and pressured layers transforming into oil reservoirs. Petroleum in an unrefined state has been utilized by humans for over 5000 years. Oil in general has been used since early human history to keep fires ablaze and in warfare, its importance to the world economy however, evolved with whale oil being used for lighting in the 19th century and wood and coal used for heating and cooking well into the 20th century. Though the Industrial Revolution generated an increasing need for energy, this was met by coal, from other sources including whale oil. However, when it was discovered that kerosene could be extracted from crude oil and used as a lighting and heating fuel, the demand for petroleum increased and by the early twentieth century had become the most valuable commodity traded on world markets. Imperial Russia doubled its output by mid-century. After oil drilling began in what is now Azerbaijan in 1846 in Baku, two large pipelines were built in the Russian Empire: the 833 km long pipeline to transport oil from the Caspian to the Black Sea port of Batum, completed in 1906, the 162 km long pipeline to carry oil from Chechnya to the Caspian.
Batum is renamed to Batumi in 1936. At the turn of the 20th century, Imperial Russia's output of oil entirely from the Apsheron Peninsula, accounted for half of the world's production and dominated international markets. Nearly 200 small refineries operated in the suburbs of Baku by 1884; as a side effect of these early developments, the Apsheron Peninsula emerged as the world's "oldest legacy of oil pollution and environmental negligence". In 1846, Baku the first well drilled with percussion tools to a depth of 21 meters for oil exploration. In 1878, Ludvig Nobel and his Branobel company "revolutionized oil transport" by commissioning the first oil tanker and launching it on the Caspian Sea. Samuel Kier established America's first oil refinery in Pittsburgh on Seventh avenue near Grant Street, in 1853. One of the first modern oil refineries were built by Ignacy Łukasiewicz near Jasło, Poland in 1854–56; these were small, as demand for refined fuel was limited. The refined products were used in artificial asphalt, machine oil and lubricants, in addition to Łukasiewicz's kerosene lamp.
As kerosene lamps gained popularity, the refining industry grew in the area. The first commercial oil well in Canada became operational in 1858 at Ontario. Businessman James Miller Williams dug several wells between 1855 and 1858 before discovering a rich reserve of oil four metres below ground. Williams extracted 1.5 million litres of crude oil by 1860, refining much of it into kerosene lamp oil. Some historians challenge Canada’s claim to North America’s first oil field, arguing that Pennsylvania’s famous Drake Well was the continent’s first, but there is evidence to support Williams, not least of, that the Drake well did not come into production until August 28, 1859. The controversial point might be that Williams found oil above bedrock while Edwin Drake’s well located oil within a bedrock reservoir; the discovery at Oil Springs touched off an oil boom which brought hundreds of speculators and workers to the area. Canada's first gusher (fl
Open data is the idea that some data should be available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the open-source data movement are similar to those of other "open" movements such as open-source software, open content, open education, open educational resources, open government, open knowledge, open access, open science, the open web. Paradoxically, the growth of the open data movement is paralleled by a rise in intellectual property rights; the philosophy behind open data has been long established, but the term "open data" itself is recent, gaining popularity with the rise of the Internet and World Wide Web and with the launch of open-data government initiatives such as Data.gov, Data.gov.uk and Data.gov.in. Open data, can be linked data. One of the most important forms of open data is open government data, a form of open data created by ruling government institutions. Open government data's importance is borne from it being a part of citizens' everyday lives, down to the most routine/mundane tasks that are far removed from government.
The concept of open data is not new. One definition is the Open Definition which can be summarized in the statement that "A piece of data is open if anyone is free to use and redistribute it – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike." Other definitions, including the Open Data Institute's "Open data is data that anyone can access, use or share", have an accessible short version of the definition but refer to the formal definition. Open data may include non-textual material such as maps, connectomes, chemical compounds and scientific formulae, medical data and practice and biodiversity. Problems arise because these are commercially valuable or can be aggregated into works of value. Access to, or re-use of, the data is controlled by organisations, both private. Control may be through access restrictions, copyright and charges for access or re-use. Advocates of open data argue that these restrictions are against the common good and that these data should be made available without restriction or fee.
In addition, it is important that the data are re-usable without requiring further permission, though the types of re-use may be controlled by a license. A typical depiction of the need for open data: Numerous scientists have pointed out the irony that right at the historical moment when we have the technologies to permit worldwide availability and distributed process of scientific data, broadening collaboration and accelerating the pace and depth of discovery... we are busy locking up that data and preventing the use of correspondingly advanced technologies on knowledge. Creators of data do not consider the need to state the conditions of ownership, licensing and re-use. For example, many scientists do not regard the published data arising from their work to be theirs to control and consider the act of publication in a journal to be an implicit release of data into the commons. However, the lack of a license makes it difficult to determine the status of a data set and may restrict the use of data offered in an "Open" spirit.
Because of this uncertainty it is possible for public or private organizations to aggregate said data, protect it with copyright and resell it. The issue of indigenous knowledge poses a great challenge in terms of capturing and distribution. Many societies in third-world countries lack the technicality processes of managing the IK. At his presentation at the XML 2005 conference, Connolly displayed these two quotations regarding open data: "I want my data back." "I've long believed that customers of any application own the data they enter into it." Open data can come from any source. This section lists some of the fields; the concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally established with the formation of the World Data Center system, in preparation for the International Geophysical Year of 1957–1958. The International Council of Scientific Unions oversees several World Data Centres with the mandate to minimize the risk of data loss and to maximize data accessibility. While the open-science-data movement long predates the Internet, the availability of fast, ubiquitous networking has changed the context of Open science data, since publishing or obtaining data has become much less expensive and time-consuming.
The Human Genome Project was a major initiative. It was built upon the so-called Bermuda Principles, stipulating that: "All human genomic sequence information should be available and in the public domain in order to encourage research and development and to maximise its benefit to society'. More recent initiatives such as the Structural Genomics Consortium have illustrated that the open data approach can be used productively within the context of industrial R&D. In 2004, the Science Ministers of all nations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, which includes most developed countries of the world, signed a declaration which states that all publicly funded archive data should be made publicly available. Following a request and an intense discussion with data-pr
Symonston, Australian Capital Territory
Symonston is a industrial and agricultural suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Symonston is named after Sir Josiah Symon a Legislator and one of the Founders of the Constitution of Australia. Located in Symonston are the Periodic Detention Centre and Symonston Temporary Remand Centre and three caravan parks: Canberra South Motor Park, Sundown Village and Narrabundah Longstay Caravan Park. Geoscience Australia has its headquarters in Symonston, as does the Therapeutic Goods Administration; the Symonston area has traditionally been denoted'Broadacre' area by the planning authorities, meaning that it has retained a traditionally rural character with some larger institution uses by the Australian Defence Force and Geoscience Australia. With the release of the Canberra Spatial Plan by the ACT Government, the area and the adjoining Majura Valley has been denoted as an employment corridor centred on Canberra Airport and Fyshwick. Rocks in Symonston are from the Silurian age Mount Painter Volcanics dark grey to green grey dacitic tuff underlies most of Symonston.
Narrabundah Ashstone Member is found in the northern corner near the motor park. Canberra Formation, calcareous shale found to the east of the ashstone. Further to the east and over to Harman is found the dacitic andesite of the Ainslie Volcanics. An unnamed coarse leucogranite has a small out crop east of Jerrabomberra creek. Geoscience Australia is the Australian Government organisation tasked with supplying scientific information and knowledge about the geography and geology of Australia, it has information about the geology of the whole of Australia including Canberra. Symonston residents get preference for: Depending on the address: Forrest Primary or Red Hill Primary Telopea Park School Narrabundah College
The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Chapter I of the Constitution of Australia. There are a total of 76 Senators: 12 are elected from each of the six states regardless of population and 2 from each of the two autonomous internal territories. Senators are popularly elected under the single transferable vote system of proportional representation. Unlike upper houses in other Westminster-style parliamentary systems, the Senate is vested with significant powers, including the capacity to reject all bills, including budget and appropriation bills, initiated by the government in the House of Representatives, making it a distinctive hybrid of British Westminster bicameralism and United States-style bicameralism; as a result of proportional representation, the chamber features a multitude of parties vying for power. The governing party or coalition, which has to maintain the confidence of the lower house, has not held a majority in the Senate since 2005–2008 and needs to negotiate with other parties and Independents to get legislation passed.
The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act of 1900 established the Senate as part of the new system of dominion government in newly federated Australia. From a comparative governmental perspective, the Australian Senate exhibits distinctive characteristics. Unlike upper Houses in other Westminster system governments, the Senate is not a vestigial body with limited legislative power. Rather it was intended to play – and does play – an active role in legislation. Rather than being modelled after the House of Lords, as the Canadian Senate was, the Australian Senate was in part modelled after the United States Senate, by giving equal representation to each state and equal powers; the Constitution intended to give less populous states added voice in a Federal legislature, while providing for the revising role of an upper house in the Westminster system. Although the Prime Minister and Treasurer, by convention, are members of the House of Representatives, other members of the Cabinet may come from either house, the two Houses have equal legislative power.
As with most upper chambers in bicameral parliaments, the Senate cannot introduce or amend appropriation bills or bills that impose taxation, that role being reserved for the lower house. That degree of equality between the Senate and House of Representatives reflects the desire of the Constitution's authors to address smaller states' desire for strong powers for the Senate as a way of ensuring that the interests of more populous states as represented in the House of Representatives did not dominate the government; this situation was partly due to the age of the Australian constitution – it was enacted before the confrontation in 1909 in Britain between the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which resulted in the restrictions placed on the powers of the House of Lords by the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949. In practice, most legislation in the Australian Parliament is initiated by the Government, which has control over the lower house, it is passed to the Senate, which has the opportunity to amend the bill, pass or reject it.
In the majority of cases, voting takes place along party lines, although there are occasional conscience votes. The system for electing senators has changed several times since Federation; the original arrangement involved a first-past-the-post block voting or "winner takes all" system, on a state-by-state basis. This was replaced in 1919 by preferential block voting. Block voting tended to produce landslide majorities and "wipe-outs". For instance, from 1920 to 1923 the Nationalist Party held all but one of the 36 seats, from 1947 to 1950, the Labor Party held all but three. In 1948, single transferable vote proportional representation on a state-by-state basis became the method for electing Senators; this had the effect of limiting the government's ability to control the chamber, has helped the rise of Australian minor parties. From the 1984 election, group ticket voting was introduced, in order to reduce a high rate of informal voting that arose from the requirement that each candidate be given a preference, to allow small parties and independent candidates a reasonable chance of winning a seat.
This allowed voters to select a single party "Above the Line" to distribute their preferences on their behalf, but voters were still able to vote directly for individual candidates and distribute their own preferences if they wished "Below the Line" by numbering every box. In 2016, group tickets were abolished to avoid undue influence of preference deals amongst parties that were seen as distorting election results and a form of optional preferential voting was introduced; as a result of the changes, voters may assign their preferences for parties above the line, or individual candidates below the line, are not required to fill all of the boxes. Both above and below the line voting now use optional preferential voting. For above the line, voters are instructed to number at least their first six preferences. For below the line, voters are required to number at least their first 12 preferences. Voters are free to continue numbering as many preferences as