History of the San Diego Chargers
The professional American football team now known as the Los Angeles Chargers played in San Diego, California as the San Diego Chargers from 1961 to 2017 before relocating back to Los Angeles where the team played their inaugural 1960. The Chargers franchise relocated from Los Angeles to San Diego in 1961; the Chargers' first home game in San Diego was at Balboa Stadium against the Oakland Raiders on September 17, 1961. Their last game as a San Diego-based club was played at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego on January 1, 2017 against the Kansas City Chiefs, who defeated the host Chargers, 30–13; the Chargers played in four of the first five AFL national championship games -- winning once. In the early years, the wide receiver, Lance Alworth made 543 receptions for 10,266 yards in his career of eleven AFL and NFL seasons, he made a record at ninety-six consecutive games with a reception. With players such as Alworth, Paul Lowe, Keith Lincoln and John Hadl, the Chargers reached the AFL championship game four times and won it once.
In 1959, the team began as the "Los Angeles Chargers" when they entered the American Football League, joining seven other teams: the Denver Broncos, Dallas Texans, Oakland Raiders, New York Titans, Houston Oilers, Buffalo Bills, Boston Patriots. The Chargers' first owner was Barron Hilton, the son of Conrad Hilton, founder of the Hilton Hotels corporation. Lamar Hunt, instrumental in organizing the AFL, said that he had asked Gene Mako for a suggestion for somebody to start a team in Los Angeles and he recommended Hilton. Hunt said that he visited Hilton for less than an hour and Hilton agreed to start a team. Barron Hilton held a contest to find a name for his team; the prize was a trip to Mexico. A man from Hollywood named Gerald Courtney won. Conrad Hilton said, "I liked because they were yelling "charge" and sounding the bugle at Dodger Stadium and at USC games". Hunt said he thought Hilton picked the team name from the first batch of letters as publicity for his new charge account business Carte Blanche.
The team's first general manager was a former University of Notre Dame football coach. The team's first head coach was Sid Gillman from the Los Angeles Rams, his strength lay in offense innovation and he was honoured in the Hall of Fame. Gillman signed a contract with the team for three years; when Frank Leahy resigned due to poor health, Gillman became the general manager in addition to his coaching role. The Chargers planned to play at the Rose Bowl, but instead signed a lease to play at the Los Angeles Coliseum; the Chargers were to host the first AFL national championship game at the Los Angeles Coliseum in 1961. However, as its attendance for home games was falling below 10,000 league and ABC television officials fearing that showing empty seats in the 100,000+ seat Coliseum might jeopardize the entire league persuaded the Chargers to give up the advantage and move the game to Houston. In December 1960, reports surfaced that Chargers were considering relocation offers from San Diego and Seattle.
Greg Gregston of the San Diego Union reported that the Chargers "have learned in one season that Los Angeles has been saturated beyond sensible proportions with sports." In January 1961, the team announced the move to Balboa Stadium in San Diego. Hilton was reported to have lost $900,000 in the first season. San Diego would spend $250,000 to increase stadium seating from 22,000 to 30,000; the Junior Chamber Commerce reported. Seating was increased more in May 1961 with upper deck bring the total capacity to 34,000. By Detroit native George Pernicano had become a minor shareholder in the team. In the 1961 season, their first in San Diego, the team's defense made forty-nine pass interceptions; the term, "Fearsome Foursome" described the 1961 Chargers' defensive players' lineup. The anchoring players were Ernie Ladd; the "Fearsome Foursome" phrase was used by other NFL teams. In 1961, the Chargers lost the championship to Houston by ten points to three with 29,556 patrons attending the game at Balboa Stadium.
In 1962, the team won four games and lost ten, including eight of the final nine games of the season. This was due to injuries. In the 1963 season, eight Charger players scored in the final week. Paul Lowe rushed over 183 yards, scoring 2 touchdowns on 17 carries. In the championship game, the Chargers beat Denver 58 points to 20 and became the AFL West champions; the season ended a week late due to a postponement of games after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963; the Chargers won the 1963 AFL title when they defeated the Boston Patriots 51 points to 10. Spectators numbering 30,127 attended the game at Balboa Stadium. Keith Lincoln's effort made up 349 yards of the total offense. In 1964, the Chargers played the New York Jets resulting in 17 points each. 50,222 spectators attended the game at New York. The game earned $46,828 in entrance fees. On Thanksgiving Day, Buffalo defeated the Chargers 27-24 at Balboa Stadium; the attendance was 34,865 spectators. The Chargers won their fourth AFL West title by defeating the Jets 38-3 before 25,753 spectators at Balboa Stadium.
