The K130 Braunschweig class is Germany's newest class of ocean-going corvettes. Five ships have replaced the Gepard-class fast attack craft of the German Navy. In October 2016 it was announced that a second batch of five more corvettes is to be procured from 2022–25; the decision was in response to NATO requirements expecting Germany to provide a total of four corvettes at the highest readiness level for littoral operations by 2018, with only five corvettes just two can be provided. They feature reduced radar and infra-red signatures and will be equipped with two helicopter UAVs for remote sensing; the German Navy ordered a first batch of 2 UMS Skeldar V-200 UAVs for the use on the Braunschweig-class corvettes. The hangar is too small for standard helicopters, but the pad is large enough for Sea Kings, Lynx or NH-90s, the helicopters of the German Navy; the K130 class was supposed to be armed with the naval version of the Polyphem missile, an optical fiber-guided missile with a range of 60 kilometres, which at the time was under development.
The Polyphem program was canceled in 2003 and instead the designers chose to equip the class with the RBS-15. While the RBS-15 has a much greater range —250 kilometres —, the current version mounted on the ships, Mk3, lacks the ECM-resistant video feedback of the Polyphem; the German Navy has ordered the RBS-15 Mk4 in advance, which will be a future development of the Mk3 with increased range —400 kilometres — and a dual seeker for increased resistance to electronic countermeasures. The RBS-15 Mk3 has the capability to engage land targets. Vessels of this class do not have an executive officer. Traditionally, in the Germany Navy this was used as a rule to classify a vessel as a boat, not a ship. In a press release the German Navy states that these corvettes will be called ships nonetheless because of their size and endurance; the commanding officer wields the same disciplinary power as a German Army company commander, not that of a battalion commander as is the case with the larger German warships such as frigates.
However, in size, armament and role these corvettes resemble modern anti-surface warfare frigates, the main difference being the total absence of any anti-submarine warfare related sensors or weapons. The contract for first five ships was awarded in December 2001 Blohm+Voss, at that time owned by ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems and Friedrich Lurssen Werft; the first ship, the FGS Braunshweig, built at Blohm+Voss, was launched in April 2006 and was commissioned in April 2008. The second ship was commissioned in 2008; the third three ships were commissioned in 2013. Severe problems with the gearing provided by MAAG GmbH of Winterthur, Switzerland delayed the commissioning of the corvettes. Further issues occurred with the air conditioning system and exposure to toxins from exhaust and missile systems. In May 2015, the Israeli Government ordered four Sa'ar 6-class corvettes, whose design by ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems will be loosely based on that of the Braunschweig-class corvette, but with engineering changes to render the baseline platform more militarily robust.
In April 2017 the German government announced a contract for a further five ships to the same group as before, but the process under which it had been awarded was challenged at the German Federal Cartel Office by the German Naval Yards and the contract was voided in May. In September 2017, the German Navy commissioned the construction of five more corvettes in a consortium of North German shipyards. Lürssen will be the main contractor in the production of the vessels; the contract is worth around 2 billion euros. In April 2018 the German government announced that the specific arrangements under which the five new K130s would be built; the ships were not built at a single shipyard. The table lists the yard. Due to the decommissioning of the Gepard class five are additionally planned to be constructed from 2019–23. Corvette Braunschweig List of naval ship classes in service Korvette Braunschweig-Klasse @ Marine Manufacturer's website
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea skimming variety, many use a combination of inertial guidance and active radar homing. A good number of other anti-ship missiles use infrared homing to follow the heat, emitted by a ship; the first anti-ship missiles, which were developed and built by Nazi Germany, used radio command guidance. These saw some success in the Mediterranean Theater in 1943–44, sinking or damaging at least 31 ships with the Henschel Hs 293 and more than seven with the Fritz X, such as the Italian battleship Roma or the cruiser USS Savannah. A variant of the HS 293 had a TV transmitter on board; the bomber carrying it could fly outside the range of naval AA guns and use TV guidance to lead the missile to its target by radio control. Many anti-ship missiles can be launched from a variety of weapons systems including surface warships, bombers, fighter planes, patrol planes, shore batteries, land vehicles, conceivably by infantrymen firing shoulder-launched missiles.
