New Jersey's 5th congressional district
New Jersey's Fifth Congressional District is represented by Democrat Josh Gottheimer. Republican Scott Garrett defeated Democrat Paul Aronsohn and independent candidate R. Matthew Fretz 55%–44% in the United States general elections, 2006. Gottheimer defeated Garrett in the 2016 general election, making Garrett the only one of the state's 12 incumbents to lose his seat; the redrawn New Jersey's Fifth Congressional District is predominantly rural in area, but now the newly added suburban and urban Bergen County areas closer to New York City contain over 75% of voters. The district is western parts of New Jersey. A portion of the district is in suburban northern Bergen County, as well as the Urban Central. Most of the areas in the district have been favorable for Republicans; this is true of the western portion, which contains some of the most Republican areas in the Northeast. However, Bergen County has trended Democratic in recent elections, though not as overwhelmingly as in the more urbanized southern portion.
Due to a strong performance in Bergen County, Gottheimer unseated 14-year Republican incumbent Garrett in 2016. For the 113th and successive Congresses, the district contains all or portions of four counties and 79 municipalities. Bergen County Allendale, Bergenfield, Closter, Dumont, Fair Lawn, Franklin Lakes, Glen Rock, Harrington Park, Hillsdale, Ho-Ho-Kus, Mahwah, Midland Park, New Milford, Norwood, Old Tappan, Paramus, Park Ridge, Ridgewood, River Edge, River Vale, Rochelle Park, Saddle River, Upper Saddle River, Washington Township, Woodcliff Lake and WyckoffPassaic County Ringwood and West MilfordSussex County Andover Borough, Andover Township, Frankford Township, Franklin Borough, Fredon Township, Green Township, Hampton Township, Hardyston Township, Lafayette Township, Montague Township, Sandyston Township, Stillwater Township, Vernon Township, Walpack Township and Wantage TownshipWarren County Allamuchy Township, Blairstown Township, Frelinghuysen Township, Hardwick Township, Hope Township, Independence Township, Knowlton Township, Liberty Township, Mansfield Township, Oxford Township, Washington Township and White Township Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Josh Gottheimer, Official Website
1984 Republican National Convention
The 1984 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States convened on August 20 to August 23, 1984, at Dallas Convention Center in downtown Dallas, Texas. The convention nominated President Ronald W. Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush for reelection, it was the thirty-third GOP presidential nominating convention, the first Republican convention held in Texas, the only convention of either party held in Dallas. Reagan's popularity had rebounded after the early 1980s recession, he became the first incumbent president since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964 to run without serious opposition in the primary; the keynote address on August 20 was delivered by Treasurer of the United States. Other speakers included United States Secretary of Transportation. S. Ambassador to the United Nations; the convention included a valedictory address by retiring U. S. Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona. Goldwater was credited as the political founder of the New Right in the United States, of which Reagan was the political heir, Reagan had gained notice for his "A Time for Choosing" speech supporting Goldwater in October 1964.
Vice President George H. W. Bush gave a powerful address, some believing it debuted him as the de facto nominee of the GOP in 1988. President Reagan spoke after, addressed the nation and the party on the future and highlighted the "Morning in America". Country singer Lee Greenwood was featured, sang "God Bless the USA,", released earlier that year. Having run without opposition, President Reagan was nominated unanimously on the roll call vote. To save time, the Vice Presidential vote was held with Vice President Bush receiving 2,042 votes and Jack Kemp and Anne Armstrong receiving one vote each; this would be the last Vice Presidential tally at a Republican Convention during the 20th century. The convention was recruited to Dallas by the chairman of the host committee Texas state Republican chairman, Fred Meyer, a Dallas business, the president of the Tyler Corporation; the Dallas Police Department, under Police Chief Billy Prince, was charged with providing security for the convention, including that of the delegates, President Ronald Reagan, Vice President George H.