Lance Alworth left the game with a knee injury, the fullback, Keith Lincoln was sidelined in the first quarter with a fractured rib. At the 1964 championship game in Buffalo, the Chargers were beaten 20-7; the AFL teams signed a five-year tel
In American football and Canadian football, a sack occurs when the quarterback is tackled behind the line of scrimmage before he can throw a forward pass, when the quarterback is tackled behind the line of scrimmage in the "pocket" and his intent is unclear, or when a passer runs out of bounds behind the line of scrimmage due to defensive pressure. This occurs if the opposing team's defensive line, linebackers or defensive backs are able to apply pass pressure to get past blocking players of the offensive team, or if the quarterback is unable to find a back to hand the ball off to or an available eligible receiver to catch the ball, allowing the defense a longer opportunity to tackle the quarterback. Performing a sack is advantageous for the defending team as the offense loses a down, the line of scrimmage retreats several yards. Better for the defense is a sack causing the quarterback to fumble the ball at or behind the line of scrimmage. A quarterback, pressured but avoids a sack can still be adversely affected by being forced to hurry.
In the National Football League, it is possible to record a sack for zero yards. The QB must pass the statistical line of scrimmage to avoid the sack. If a passer is sacked in his own end zone, the result is a safety and the defending team is awarded two points, unless the football is fumbled and either recovered in the end zone by the defense for a touchdown or recovered by either team outside the end zone. To be considered a sack the quarterback must intend to throw a forward pass. If the play is designed for the quarterback to rush the ball, any loss is subtracted from the quarterback's rushing total. If the quarterback's intent is not obvious, statisticians use certain criteria, such as the offensive line blocking scheme, to decide. Unique situations where a loss reduces a quarterback's rushing total are "kneel downs". A player will receive credit for half of a sack when multiple players contribute to the sacking of a quarterback if more than two players contributed. In the NFL yards lost on the play are added as negative yardage to the team's passing totals.
NCAA continues to subtract sack yardage from individual rushing totals. The term "sack" was first popularized by Hall of Fame defensive end Deacon Jones in the 1960s, who felt that a sack devastated the offense in the same way that a city was devastated when it was sacked. According to former NFL coach Marv Levy, it was Washington Redskins coach George Allen who coined the term when referring to Dallas Cowboys quarterback Craig Morton. Allen purportedly stated before a game, "Before we play those Dallas Cowboys, we’re going to take that Morton salt and pour him into a sack." Prior to "sack", the term "dump" was used, the NFL's statistical office recorded all sacks under "dumping the passer". The NFL only began to keep track of times passers lost yardage in 1961 and no credit was given to the defensive player responsible until 1982. Researcher John Turney of the Pro Football Researchers Association estimated that Jones recorded 173½ sacks in his career. Controversial NFL rule changes made for the 2018 season prohibit tacklers landing on the quarterback after making a sack, with the punishment being a roughing the passer penalty.
Of all forms of defensive pressure against the opposition's passer, sacks provide the most immediate impact by ending the offensive play. However, quarterbacks sometimes avoid a sack by throwing an incomplete pass or risking an interception. According to Football Outsiders, a quarterback hurry is the most common form of pass pressure. In the 2009 NFL season, there were 1,106 sacks and 3,268 hurries, a hurried quarterback averaged fewer yards per pass play compared to the average pass play; these records are from 1982 onwards, the year the NFL started recording sacks. NFL single-season sacks: 22.5, Michael Strahan, 2001 NFL career sacks: 200, Bruce Smith, 1985–2003 NFL single-game sacks: 7, Derrick Thomas, November 11, 1990 vs. Seattle Seahawks NFL sacks, rookie season: 14.5, Jevon Kearse, 1999 NFL seasons with 20 or more sacks: 2, J. J. Watt, 2012 & 2014 NFL most consecutive games recording a sack: 69, Tampa Bay, 1999–2003 NFL career sacks taken: 525, Brett Favre, 1991–2010 NFL single-season sacks taken: 76, David Carr, 2002 NFL game sacks taken: 12, Warren Moon, September 29, 1985 and Donovan McNabb, September 30, 2007 NFL Super Bowl most sacks in a single game, 12 Carolina vs. Denver, 50 NFL Super Bowl most sacks by a player in a single game, 3Reggie White – Green Bay vs.
New England, XXXI Darnell Dockett – Arizona vs. Pittsburgh, XLIII Kony Ealy – Carolina vs. Denver, 50 Grady Jarrett – Atlanta vs. New England, LINFL Super Bowl most sacks, career 4.5, Charles Haley – 5 games San Francisco XXIII, XXIV, Dallas XXVII, XXVIII, XXX List of National Football League annual sacks leaders List of National Football League career sacks leaders The Blind Side: Evolution of a Game – non-fiction book by Michael Lewis Sack Story, an article describing the controversy over the sack record Pro-football-reference.com enumeration of career sack leaders
The Cincinnati Bengals are a professional American football franchise based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Bengals compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference North division, their home stadium is Paul Brown Stadium in downtown Cincinnati. Their divisional opponents are the Pittsburgh Steelers, Cleveland Browns, the Baltimore Ravens; the Bengals were founded in 1966 as a member of the American Football League by former Cleveland Browns head coach Paul Brown. Brown was the Bengals' head coach from their inception to 1975. After being dismissed as the Browns' head coach by Art Modell in January 1963, Brown had shown interest in establishing another NFL franchise in Ohio and looked at both Cincinnati and Columbus, he chose the former when a deal between the city, Hamilton County, Major League Baseball's Cincinnati Reds was struck that resulted in an agreement to build a multipurpose stadium which could host both baseball and football games. Due to the impending merger of the AFL and the NFL, scheduled to take full effect in the 1970 season, Brown agreed to join the AFL as its tenth and final franchise.
The Bengals, like the other former AFL teams, were assigned to the AFC following the merger. Cincinnati was selected because, like their neighbors the Reds, they could draw from several large neighboring cities that are all no more than 110 miles away from downtown Cincinnati; the Bengals won the AFC championship in 1981 and 1988, but lost Super Bowls XVI and XXIII to the San Francisco 49ers. After Paul Brown's death in 1991, controlling interest in the team was inherited by his son, Mike Brown. In 2011, Brown purchased shares of the team owned by the estate of co-founder Austin Knowlton and is now the majority owner of the Bengals franchise; the 1990s and the 2000s were a period of great struggle. Following the 1990 season, the team went 14 years without posting a winning record nor making the playoffs; the Bengals had several head coaches and several of their top draft picks did not pan out. Mike Brown, the team's de facto general manager, was rated as among the worst team owners in American professional sports.
Since the mid-2000s, the team's fortunes have improved. Two years after becoming head coach, Marvin Lewis guided the Bengals to their first winning season and first division title in over a decade. After the acquisition of Andy Dalton as quarterback in 2011, the Bengals had made the playoffs each season until 2016, ranking among NFL teams in win totals; the Bengals drafts are highly touted, leading to a consistency that had long escaped the franchise. However, the team has remained unable to win in the postseason and have not won a playoff game since 1990, the longest such drought in the NFL; the Bengals are one of the 12 NFL teams to not have won a Super Bowl as of the 2017 season. In 1967, an ownership group led by Paul Brown was granted a franchise in the American Football League. Brown named the team the Bengals in order "to give it a link with past professional football in Cincinnati". Another Cincinnati Bengals team had existed in the city and played in three previous American Football Leagues from 1937 to 1942.
The city's world-renowned zoo was home to a rare white Bengal tiger. However as an insult to Art Modell, or as a homage to his own start as a head coach to the Massillon Tigers, Brown chose the exact shade of orange used by his former team, he added black as the secondary color. Brown chose a simple logo: the word "BENGALS" in black lettering. One of the potential helmet designs Brown rejected was a striped motif, similar to the helmets adopted by the team in 1981 and, still in use to this day. In 1966, the American Football League agreed to a merger with its older and more established rival, the National Football League. Among the terms of the merger was that the AFL was permitted to add one additional franchise. One of the reasons the NFL agreed to this was that they wanted an number of clubs in the merged league, so a team needed to be added that brought the combined total number clubs in the merged league to twenty-six teams; the NFL was content for that team to be in the American Football League because it meant that the existing nine AFL clubs were the ones that had to provide players in the ensuing expansion draft and the NFL owners preferred for the ensuing dilution of talent to occur in what they had always considered to be an inferior league.
For the AFL, a key motive behind their agreement to accept a new team was that the guarantee of an eventual place in the NFL meant the league could charge a steep expansion fee of $10 million–400 times the $25,000 the original eight owners paid when they founded the league in 1960. The cash from the new team provided the American Football League with the funds needed to pay the indemnities required to be paid by the AFL to the NFL, as stipulated by the merger agreement. Prior to the merger being announced, Brown had not considered joining the American Football League, was not a supporter of what he regarded to be an inferior competition, once famously stating that "I didn't pay ten million dollars to be in the AFL." However, with the announcement of the merger, Brown realized that the AFL expansion franchise would be his only realistic path back into the NFL in the short to medium term. He acquiesc
1996 NFL season
The 1996 NFL season was the 77th regular season of the National Football League and the season was marked by notable controversies from beginning to end. The season ended with Super Bowl XXXI when the Green Bay Packers defeated the New England Patriots 35–21 at the Louisiana Superdome; when Art Modell, owner of the Cleveland Browns, wanted to relocate his team to Baltimore in a surprise move first reported on by the Boston Globe on November 4, 1995, the ensuing press furor and public relations mess forced the league to intercede and make an agreement with him and the Cities of Cleveland and Baltimore before the new season had begun. In the belated agreement, the name and history of the Browns were to remain in Cleveland, while the relocated club would technically be a new league franchise. Either way, the beloved Cleveland Browns would continue, while the Baltimore Ravens began their new history when the 1996 season started; the season was the final season for the Houston Oilers before leaving Texas for Memphis for the following season, to Nashville in 1998.
This move left Houston with no professional football team until the 2002 debut of the Texans. One of the most memorable aspects of the 1996 season was that the Carolina Panthers and Jacksonville Jaguars, each in just their second year of existence, both advanced to their respective conference championship games. 1996 marked the third year the NFL salary cap was in force and marked the end of multiple “dynasties” in the NFL as it was the first season since 1991 in which neither the Dallas Cowboys nor the San Francisco 49ers played in the NFC Championship Game. It was the first NFC Championship Game that did not feature either the Cowboys, 49ers, Washington Redskins, or Los Angeles Rams; the season ended with Super Bowl XXXI when the Green Bay Packers defeated the New England Patriots in a game decided when a third-quarter kick-off was returned 99 yards for a touchdown by Packers’ kick returner, Desmond Howard. For that, his excellent performance on kick-off and punt returns throughout the game, Howard was named Super Bowl MVP, the first and only time that a special teams player has earned that award.
All, nearly overshadowed by the press feeding frenzy reporting and commenting on the rumor, between the AFC championship game up to and into the broadcast coverage of Super Bowl XXXI itself, that iconic coach Bill Parcells was planning on breaking his contract with the New England Patriots because he did not get along well with owner Robert Kraft, who had helped turn around New England's image after years of ownership, either dismal or absent. In the event, Parcells did not return with the players, telephone records showed he was talking to the Jets in the days before and the day of the Super Bowl itself; this documentary evidence led to the league awarding the Patriots multiple draft picks in compensation for the "tampering" by the Jets, but a continuation of one-upmanship that has gone on for years between the heated rivals. New Orleans Saints – New numbers on uniforms. On home uniform old gold numbers with white trim, road uniforms old gold numbers with black trim, similar to team's original jerseys worn from 1967–69, but with a lighter shade of gold.
30th anniversary patch worn on the left chest. Philadelphia Eagles – New logo. New uniforms, with “midnight green” color. Dallas Cowboys – New color road uniforms. Baltimore Ravens – New team in new city; the Cleveland Browns. Purple jerseys with white numbers trimmed in gold at home. Black pants worn with both jerseys. San Francisco 49ers – New uniforms. Darker red, white pants, updated team logo. 50th season logo on uniform. Minnesota Vikings – Changes in uniforms. Vikings logo on sleeve ends of home uniforms. Added yellow trim to numbers. Arizona Cardinals – New road jerseys. Black trim removed from numbers, logo removed from sleeves, Arizona state flag moved above sleeve stripes. Carolina Panthers opened Ericsson Stadium. Baltimore Ravens moved into Memorial Stadium. Arizona Cardinals – Vince Tobin new head coach. Replaced Buddy Ryan, fired after the 1995 season. Tampa Bay Buccaneers – Tony Dungy new head coach. Replaced Sam Wyche, fired after the 1995 season. Miami Dolphins – Jimmy Johnson new head coach.