The term surface-to-surface missile is used. The longer-range anti-ship missiles are called anti-ship cruise missiles. A typical abbreviation for the phrase "anti-ship missile" is ASM, but AShM can be used to avoid confusion with air-to-surface missiles, anti-submarine missiles, anti-satellite missiles. Anti-ship missiles were among the first instances of short-range guided missiles during World War II in 1943–44; the German Luftwaffe used the Hs 293, the Fritz X, others, all launched from its bombers, to deadly effect against some Allied ships in the Mediterranean Sea damaging ships such as the United States Navy light cruiser USS Savannah off Salerno, Italy. These all used radio command-guidance from the bombardiers of the warplanes; some of these hit and either sank or damaged a number of ships, including warships offshore of amphibious landings on western Italy. These radio-controlled missiles were used until the Allied navies developed missile countermeasures—principally radio jamming; the Allies developed some of their own similar radio-guided AShMs, starting with the U.
S. Navy's SWOD-9 Bat – the first autonomously-guided, radar-homing anti-ship weapon deployed worldwide, being deployed against the Japanese in April 1945 – but the Bat saw little use in combat from its own late-war deployment date. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union turned to a sea-denial strategy concentrating on submarines, naval mines and the AShM. One of the first products of the decision was the SS-N-2 Styx missile. Further products were to follow, they were soon loaded onto the Soviet Air Force's Tu-95 Bear and Tu-22 Blinder bombers, in the case of the air-launched KS-1 Komet. In 1967, the Israeli Navy's destroyer Eilat was the first ship to be sunk by a ship-launched missile – a number of Styx missiles launched by Egyptian Komar-class missile boats off the Sinai Peninsula. In the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 the Indian Navy conducted two raids using OSA 1-class missile boats employing the Styx on the Pakistani Naval base at Karachi; these raids resulted in the destruction or crippling of two thirds of the Pakistani Navy.
Major losses included two destroyers, a fleet oiler, an ammunition ship a dozen merchant ships and numerous smaller craft. Major shore based facilities, including fuel storage tanks and naval installations were destroyed; the Osas returned to base without loss. The Battle of Latakia in 1973 was the scene of the world's first combat between missile boats. In this battle, the Israeli Navy destroyed Syrian warships without suffering any damage, using electronic countermeasures and ruses for defense. After defeating the Syrian navy the Israeli missile boats sank a number of Egyptian warships, again without suffering any damage in return, thus achieving total naval supremacy for the rest of the war. Anti-ship missiles were used in the 1982 Falklands War; the British warship HMS Sheffield, a 4,820 ton Type 42 Destroyer, was struck by a single air-launched Exocet AShM, she sank as a result of the damage that she sustained. The container ship Atlantic Conveyor was sunk by an Exocet. HMS Glamorgan was damaged when she was struck by an MM38 missile launched from an improvised trailer-based launcher taken from the Argentine Navy destroyer ARA Comodoro Seguí by Navy technicians, but she was able to take evasive action that restricted the damage.
In 1987, a US Navy guided-missile frigate, the USS Stark, was hit by an Exocet anti-ship missile fired by an Iraqi Mirage F-1 fighter plane. Stark was damaged. In October 1987, the Sungari, an American-owned tanker steaming under the Liberian flag, a Kuwaiti tanker steaming under the American flag, the Sea Isle City, were hit by Iranian HY-2 missiles. In 1988 ASMs were fired by both American and Iranian forces in Operation Praying Mantis in the Persian Gulf. During this naval battle, several Iranian warships were hit by American ASMs; the US Navy hit the Iranian Navy light frigate IS Sahand with three Harpoon missiles, four AGM-123 Skipper rocket-propelled bombs, a Walleye tv-guided bomb, several 1,000 lb "iron bombs". Despite the large number of munitions and successful hits, the 1,540 ton IS Sahand did not sink until fire reached her ammunition magazine, causing it to detonate, sinking the vessel. In the same engagement, American w
Chaff called Window by the British and Düppel by the Second World War era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallized glass fibre or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of primary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns. Modern armed forces use chaff to distract radar-guided missiles from their targets. Most military aircraft and warships have chaff dispensing systems for self-defense. An intercontinental ballistic missile may release in its midcourse phase several independent warheads as well as penetration aids such as decoy balloons and chaff; the idea of using chaff developed independently in the United Kingdom, the United States and Japan. In 1937, British researcher Gerald Touch, while working with Robert Watson-Watt on radar, suggested that lengths of wire suspended from balloons or parachutes might overwhelm a radar system with false echoes and R. V. Jones had suggested that pieces of metal foil falling through the air might do the same.