W. Bush. Security planning and training for the event began in the police department a year in advance of the convention. President Reagan and Vice President Bush were scheduled to be housed in separate towers of the Anatole Hotel complex near downtown. Key commanders of the security plan included: Convention Security Commander - Assistant Chief Leslie Sweet Field Operations Commander - Deputy Chief William Newman Headquarters Hotel Commander - Captain Doug Sword Intelligence Commander - Captain Greg Holliday Convention Center Commander - Captain Dwight Walker Detention Services Commander - Captain Frank Hearron Dignitary Protection Commander - Captain John Holt Traffic Control Commander - Captain T. D. Tolleson Demonstration Management Commander - Captain Ray Hawkins Support Services Commander - Captain John Squier Presidential Hotel Response Team Commander - Lieutenant Rick StoneThe only incident of any consequence to occur during the convention was when the so-called Yippies made their last headlines.
On Wednesday, August 22, 1984, a group of protesters calling itself the "Corporate War Chest Tour" conducted a minor theft and vandalism spree against businesses in downtown Dallas. Under the security plan, various police response teams were mobilized consisting of the Demonstration Management teams under the command of Captain Hawkins and the Presidential Hotel Response Teams, commanded by Lieutenant Stone, which were held in reserve on the eastern perimeter of downtown. Dozens of protesters were peacefully arrested including, Revolutionary Communist Youth Brigade member Gregory Lee Johnson, who burned a U. S. flag, stolen from a flagpole in front of a downtown building. Johnson was charged with Desecration of Venerated Object, a misdemeanor violation of the Texas Penal Code, he was convicted and his conviction was upheld at the state level. Johnson appealed the conviction to the federal courts, arguing that burning the flag was protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The case of Texas v. Johnson was appealed to the United States Supreme Court, which ruled on June 21, 1989, in Johnson's favor and invalidated flag desecration statutes throughout the country; the remains of the charred flag were gathered by a civil servant, Daniel E. Walker of Fort Worth, who buried them according to military protocol in his backyard. Republican Party presidential primaries, 1984 History of the United States Republican Party List of Republican National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention 1983 Libertarian National Convention 1984 Democratic National Convention United States presidential election, 1984 Ronald Reagan's nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC at C-SPAN Video of Bush acceptance speech for Vice President at RNC Audio of Bush nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at RNC Transcript of Bush nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at RNC Ronald Reagan's nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC at The American Presidency Project Republican Party platform of 1984 at The American Presidency Project CNN: Address on Foreign Policy delivered August 20 by Jeane Kirkpatrick, Ambassador to the United Nations Video of Katherine Ortega's Keynote Address at Republican National Convention Text of Katherine Ortega's Keynote Address at Republican Nationa
Margaret "Marge" Roukema was an American politician who represented New Jersey in the U. S. House of Representatives for twenty-two years as a Republican. A graduate of Montclair State College, Roukema's first career was as a teacher in the Ridgewood Public Schools, she began her political career in the local board of education, becoming the vice president of the body in 1970. In 1980, she challenged three-term incumbent Democratic Congressman Andrew Maguire, won in what was the 7th District, she was one of several Republicans swept into office by Reagan's coattails. After decennial redistricting, Roukema's district was renumbered as the 5th District and became more Republican than its predecessor, she was handily reelected in 1982 and nine more times after that with no opposition. Roukema was a moderate Republican. In 1992, she faced a primary challenge from a more conservative Republican, Louis Sette, but defeated him by a 62%–25% margin. In 1998, another conservative, State Assemblyman Scott Garrett, challenged her in the primary.
