Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets. Developed to predict probability distributions of ore grades for mining operations, it is applied in diverse disciplines including petroleum geology, hydrology, oceanography, geometallurgy, forestry, environmental control, landscape ecology, soil science, agriculture. Geostatistics is applied in varied branches of geography those involving the spread of diseases, the practice of commerce and military planning, the development of efficient spatial networks. Geostatistical algorithms are incorporated in many places, including geographic information systems and the R statistical environment. Geostatistics is intimately related to interpolation methods, but extends far beyond simple interpolation problems. Geostatistical techniques rely on statistical models that are based on random function theory to model the uncertainty associated with spatial estimation and simulation. A number of simpler interpolation methods/algorithms, such as inverse distance weighting, bilinear interpolation and nearest-neighbor interpolation, were well known before geostatistics.
Geostatistics goes beyond the interpolation problem by considering the studied phenomenon at unknown locations as a set of correlated random variables. Let Z be the value of the variable of interest at a certain location x; this value is unknown. Although there exists a value at location x that could be measured, geostatistics considers this value as random since it was not measured, or has not been measured yet. However, the randomness of Z is not complete, but defined by a cumulative distribution function that depends on certain information, known about the value Z: F = Prob . If the value of Z is known at locations close to x one can constrain the CDF of Z by this neighborhood: if a high spatial continuity is assumed, Z can only have values similar to the ones found in the neighborhood. Conversely, in the absence of spatial continuity Z can take any value; the spatial continuity of the random variables is described by a model of spatial continuity that can be either a parametric function in the case of variogram-based geostatistics, or have a non-parametric form when using other methods such as multiple-point simulation or pseudo-genetic techniques.
By applying a single spatial model on an entire domain, one makes the assumption that Z is a stationary process. It means. Several geostatistical methods provide ways of relaxing this stationarity assumption. In this framework, one can distinguish two modeling goals: Estimating the value for Z by the expectation, the median or the mode of the CDF f; this is denoted as an estimation problem. Sampling from the entire probability density function f by considering each possible outcome of it at each location; this is done by creating several alternative maps of Z, called realizations. Consider a domain discretized in N grid nodes; each realization is a sample of the complete N-dimensional joint distribution function F = Prob . In this approach, the presence of multiple solutions to the interpolation problem is acknowledged; each realization is considered as a possible scenario of. All associated workflows are considering ensemble of realizations, ensemble of predictions that allow for probabilistic forecasting.
Therefore, geostatistics is used to generate or update spatial models when solving inverse problems. A number of methods exist for multiple realizations approaches. Several reference books provide a comprehensive overview of the discipline. Kriging is a group of geostatistical techniques to interpolate the value of a random field at an unobserved location from observations of its value at nearby locations. Aggregation Dissagregation Turning bands Cholesky decomposition Truncated Gaussian Plurigaussian Annealing Spectral simulation Sequential Indicator Sequential Gaussian Dead Leave Transition probabilities Markov chain geostatistics Markov mesh models Support vector machine Boolean simulation Genetic models Pseudo-genetic models Cellular automata Multiple-Point Geostatistics Regionalized variable theory Covariance function Semi-variance Variogram Kriging Range Sill Nugget effect Training image Water Resources Research Advances in Wa
Eight Fantasms and Magics is a collection of science fiction and fantasy stories by Jack Vance. It was published by Macmillan in 1969 and reprinted in paperback by Collier Books in 1970. No further editions have been issued. "Foreword" "The Miracle-Workers" "When the Five Moons Rise" "Telek" "Noise" "The New Prime" "Cil" "Guyal of Sfere" "The Men Return""The New Prime" was published as "Brain of the Galaxy". James Blish praised Vance's "marvelous feeling for the telling of sensual detail, his incantatory tone, his muted humor, his rather arcane vocabulary, his ear for the right proper names, his love for the medieval and for anachronisms in general", found the stories to be logical fantasies in the best of that tradition, exquisitely formed and offered with the modesty of a master who does not need to distract the reader by showing off." P. Schuyler Miller reviewed the collection favorably, placing the stories on "the borderline between science fiction and fantasy" and ranking Vance as "a master of the genre."
The Cité de la Musique known as Philharmonie 2, is a group of institutions dedicated to music and situated in the Parc de la Villette, 19th arrondissement of Paris, France. It was designed with the nearby Conservatoire de Paris by the architect Christian de Portzamparc and opened in 1995. Part of François Mitterrand's Grands Projets, the Cité de la Musique reinvented La Villette – the former slaughterhouse district, it consists of an amphitheater, a concert hall that can accommodate an audience of 800–1,000, a music museum containing an important collection of classical music instruments dating from the fifteenth- to twentieth-century, a music library, exhibition halls and workshops. In 2015 it was renamed Philharmonie 2 as part of the Philharmonie de Paris when a larger symphony hall was built by Jean Nouvel and named Philharmonie 1, its official address is Avenue Jean Jaurès, 75019 Paris. Philharmonie 1, a new 2400-seat symphony hall, is a project whose construction had been postponed for about twenty years, to complete the Cité de la Musique.
On 6 March 2006 the French minister of Culture and communication Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, the mayor of Paris Bertrand Delanoë, the director of the Cité de la Musique, Laurent Bayle, announced the beginning of the construction at a press conference concerning the reopening of the Salle Pleyel, now associated with the Museum. The cost of construction was expected to be 170 million euros, will be shared by the national government, the Ville de Paris, the Région Île-de-France, but the cost in the end is expected to be €381 million In April 2007 Jean Nouvel won the design competition for the auditorium. He brought in Brigitte Métra as his partner, along with Marshall Day Acoustics and Nagata Acoustics; the hall opened on 14 January 2015 with a performance by the Orchestre de Paris of Faure's Requiem to honour the victims of the Charlie Hebdo shootings, which had taken place in the city a week earlier. The opening concert was attended by the President of France; the first season of the Philharmonie de Paris started in January 2015.
The purpose of the season was to reach out to new audiences by providing musical creation and varied repertory in classical music, jazz, world music and contemporary music. On weekends, a diverse program of affordably-priced events and activities was offered each with a theme; the Musée de la Musique features a collection of about 8,390 items, comprising around 4,442 musical instruments, 1,097 instrument elements or 939 pieces of art collected by the Conservatoire de Paris since 1793 as well as some archives and a library of 110,000 written and audiovisual documents. The museum's collection, which opened to the public in 1864 and was relocated at the Cité de la musique in 1997, contains instruments used in classical and popular music from the sixteenth century to the present time including lutes, archlutes 200 classical guitars, violins by Italian luthiers Antonio Stradivari, the Guarneri family, Nicolò Amati; the instruments are exhibited in 5 departments by type. Audio devices are provided at the entrance allowing visitors to hear commentary and excerpts of music played on the instruments, complemented by video screens and scale models along the visit.
List of music museums Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, in Parc de la Villette La Géode, an IMAX domed theatre in Parc de la Villette Le Zénith, a concert arena in Parc de la Villette Kim Eling, The Politics of Cultural Policy in France, Chapter 3: "La Cité de la Musique", Macmillan, 1999, pages 38–61. ISBN 0-312-21974-1. Cité de la Musique official website Médiathèque de la Cité de la musique – Listen to excerpts of concerts
The 2015 Geldermalsen riot was a riot in the Dutch town of Geldermalsen. On 16 December 2015 a protest was made against plans announced by the town council to construct a centre for 1,500 asylum seekers. On 16 December 2015, around 2,000 people in Geldermalsen protested and rioted outside the town hall when the council announced plans to build an asylum centre and accept 1,500 asylum seekers in the light of the European migrant crisis; the protesters attempted to storm the town hall, throwing beer bottles and stones, while politicians discussed the plans inside. Several protesters, two police officers and a businesswoman inside the city hall suffered injuries during the riot. Fourteen protesters were reported to have been arrested as a result of the riots. Dutch politicians characterised the riot as "unacceptable" and "un-Dutch", it was announced that the plans of constructing an asylum centre in the town had been scrapped, with the town council criticising itself over the speed of the decision process and the scale of the plans.
Protests and riots have erupted in several other Dutch towns and villages since 2015 in protest against plans to take in record numbers of migrants. In January 2016, in Heesch, 1000 protesters rioted after plans to take in 500 asylum seekers in the town were announced. Timeline of the European migrant crisis
Plainfield Country Club is a private country club and golf course located in Edison in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. It was founded in 1890 as the Hillside Tennis Club, its golf course was designed in 1916 by golf course designer Donald Ross, opened BC for play in 1921. In 1904, Leighton Calkins—who served as the mayor of Plainfield, New Jersey, from 1915 through 1920—created the handicap system used in golf today. In honor of Calkins, a set of tees at the Plainfield Country Club bears his name. Plainfield Country Club has been home to the 1978 U. S. Amateur, the 1987 U. S. Women's Open, several state and regional championships, has been ranked among the best in the country. In 2011, it was home to the first PGA Tour FedEx Cup playoff event. In August 2015, Plainfield Country Club again hosted the Barclays PGA golf tournament. Official website
André Boisclair is a politician in Quebec, Canada. He was the leader of a social democratic and sovereigntist party in Quebec. Between January 1996 and March 2003, Boisclair served as Citizenship and Immigration Minister and Social Solidarity Minister under former Premier of Quebec Lucien Bouchard and as Environment Minister under former Premier Bernard Landry, he won the Parti Québécois leadership election on November 15, 2005. Boisclair announced he was stepping down as leader of the PQ on May 8, 2007. François Gendron was named interim leader. Boisclair was born in Quebec, he grew up in the affluent francophone Montreal neighbourhood of Outremont. While attending Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, a private CEGEP, he became the president of the Federation of Quebec College Students. After graduation he dropped out after two years, he joined the Parti Québécois in 1984, in the 1989 general election he was elected to represent the Montreal-area riding of Gouin as a PQ candidate. At 23 years old, he became the youngest member elected to the Quebec National Assembly, a record he held until Simon-Pierre Diamond was elected in 2007.
He quickly garnered a reputation as a party animal in Quebec City's night-life scene. He served as a cabinet minister from 1998 to 2003, under Parti Québécois Premiers Lucien Bouchard and Bernard Landry, holding a variety of high-profile portfolios. During his time in office and his chief of staff, Luc Doray, became the center of a drug and embezzlement scandal. After a routine audit, officials discovered that Doray submitted over $30,000 in false expense reports and authorities discovered that Doray had used the money to feed his cocaine habit. Doray plead guilty to defrauding the government and during court testimony it was learned that Boisclair authorized some of the expenses; the ensuing investigation cleared Boisclair of any wrongdoing - he was never accused nor charged with any crime. However, in September 2005, Boisclair admitted to using cocaine between 1996 and 2003 while serving as a member of the Quebec legislature. Boisclair continued to serve as a Member of the National Assembly until he resigned in August 2004 to attend the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
At the time of his resignation, Boisclair held the position of opposition parliamentary leader. Boisclair completed the Master's in Public Administration program at the John F. Kennedy School of Government - a program that does not require students to hold a previous university degree. While at Harvard, Boisclair attended lectures by Michael Ignatieff and kept a blog recording his experience. After Bernard Landry resigned in June 2005, Boisclair entered the race to succeed Landry as the PQ's leader. Elected as the sixth leader of the Parti Québécois on November 15, 2005, Boisclair earned 53.8% of the party membership vote as compared to his closest rival, Pauline Marois, who garnered 30.6%. For the first time, the PQ allowed telephone voting, resulting in the participation of over 76% of the party membership. Polls taken at the time of his leadership victory in November 2005 suggested that Boisclair's Parti Québécois would win a landslide victory over the incumbent Liberal Party of Jean Charest.
Boisclair was the first gay politician in Canada to win the leadership of a party with legislative representation. After his election as party leader, Boisclair delivered a speech promising a sovereignty referendum within two years of a PQ victory in the next Quebec general election. During a joint press conference with Bloc Québécois leader Gilles Duceppe in Montreal on November 20, 2005, Boisclair decried Canada's Clarity Act as unacceptable, he stated that if elected Premier, he would ignore the ruling of the Supreme Court of Canada on referendum question clarity. Upon taking the reins of the PQ, Boisclair's actions created political controversy within his own party. After a questionable appearance in a comedy sketch featuring a homosexual depiction of Stephen Harper and George W. Bush, an attempt to distance the PQ from its traditional union base, a push to oust Boisclair developed. Purportedly led by Boisclair's predecessor, Bernard Landry, the plan failed and no real threat to Boisclair's leadership emerged.
Pundits speculated that the proximity of the Quebec general election contributed to the putsch's failure. On August 14, 2006, Boisclair was elected to the provincial legislative assembly in a by-election for the Montreal-area riding of Pointe-aux-Trembles, he was re-elected in the general election of March 26, 2007. In February 2007, Boisclair promised a dream team of high-profile candidates for the anticipated 2007 general election. Comparing his slate to the l'équipe du tonnerre of former premier and Quiet revolution architect Jean Lesage, Boiscair announced that actor Pierre Curzi, former cabinet member Linda Goupil, TV journalist Bernard Drainville, academic Guy Lachapelle, union leader Marc Laviolette, former Bloc Québécois MPs Richard Marceau and Yvan Loubier composed this team. On February 21, 2007, the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec, Lise Thibault, dissolved parliament and called a general election for March 26, 2007. Boisclair launched his campaign using the slogan "Reconstruisons notre Québec".
At the beginning of the campaign, Boisclair's Parti Québécois stood five percentage points behind the Quebec Liberals. Boisclair stated throughout his campaign that education would remain a key priority in the PQ's election strategy