In early 1942, a Telecommunications Research Establishment researcher named Joan Curran investigated the idea and came up with a scheme for dumping packets of aluminium strips from aircraft to generate a cloud of false echoes. An early idea was to use sheets the size of a notebook page, it was found that the most effective version was strips of black paper backed with aluminium foil 27 cm × 2 cm and packed into bundles each weighing 1 pound. The head of the TRE, A. P. Rowe, code-named the device "Window". In Germany, similar research had led to the development of Düppel; the German code name came from the estate where the first German tests with chaff took place, circa 1942. Once the British had passed the idea to the US via the Tizard Mission, Fred Whipple developed a system for dispensing strips for the USAAF, but it is not known if this was used; the systems used the same concept of small aluminium strips cut to a half of the target radar's wavelength. When hit by the radar, such lengths of metal re-radiate the signal.
Opposing defences would find it impossible to distinguish the aircraft from the echoes caused by the chaff. Other radar-confusing techniques included Mandrel and Jostle. Ignorance about the extent of knowledge of the principle in the opposing air force led planners to judge that it was too dangerous to use, since the opponent could duplicate it; the British government's leading scientific adviser, Professor Lindemann, pointed out that if the Royal Air Force used it against the Germans, the Luftwaffe would copy it and could launch a new Blitz. This caused concern in RAF Fighter Command and Anti-Aircraft Command, who managed to suppress the use of Window until July 1943, it was felt that the new generation of centimetric radars available to Fighter Command would cope with Luftwaffe retaliation. Examination of the Würzburg radar equipment brought back to the UK during Operation Biting and subsequent reconnaissance revealed to the British that all German radars were operating in no more than three frequency ranges, making them prone to jamming.
"Bomber" Harris, Commander-in-Chief of RAF Bomber Command got approval to use Window as part of Operation Gomorrah, the fire raids against Hamburg. The first aircrew trained to use Window were in 76 Squadron. Twenty-four crews were briefed on how to drop the bundles of aluminised-paper strips, one every minute through the flare chute, using a stopwatch to time them; the results proved spectacular. The radar-guided master searchlights wandered aimlessly across the sky; the anti-aircraft guns fired randomly or not at all and the night fighters, their radar displays swamped with false echoes, utterly failed to find the bomber stream. Over a week of attacks, Allied attacks devastated a vast area of Hamburg, resulting in more than 40,000 civilian deaths, with the loss of only 12 out of the 791 bombers on the first night. Squadrons had special chutes fitted to their bombers to make chaff deployment easier. Seeing this as a development that made it safer to go on operations, many crews got in as many trips as they could before the Germans found a counter-countermeasure.