Roukema managed to fight him off, did so again in 2000. With the prospect of another primary challenge from Garrett in 2002, as well as facing the loss of her subcommittee chairs due to caucus term limits, the Ridgewood Republican opted not to seek a 12th term and retired from politics. Garrett won the nomination with 45% of the vote and went on to win the seat, despite Roukema's refusal to endorse him, she was an honorary board member of the National Organization of Italian American Women. On November 12, 2014, Roukema died at Christian Health Care Center in Wyckoff, New Jersey at the age of 85, she had Alzheimer's disease. Women in the United States House of Representatives Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Appearances on C-SPAN
New Jersey General Assembly
The New Jersey General Assembly is the lower house of the New Jersey Legislature. Since the election of 1967, the Assembly has consisted of 80 members. Two members are elected from each of New Jersey's 40 legislative districts for a term of two years, each representing districts with average populations of 210,359. To be eligible to run, a potential candidate must be at least 21 years of age, must have lived in their district for at least one year prior to the election, have lived in the state of New Jersey for two years, they must be residents of their districts. Membership in the Assembly is considered a part-time job, many members have employment in addition to their legislative work. Assembly members serve two-year terms, elected every odd-numbered year in November. Several members of the Assembly hold other elective office, as they are grandfathered in under a New Jersey law that banned multiple office holding in 2007; the Assembly is led by the Speaker of the Assembly, elected by the membership of the chamber.
After the Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey and the President of the New Jersey Senate, the Speaker of the Assembly is third in the line of succession to replace the Governor of New Jersey in the event that he or she is unable to execute the duties of that office. The Speaker decides the schedule for the Assembly, which bills will be considered, appoints committee chairmen, runs the Assembly's agenda; the current Speaker is Craig Coughlin. Members of the NJ General Assembly receive an annual base salary of $49,000 with the Senate President and the Assembly Speaker earning more. Members receive $110,000 for staff salaries. In addition, they receive stationery and a telephone card, they receive other benefits. The total cost to the State of New Jersey for each member of the general assembly is $200,000 annually. See: New Jersey Legislature#Colonial period and New Jersey Legislative Council#Composition Committee chairs for the 2018-2019 Legislative Session are: Agriculture and Natural Resources - Asm.
Bob Andrzejczak Appropriations - Asm. John Burzichelli Budget - Aswm. Eliana Pintor Marin Commerce and Economic Development - Asm. Gordon M. Johnson Consumer Affairs - Asm. Paul Moriarty Education - Asw. Pamela R. Lampitt Environment and Solid Waste - Asw. Nancy Pinkin Financial Institutions and Insurance - Asm. John F. McKeon Health and Senior Services - Asm. Herb Conaway, MD Higher Education - Asw. Mila Jasey Homeland Security and State Preparedness - Asw. Valerie Vainieri Huttle Housing and Community Development - Asm. Jerry Green Human Services - Asw. Joann Downey Judiciary - Asw. Annette Quijano Labor - Asm. Joseph Egan Law and Public Safety - Asm. Adam Taliaferro Military and Veterans' Affairs - Asw. Cleopatra Tucker Oversight and Federal Relations - Asm. Joseph Danielsen Regulated Professions - Asm. Thomas Giblin Regulatory Oversight - Asm. Reed Gusciora Science and Technology - Asm. Andrew Zwicker State and Local Government - Asm. Vincent Mazzeo Telecommunications and Utilities - Asm. Wayne DeAngelo Tourism and the Arts - Asm.
Ralph Caputo Transportation and Independent Authorities - Asm. Daniel R. Benson Women and Children - Asw. Gabriela Mosquera Note: The first three subsections below end with a constitutional year: 1776, 1844 or 1947; the fourth subsection ends in 1966, the year of the U. S. Supreme Court decision that required legislative apportionment based on the principle of "one person, one vote"; the following is a list of Speakers of the Assembly since 1703. On December 6, 1775, Gov. William Franklin prorogued the New Jersey Legislature until January 3, 1776, but it never met again. On May 30, 1776, Franklin attempted to convene the legislature, but was met instead with an order by the New Jersey Provincial Congress for his arrest. On July 2, 1776, the Provincial Congress approved a new constitution; the Constitution of 1844 expanded the General Assembly to 60 members, elected annually and apportioned to the then-nineteen counties by population. Category:Members of the New Jersey General Assembly New Jersey State Constitution New Jersey Legislature official website Assembly Democrats official website Assembly Republicans official website New Jersey section of Project Vote Smart a national database of voting records and other information about legislators
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
A dentist known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist's supporting team aids in providing oral health services; the dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, in some states, dental therapists. In China as well as France, the first people to perform dentistry were barbers, they have been categorized into 2 distinct groups: lay barbers. The first group, the Guild of Barbers, was created to distinguish more educated and qualified dental surgeons from lay barbers. Guild barbers were trained to do complex surgeries; the second group, the lay barbers, were qualified to perform regular hygienic services such as shaving and tooth extraction as well as basic surgery. However, in 1400 France made decrees prohibiting lay barbers from practicing all types of surgery. In Germany as well as France from 1530 to 1575 publications devoted to dentistry were being published.