Replaced Don Shula who retired after the 1995 season. Indianapolis Colts – Lindy Infante new head coach. Replaced Ted Marchibroda, offered a job from the Baltimore Ravens. Cincinnati Bengals – Dave Shula was fired by mid season and was replaced by interim head coach Bruce Coslet. New Orleans Saints – Jim Mora resigned at mid season and was replaced by interim head coach Rick Venturi. Baltimore Ravens – Ted Marchibroda new head coach. Replaced Bill Belichick, fired in the 1995 season in the Cleveland Browns era. In order to reduce injuries, hits with the helmet or to the head will be personal fouls and subject to fines. Gordon McCarter retired during the 1996 off-season, he joined the NFL in 1967, serving as a line judge and back judge, before being promoted to referee in 1974. Dale Hamer, who had to sit out the 1995 season to recover from open heart surgery, took over McCarter's officiating crew. Jacksonville was the second AFC Wild Card ahead of Indianapolis and Kansas City based on better conference record.
Indianapolis was the third AFC Wild Card based on head-to-head victory over Kansas City. Cincinnati finished ahead of Houston in the AFC Central based on better net division points. Oakland finished ahead of Seattle in the AFC West based on better
A linebacker is a playing position in American football and Canadian football. Linebackers are members of the defensive team, line up three to five yards behind the line of scrimmage, behind the defensive linemen, therefore "back up the line". Linebackers align themselves before the ball is snapped by standing upright in a "two-point stance"; the goal of the linebacker is to provide either extra run protection or extra pass protection based on the particular defensive play being executed. Another key play of the linebacker position is blitzing. A blitz occurs; when a blitz is called by the defense, it is to sack or hurry the opposing offense's quarterback. Linebackers are regarded as the most important position in defense, due to their versatility in providing hard hits on running plays or an additional layer of pass protection, when required. Similar to the "free safety" position, linebackers are required to use their judgment on every snap, to determine their role during that particular play.
Before the advent of the two-platoon system with separate units for offense and defense, the player, the team's center on offense was though not always, the team's linebacker on defense. Hence today one sees four defensive linemen to the offense's five or more. Most sources claim coach Fielding H. Yost and center Germany Schulz of the University of Michigan invented the position. Schulz was Yost's first linebacker in 1904. Yost came to see the wisdom in Schulz's innovation. William Dunn of Penn St. was another Western linebacker soon after Schulz. However, there are various historical claims tied to the linebacker position, including some before 1904. For example, Percy Given of Georgetown is another center with a claim to the title "first linebacker," standing up behind the line well before Schulz in a game against Navy in 1902. Despite Given, most sources have the first linebacker in the South as Frank Juhan of Sewanee. In the East, Ernest Cozens of Penn was "one of the first of the roving centers," another, archaic term for the position coined by Hank Ketcham of Yale.
Walter E. Bachman of Lafayette was said to be "the developer of the "roving center" concept". Edgar Garbisch of Army was credited with developing the "roving center method" of playing defensive football in 1921. In professional football, Cal Hubbard is credited with pioneering the linebacker position, he starred as a tackle and end, playing off the line in a style similar to that of a modern linebacker. The middle or inside linebacker, sometimes called the "Mike" or "Mack", is referred to as the "quarterback of the defense", it is the middle linebacker who receives the defensive play calls from the sideline and relays that play to the rest of the team, in the NFL he is the defensive player with the electronic sideline communicator. A jack-of-all-trades, the middle linebacker can be asked to blitz, spy the quarterback, or have a deep middle-of-the-field responsibility in the Tampa 2 defense. In standard defenses, middle linebackers lead the team in tackles; the terms middle and inside linebacker are used interchangeably.
In a 3–4 defense, the larger, more run-stopping-oriented linebacker is still called "Mike", while the smaller, more pass protection/route coverage-oriented player is called "Will". "Mikes" line up towards the strong side or on the side the offense is more to run on while "Wills" may line up on the other side or a little farther back between the defensive line and the secondary. The outside linebacker, sometimes called the "Buck and Rebel" is responsible for outside containment; this includes the weakside designations below. They are responsible for blitzing the quarterback. Only is the OLB responsible for outside containment and blitzing the Quarter Back they have pass coverage in the flats sometimes call A drop. Outside linebackers pass; the "flats" are the edge of the field closest to the sideline, from the line of scrimmage down about ten yards. The strongside linebacker is nicknamed the "Sam" for purposes of calling a blitz. Since the strong side of the offensive team, is the side on which the tight end lines up, or whichever side contains the most personnel, the strongside linebacker lines up across from the tight end.
The strongside linebacker will be called upon to tackle the running back on a play because the back will be following the tight end's block. He is most the strongest linebacker; the linebacker should have strong safety abilities in pass situation to cover the tight end in man on man situations. He should have considerable quickness to read and get into coverage in zone situations; the strongside linebacker is commonly known as the left outside linebacker. The weakside linebacker, or the "Will" in 4–3 Defense, sometimes called the backside linebacker, or "Buck", as well as other names like Jack or Bandit, must be the fastest of the three, because he
The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference West division. Founded on January 30, 1960, they played their first regular season game on September 11, 1960, as a charter member of the American Football League which merged with the NFL in 1970; the Raiders' off-field fortunes have varied over the years. The team's first three years of operation were marred by poor on-field performance, financial difficulties, spotty attendance. In 1963, the Raiders' fortunes improved with the introduction of head coach Al Davis. In 1967, after several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time; the team would go on to win its first AFL Championship that year. Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles, four AFC Championships, one AFL Championship, three Super Bowl Championships. At the end of the NFL's 2018 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime regular season record of 466 wins, 423 losses, 11 ties.
The team departed Oakland to play in Los Angeles from the 1982 season until the 1994 season before returning to Oakland at the start of the 1995 season. Al Davis owned the team from 1972 until his death in 2011. Control of the franchise was given to Al's son Mark Davis. On March 27, 2017, NFL team owners voted nearly unanimously to approve the Raiders' application to relocate from Oakland to Las Vegas, Nevada, in a 31–1 vote at the annual league meetings in Phoenix, Arizona; the Raiders plan to remain in the Bay Area through 2019, relocate to Las Vegas in 2020, pending the completion of the team's planned new stadium. The Raiders are known for distinctive team culture; the Raiders have 14 former members. They have played at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco, Candlestick Park in San Francisco, Frank Youell Field in Oakland, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum in Oakland; the Oakland Raiders were going to be called the "Oakland Señors" after a name-the-team contest had that name finish first, but after being the target of local jokes, the name was changed to the Raiders before the 1960 season began.
Having enjoyed a successful collegiate coaching career at Navy during the 1950s, San Francisco native Eddie Erdelatz was hired as the Raiders' first head coach. On February 9, 1960, after rejecting offers from the NFL's Washington Redskins and the AFL's Los Angeles Chargers, Erdelatz accepted the Raiders' head coaching position. In January 1960, the Raiders were established in Oakland, because of NFL interference with the original eighth franchise owner, were the last team of eight in the new American Football League to select players, thus relegated to the remaining talent available; the 1960 Raiders 42-man roster included 28 rookies and only 14 veterans. Among the Raiders rookies were future Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee center Jim Otto, a future Raiders head coach, quarterback Tom Flores. In their debut year under Erdelatz the Raiders finished with a 6–8 record. Ownership conflicts prevented the team from signing. On September 18, 1961, Erdelatz was dismissed after the Raiders were outscored 77–46 in the first two games of the season.
On September 24, 1961, after the dismissal of Erdelatz, management named Los Angeles native and offensive line coach Marty Feldman as the Raiders head coach. The team finished the 1961 season with a 2–12 record. Feldman began the 1962 season as Raiders head coach but was fired on October 16, 1962 after an 0–5 start. From October 16 through December, the Raiders were coached by Oklahoma native and former assistant coach Red Conkright. Under Conkright, the Raiders went 1–8, finishing the season with 1–13 record. Following the 1962 season the Raiders appointed Conkright to an interim mentor position as they looked for a new head coach. After the 1962 season, Raiders managing general partner F. Wayne Valley hired Al Davis as Raiders head coach and general manager. At 33, he was the youngest person in professional football history to hold the positions. Davis began to implement what he termed the "vertical game", an aggressive offensive strategy inspired by the offense developed by Chargers head coach Sid Gillman.
Under Davis the Raiders improved to 10–4 and he was named the AFL's Coach of the Year in 1963. Though the team slipped to 5–7–2 in 1964, they rebounded to an 8–5–1 record in 1965; the famous silver and black Raider uniform debuted at the regular season opening game on September 8, 1963. Prior to this, the team wore a combination of black and white with gold trim on the pants and oversized numerals. In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner, promoting assistant coach John Rauch to head coach. Two months the league announced its merger with the NFL; the leagues would retain separate regular seasons until 1970. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part-owner of the team, he purchased a 10% interest in the team for $18,000, became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations. Under Rauch, the Raiders matched their 1965 season's 8–5–1 record in 1966 but missed the pl
In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the opposing team, who thereby gains possession of the ball for their team. It is seen in football, including American and Canadian football, as well as association football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football and Gaelic football, as well as any sport by which a loose object is passed between players toward a goal. In basketball, a pick is called a steal. In American or Canadian football, an interception occurs when a forward pass is caught by a player of the opposing defensive team; this leads to an immediate change of possession during the play: the defender who caught the ball attempts to move the ball as far towards the opposing end zone as possible. Following the stoppage of play, if the interceptor retained possession of the ball, his team takes over possession at the spot where he was downed.
Because possession is a critical component in these sports, a successful interception can be a dramatic reversal of the teams' fortunes. Interceptions are predominantly made by the secondary or the linebackers, who are closest to the quarterback's intended targets, the wide receivers, running backs, tight ends. Less a defensive lineman may get an interception from a tipped ball, a near sack, a shovel pass, or a screen pass, but are more to force a fumble than get an interception; as soon as a pass is intercepted, everyone on the defense acts as blockers, helping the person with the interception get as much yardage as possible and a touchdown. If the interception occurs on an extra point attempt, rather than an ordinary play from scrimmage, a potential return of the interception to the other end zone is sometimes called a "pick two" as it would be a defensive two point conversion rather than a touchdown. For example, on December 4, 2016, the Kansas City Chiefs strong safety Eric Berry scored the game winning points via a pick two in a 29–28 victory over the Atlanta Falcons.
Berry achieved an ordinary pick six earlier in the same game. If the intercepting team can run out the clock, the intercepting player may down the ball and not attempt to gain any yardage; this eliminates the chance of a fumble. There are player safety implications: when the ball is turned over, the play is now and unexpectedly moving in the opposite direction. All of the players on offense are susceptible to unexpected blocks if not attempting to stop the ball carrier. Additionally, offensive players the quarterback, are inexperienced tacklers and are at risk of injuring themselves while tackling the ball carrier. Only the interception of a forward pass is recorded statistically as an interception, for both the passer and the intercepting player. If a receiver fails to catch the ball and bobbles or tips it before it is intercepted if his action was responsible for the interception, it is always recorded as an interception thrown by the passer; the interception of a lateral pass is recorded as a fumble by the passer.
James Johnson was named the Outstanding Player of the 95th Grey Cup on November 25, 2007, after intercepting a record three passes, including one for a 30-yard touchdown. His defensive efforts helped lead the Saskatchewan Roughriders to a 23–19 victory over their CFL Prairie rival Winnipeg Blue Bombers; this was the first time since 1994 that a defensive player was awarded the Grey Cup's top individual title. His most notable interception of the game was when he intercepted Ryan Dinwiddie's final pass and secured Saskatchewan's victory. Lester Hayes of the Oakland Raiders was one of the National Football League's leaders at interceptions in the late 1970s and early 1980s, he was known for covering his chest and forearms with a copious amount of the adhesive Stickum to help him hold on to the ball. After the NFL outlawed the use of such foreign substances in 1981, Hayes' success rate at interceptions dropped below average though that could be due to his reputation as a "shutdown cornerback", which discouraged opposing teams from throwing to his side of the field.
He continued to use the substance, which he called "pick juice", by having it applied in smaller amounts to his wrists. Paul Krause holds the record for most career interceptions, with 81, is tied for third place for most interceptions by an NFL rookie in his first season, with 12, he played his first three years in the NFL from 1964 to 1967 with the Washington Redskins but was traded to the Minnesota Vikings, where he spent most of his career. Krause appeared in four Super Bowls with the Vikings, he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1998. Rod Woodson played 16 seasons with Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Oakland, holds the NFL record for most interception returns for touchdown in an NFL career with 12, he holds the NFL record for most total defensive TD returns in a career with 13. Woodson, third on the NFL all-time career interception list with 71, was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 2009. Former New Orleans Saints safety Darren Sharper, most notable for playing 8 seasons with the Green Bay Packers and the Minnesota Vikings from 2005 to 2008, has a career total of 63 interceptions, has returned 11 of those for touchdowns.
Sharper holds th