Although the metal strips puzzled the German civilians at first, German scientists knew what they were - Düppel - but had refrained from using it for the same reasons as Lindemann had pointed out to the British. For over a year the curious situation arose where both sides of the conflict knew how to use chaff to jam the other side's radar but had refrained from doing for fear of their opponent replying in kind. Window rendered the ground-controlled Himmelbett fighters of the Kammhuber Line unable to track their targets in the night sky and the early UHF-band versions of the airborne intercept Lichtenstein radar useless, blinding radar-guided guns and spotlights dependent on the ground-based radar. Oberst Hajo Herrmann developed Wilde Sau to cope with the lack of accurate ground guidance and led to the formation of three new fighter wings to use the tactic, numbered JG 300, JG 301 and JG 302. Ground operators would radio-direct single-seat fighters and night fighters to areas where the concentrations of chaff were greatest (which would indicate the source o
Type 205 submarine
The Type 205 was a class of German diesel-electric submarines. They were single-hull vessels optimized for the use in the shallow Baltic Sea; the Type 205 is a direct evolution of the Type 201 class with lengthened hull, new machinery and sensors. The biggest difference though is that ST-52 steel is used for the pressure hull since the Type 201's non-magnetic steel proved to be problematic. Type 206, the follow-on class succeeded with non-magnetic steel hulls; the Type 205 was in service with the Royal Danish Navy until 2004, in which it was known as Narhvalen class. The Danish boats differed from the German ones to meet special Danish demands. Responsible for the design and construction was the Ingenieurkontor Lübeck headed by Ulrich Gabler; these last two boats were built by the Howaldtswerke, in Denmark at The Naval Dockyard, Copenhagen. Notes: U-1 was given back to Nordseewerke and was used to test an experimental closed-cycle diesel air-independent propulsion system before being scrapped U-11 was transformed to a Type 205A double-hulled boat and used as torpedo target U-12 was used for sonar trials as Type 205B Karr, Hans.
Deutsche Uboote seit 1956. Stuttgart: Motorbuch. ISBN 9783613037083. Kobben class submarine Submarines of the Narhvalen class - Danish Naval History
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers. They were developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" were "large and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been shortened to "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War. Before World War II destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations. After the war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles filled by battleships and cruisers; this resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile destroyers more capable of independent operation.
At the start of the 21st century, destroyers are the global standard for surface combatant ships, with only two nations operating the heavier class cruisers, with no battleships or true battlecruisers remaining. Modern guided missile destroyers are equivalent in tonnage but vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, are capable of carrying nuclear tipped cruise missiles. At 510 feet long, a displacement of 9,200 tons, with armament of more than 90 missiles, guided missile destroyers such as the Arleigh Burke-class are larger and more armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers; some European navies, such as the French, Spanish, or German, use the term "frigate" for their destroyers, which leads to some confusion. The emergence and development of the destroyer was related to the invention of the self-propelled torpedo in the 1860s. A navy now had the potential to destroy a superior enemy battle fleet using steam launches to fire torpedoes. Cheap, fast boats armed with torpedoes called torpedo boats were built and became a threat to large capital ships near enemy coasts.
The first seagoing vessel designed to launch the self-propelled Whitehead torpedo was the 33-ton HMS Lightning in 1876. She was armed with two drop collars to launch these weapons, these were replaced in 1879 by a single torpedo tube in the bow. By the 1880s, the type had evolved into small ships of 50–100 tons, fast enough to evade enemy picket boats. At first, the threat of a torpedo boat attack to a battle fleet was considered to exist only when at anchor. In response to this new threat, more gunned picket boats called "catchers" were built which were used to escort the battle fleet at sea, they needed significant seaworthiness and endurance to operate with the battle fleet, as they became larger, they became designated "torpedo boat destroyers", by the First World War were known as "destroyers" in English. The anti-torpedo boat origin of this type of ship is retained in its name in other languages, including French, Portuguese, Greek, Dutch and, up until the Second World War, Polish. Once destroyers became more than just catchers guarding an anchorage, it was realized that they were ideal to take over the role of torpedo boats themselves, so they were fitted with torpedo tubes as well as guns.
At that time, into World War I, the only function of destroyers was to protect their own battle fleet from enemy torpedo attacks and to make such attacks on the battleships of the enemy. The task of escorting merchant convoys was still in the future. An important development came with the construction of HMS Swift in 1884 redesignated TB 81; this was a large torpedo boat with three torpedo tubes. At 23.75 knots, while still not fast enough to engage enemy torpedo boats reliably, the ship at least had the armament to deal with them. Another forerunner of the torpedo boat destroyer was the Japanese torpedo boat Kotaka, built in 1885. Designed to Japanese specifications and ordered from the Glasgow Yarrow shipyards in 1885, she was transported in parts to Japan, where she was assembled and launched in 1887; the 165-foot long vessel was armed with four 1-pounder quick-firing guns and six torpedo tubes, reached 19 knots, at 203 tons, was the largest torpedo boat built to date. In her trials in 1889, Kotaka demonstrated that she could exceed the role of coastal defense, was capable of accompanying larger warships on the high seas.
The Yarrow shipyards, builder of the parts for Kotaka, "considered Japan to have invented the destroyer". The first vessel designed for the explicit purpose of hunting and destroying torpedo boats was the torpedo gunboat. Small cruisers, torpedo gunboats were equipped with torpedo tubes and an adequate gun armament, intended for hunting down smaller enemy boats. By the end of the 1890s torpedo gunboats were made obsolete by their more successful contemporaries, the torpedo boat destroyers, which were much faster; the first example of this was HMS Rattlesnake, designed by Nathaniel Barnaby in 1885, commissioned in response to the Russian War scare. The gunboat was armed with torpedoes and designed for hunting and destroying
German submarine Wilhelm Bauer
Wilhelm Bauer is a Type XXI U-boat of Nazi Germany's navy, completed shortly before the end of World War II. It was scuttled at the end of the war. In 1957, it was raised from the seabed off Flensburg Firth and recommissioned for use by the West-German Bundesmarine in 1960. Retired in 1983, it is the only floating example of a Type XXI U-boat, it has been modified to appear in wartime configuration and exhibited at the Maritime Museum in Bremerhaven, Germany. Construction of U-2540 began on 28/29 October 1944 by Voss in Hamburg-Finkenwerder, she was launched on 13 January 1945 and commissioned on 24 February 1945 as part of 31st U-boat Flotilla for training purposes. In April 1945 the boat went to the front after training at Rønne on Bornholm. Due to the ongoing fuel shortages at the end of the war, the boat was relocated to Swinemünde before being scuttled near the Flensburg lightship on 4 May 1945. Like all Type XXI U-boats, U-2540 had a displacement of 1,621 tonnes when at the surface and 1,819 tonnes while submerged.
She had a total length of 76.70 m, a beam length of 8 m, a draught length of 6.32 m. The submarine was powered by two MAN SE supercharged six-cylinder M6V40/46KBB diesel engines each providing 4,000 metric horsepower, two Siemens-Schuckert GU365/30 double-acting electric motors each providing 5,000 PS, two Siemens-Schuckert silent running GV232/28 electric motors each providing 226 PS; the submarine had a submerged speed of 17.2 knots. When running on silent motors the boat could operate at a speed of 6.1 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate at 5 knots for 340 nautical miles. U-2540 was fitted with six 53.3 cm torpedo tubes in four 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft guns. She could carry seventeen torpedoes and twelve mines; the complement was fifty-two men. In June 1957, after more than 12 years on the floor of the Baltic Sea, U-2540 was raised and overhauled at Howaldtswerke, Kiel; the submarine was commissioned as a research vessel in the Bundesmarine, serving from 1 September 1960 until 28 August 1968 as a test boat.
On relaunch she was renamed Wilhelm Bauer, after the designer of the first German U-boat, built in Kiel by August Howaldt in 1850. From May 1970 she again entered service, this time with a civilian crew and served as a testbed for the technical innovations of the class 206 U-boat. After an underwater collision with the German destroyer Z-3 on 6 May 1980 Wilhelm Bauer was discharged from use at Eckernförde on 18 November 1980 and released from service in 1983. U-2540 was put on sale by the Ministry of Defence and acquired by the board of trustees of the German Maritime Museum Association and the German Maritime Museum in Bremerhaven; the boat was restored to its original World War II configuration after its transfer in August 1983 to the Seebeck yard, opening on 27 April 1984 as a museum ship in Bremerhaven, now sponsored by the Wilhelm Bauer Technology Museum association. It has imitation twin 30mm cannon and the bridge is not glazed as it was during service with the Bundesmarine. U-505 U-534 U-995 Whilhem Bauer was featured in a 2016 documentary series episode entitled "Hitler's Killer Subs".
Media related to German submarine Wilhelm Bauer at Wikimedia Commons A tour of the submarine U-Boot Type XXI in detail, Essay with numerous photos of the Wilhelm Bauer attached. "U-2540 gallery". Uboat.net. Archived from the original on 2006-12-05