Ambrose Pare known as the Father of Surgery, published his own work about the proper maintenance and treatment of teeth. Ambrose Pare was a French barber surgeon, he is credited with having raised the status of barber surgeons. Pierre Fauchard of France is referred to as the "father of modern dentistry" for being the first to publish a scientific textbook on the techniques and practices of dentistry. Over time, trained dentists immigrated from Europe to the Americas to practice dentistry, by 1760, America had its own native born practicing dentists. Newspapers were used at the time to promote dental services. In America from 1768–1770 the first application of dentistry to verify forensic cases was being pioneered. With the rise of dentists there was the rise of new methods to improve the quality of dentistry; these new methods included the spinning wheel to rotate a drill and chairs made for dental patients. In the 1840s the world's first dental school and national dental organization were established.
Along with the first dental school came the establishment of the Doctor of Dental Surgery degree referred to as a DDS degree. In response to the rise in new dentists as well as dentistry techniques, the first dental practice act was established to regulate dentistry. In the United States, the First Dental Practice Act required dentists to pass each specific states medical board exam in order to practice dentistry in that particular state. However, because the dental act was enforced, some dentists did not obey the act. From 1846–1855 new dental techniques were being invented such as the use of ester anesthesia for surgery, the cohesive gold foil method which enabled gold to be applied to a cavity; the American Dental Association was established in 1859 after a meeting with 26 dentists. Around 1867, the first university associated dental school was established, Harvard Dental School. Lucy Hobbs Taylor was the first woman to earn a dental degree. In the 1880s, tube toothpaste was created which replaced the original forms of powder or liquid toothpaste.
New dental boards, such as the National Association of Dental Examiners, were created to establish standards and uniformity among dentists. In 1887 the first dental laboratory was established. In 1895 the dental X-ray was discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen. In the 20th century new dental techniques and technology were invented such as: the porcelain crowns, Novocain 1905, precision cast fillings, nylon toothbrushes, water fluoridation, fluoride toothpaste, air driven dental tools, electric toothbrushes, home tooth bleaching kits were invented. Inventions such as the air driven dental tools ushered in a new high-speed dentistry. By nature of their general training, a licensed dentist can carry out most dental treatments such as restorative, prosthodontic, endodontic therapy, periodontal therapy, oral surgery, as well as performing examinations, taking radiographs and diagnosis. Additionally, dentists can further engage in oral surgery procedures such as dental implant placement. Dentists can prescribe medications such as antibiotics, pain killers, local anesthetics, sedatives/hypnotics and any other medications that serve in the treatment of the various conditions that arise in the head and neck.
All DDS and DMD degree holders are qualified to perform a number of more complex procedures such as gingival grafts, bone grafting, sinus lifts, implants, as well as a range of more invasive oral and maxillofacial surgery procedures, though many choose to pursue residencies or other post-doctoral education to augment their abilities. A few select procedures, such as the administration of General anesthesia require postdoctoral training in the US. While many oral diseases are unique and self-limiting, poor conditions in the oral cavity can lead to poor general health and vice versa. Conditions in the oral cavity may be indicative of other systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, diabetes, AIDS, various blood diseases, including malignancies and lymphoma. Several studies have suggested that dental students are at high risk of burnout. During burnout, dentists alienate from work and perform less efficiently. A systemic study iden
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro