Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare
Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare known as Silken Thomas, was a leading figure in 16th-century Irish history. Thomas Fitzgerald was born in London in 1513, the son of Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare and his first wife Elizabeth Zouche, a distant cousin of Henry VII. In February 1534, his father was summoned to London and appointed the 21-year-old Thomas deputy governor of Ireland in his absence. In June 1534 Thomas heard rumours that his father had been executed in the Tower of London and that the English government intended the same fate for himself and his uncles, he summoned the Council to St. Mary's Abbey, on 11 June, accompanied by 140 armoured gallowglasses with silk fringes on their helmets, rode to the abbey and publicly renounced his allegiance to his cousin King Henry VIII, Lord of Ireland; the Chancellor, Archbishop John Alen, attempted to persuade him not to commit himself to such a rash proceeding. Roused by this he rushed from the hall, followed by his adherents; the council sent an order for his immediate arrest to the Lord Mayor of Dublin, however, had not sufficient force at his disposal.
The Earl of Desmond and many of his father's oldest and best friends reasoned with him. As Vice-Deputy, Kildare had under his control most of the Pale fortresses, large government stores. Dublin Castle alone held out for the King of England. Lord Offaly called the lords of the Pale to the siege of the Castle. Goods and chattels belonging to the King's subjects he declared forfeited, he announced his intention of exiling or putting to death all born in England, he sent messengers to his cousin and friend Lord Butler, son of the Earl of Ormond, offering to divide the kingdom with him if he would join his cause, but Butler refused. Several children of the citizens of Dublin in different parts of the Pale were seized as hostages for the good behavior of the city. In July, he attacked Dublin Castle, he was, rightly or wrongly, judged to be responsible for the execution at Clontarf of Archbishop Alen, who had tried to mediate. According to a long-established tradition, the killers, John Teeling and Nicholas Wafer, misunderstood his order, given in Irish, to "take this fellow away" as an order to kill Alen.
By this time his father had taken ill and died in London, he had technically succeeded as 10th earl, but the Crown never confirmed his title. He retreated to his stronghold at Maynooth Castle, but in March 1535 this was taken by an English force under Sir William Skeffington by bribing a guard, while Thomas was absent gathering reinforcements to relieve it; the surrendered garrison was put to death, which became known as the "Maynooth Pardon". Thomas had wrongly assumed that his cause would attract overwhelming support, in particular from Catholics opposed to Henry VIII's English Reformation, but Henry's new policy outlawed Lutheranism, so Henry was not excommunicated until 1538. In July, Lord Leonard Grey arrived from England as Lord Deputy of Ireland, he was still a formidable opponent, Grey, wishing to avoid a prolonged conflict, guaranteed his personal safety and persuaded him to submit unconditionally to the King's mercy. In October 1535 he was sent as a prisoner to the Tower. Despite Grey's guarantee, he was executed with his five uncles at Tyburn on 3 February 1537.
According to G. G. Nichols, the five uncles were "...draune from the Tower in to Tyborne, there alle hongyd and hedded and quartered, save the Lord Thomas for he was but hongyd and hedded and his body buried at the Crost Freeres in the qwere..."The Attainder of the Earl of Kildare Act 1536 was passed to permit his execution and the confiscation of his property. The 1536 Act remained law until it was repealed by the Statute Law Revision Act 2005. Silken Thomas's revolt caused Henry to pay more attention to Irish matters, was a factor in the creation of the Kingdom of Ireland in 1542. In particular the powers of the lords deputy were curbed, policies such as surrender and regrant were introduced. To provide for greater security the Royal Irish Army was established as a standing army. Attainder of the Earl of Kildare Act 1536 List of Irish rebellions History of County Kildare The hum in Ireland during the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI. from History of the Catholic Church from the Renaissance to the French Revolution by Rev. James MacCaffrey, S.
BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The corporation has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a royal charter since 1927, it produced television programmes from its own studios since 1932, although the start of its regular service of television broadcasts is dated to 2 November 1936. The BBC's domestic television channels have no commercial advertising and collectively they account for more than 30% of all UK viewing; the services are funded by a television licence. As a result of the 2016 Licence Fee settlement, the BBC Television division was split, with in-house television production being separated into a new division called BBC Studios and the remaining parts of television being renamed as BBC Content; the BBC operates several television networks, television stations, related programming services in the United Kingdom. As well as being a broadcaster, the corporation produces a large number of its own programmes in-house and thereby ranks as one of the world's largest television production companies.
John Logie Baird set up the Baird Television Development Company in 1926. Baird used his electromechanical system with a vertically-scanned image of 30 lines, just enough resolution for a close-up of one person, a bandwidth low enough to use existing radio transmitters; the simultaneous transmission of sound and pictures was achieved on 30 March 1930, by using the BBC's new twin transmitter at Brookmans Park. By late 1930, thirty minutes of morning programmes were broadcast from Monday to Friday, thirty minutes at midnight on Tuesdays and Fridays after BBC radio went off the air. Baird's broadcasts via the BBC continued until June 1932; the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932. The studio moved to larger quarters in 16 Portland Place, London, in February 1934, continued broadcasting the 30-line images, carried by telephone line to the medium wave transmitter at Brookmans Park, until 11 September 1935, by which time advances in all-electronic television systems made the electromechanical broadcasts obsolete.
After a series of test transmissions and special broadcasts that began in August 1936, the BBC Television Service launched on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of Alexandra Palace in London. "Ally Pally" housed two studios, various scenery stores, make-up areas, dressing rooms and the transmitter itself, which broadcast on the VHF band. BBC television used two systems on alternate weeks: the 240-line Baird intermediate film system and the 405-line Marconi-EMI system; the use of both formats made the BBC's service the world's first regular high-definition television service. The first programme broadcast – and thus the first on a dedicated TV channel – was "Opening of the BBC Television Service" at 15:00; the first major outside broadcast was the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937. The two systems were to run on a trial basis for six months. However, the Baird system, which used a mechanical camera for filmed programming and Farnsworth image dissector cameras for live programming, proved too cumbersome and visually inferior, ended with closedown on Saturday 13 February 1937.
The station's range was a 40 kilometres radius of the Alexandra Palace transmitter—in practice, transmissions could be picked up a good deal further away, on one occasion in 1938 were picked up by engineers at RCA in New York, who were experimenting with a British television set. The service was reaching an estimated 25,000–40,000 homes before the outbreak of World War II which caused the service to be suspended in September 1939. On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning. Many of the television service's technical staff and engineers would be needed for the war effort, in particular on the radar programme; the last programme transmitted was a Mickey Mouse cartoon, Mickey's Gala Premier, followed by test transmissions. According to figures from Britain's Radio Manufacturers Association, 18,999 television sets had been manufactured from 1936 to September 1939, when production was halted by the war. BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00.
Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying,'Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?'. The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later. Alexandra Palace was the home base of the channel until the early 1950s when the majority of production moved into the newly acquired Lime Grove Studios. Postwar broadcast coverage was extended to Birmingham in 1949 with the opening of the Sutton Coldfield transmitting station, by the mid-1950s most of the country was covered, transmitting a 405-line interlaced image on VHF; when the ITV was launched in 1955, the BBC Television Service showed popular programming, including comedies, documentaries, game shows, soap operas, covering a wide range
Cork is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,657 in 2016. The city is on the River Lee which splits into two channels at the western end and divides the city centre into islands, they reconverge at the eastern end where the quays and docks along the river banks lead outwards towards Lough Mahon and Cork Harbour, one of the largest natural harbours in the world. A monastic settlement, Cork was expanded by Viking invaders around 915; the city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185. Cork city was once walled, the remnants of the old medieval town centre can be found around South and North Main streets; the third largest city by population on the island of Ireland, the city's cognomen of "the rebel city" originates in its support for the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. Corkonians refer to the city as "the real capital", a reference to its opposition to the Anglo-Irish Treaty in the Irish Civil War. Cork was a monastic settlement, reputedly founded by Saint Finbarr in the 6th century.
Cork achieved an urban character at some point between 915 and 922 when Norseman settlers founded a trading port. It has been proposed that, like Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global Scandinavian trade network; the ecclesiastical settlement continued alongside the Viking longphort, with the two developing a type of symbiotic relationship. The city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185; the city was once walled, some wall sections and gates remain today. For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of Old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin. Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens to keep them from attacking the city; the present extent of the city has exceeded the medieval boundaries of the Barony of Cork City. Together, these baronies are located between the Barony of Barrymore to the east, Muskerry East to the west and Kerrycurrihy to the south.
The city's municipal government was dominated by about 12–15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt and wine. The medieval population of Cork was about 2,100 people, it suffered a severe blow in 1349 when half the townspeople died of plague when the Black Death arrived in the town. In 1491, Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England; the mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. The title of Mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, the title was changed to Lord Mayor in 1900 following the knighthood of the incumbent Mayor by Queen Victoria on her Royal visit to the city. Since the nineteenth century, Cork had been a Irish nationalist city, with widespread support for Irish Home Rule and the Irish Parliamentary Party, but from 1910 stood behind William O'Brien's dissident All-for-Ireland Party.
O'Brien published the Cork Free Press. In the War of Independence, the centre of Cork was burnt down by the British Black and Tans, in an event known as the "Burning of Cork". and saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces. During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea; the climate of Cork, like the rest of Ireland, is mild oceanic and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. Cork lies in plant Hardiness zone 9b. Met Éireann maintains a climatological weather station at Cork Airport, a few kilometres south of the city; the airport is at an altitude of 151 metres and temperatures can differ by a few degrees between the airport and the city itself. There are smaller synoptic weather stations at UCC and Clover Hill. Due to its position along the west coast, Cork city is subject to occasional flooding. Temperatures below 0 °C or above 25 °C are rare.
Cork Airport records an average of 1,227.9 millimetres of precipitation annually, most of, rain. The airport records sleet a year; the low altitude of the city, moderating influences of the harbour, mean that lying snow rarely occurs in the city itself. There are on average 204 "rainy" days a year, of which there are 73 days with "heavy rain". Cork is a foggy city, with an average of 97 days of fog a year, most common during mornings and during winter. Despite this, Cork is one of Ireland's sunniest cities, with an average of 3.9 hours of sunshine every day and only having 67 days where there is no "recordable sunshine" during and around winter. The Cork School of Music and the Crawford College of Art and Design provide a throughput of new blood, as do the active theatre components of several courses at University College Cork. Important elements in the cultural life of the city are: Corcadorca Theatre Company, of which Cillian Murphy was a troupe member prior to Hollywood fame.
More Irish than the Irish themselves
"More Irish than the Irish themselves" is a phrase used in Irish historiography to describe a phenomenon of cultural assimilation in late medieval Norman Ireland. The descendants of Hiberno-Norman lords who had settled in Ireland in the 12th century had been Gaelicised by the end of the Middle Ages, forming septs and clans after the indigenous Gaelic pattern, became known as the Gall or "Old English"; the Statutes of Kilkenny, 1366, complained that "... now many English of the said land, forsaking the English language, mode of riding and usages, live and govern themselves according to the manners and language of the Irish enemies". The phrase was used by historian John Lynce in his work Cambrensis Eversus, he was influenced by the writings of the historian Geoffrey Keating, whose History of Ireland he translated into Latin. Cambrensis Eversus was translated from the Latin, with notes and observations, by Theophilus O'Flanagan, Dublin, 1795. John Henry Wilson, in his Sketch of Jonathan Swift, wrote that Swift used the phrase in a discussion with his landlord.
The phrase remained in use by romantic nineteenth-century nationalists to promote the common Irishness of'Planter and Gael'. An example is found in the 1844 poem by the Young Irelander, Thomas Davis called'The Geraldines', which concerns the FitzGerald dynasty: The phrase remains in common use, both colloquially and in the media, in reference to recent immigration and assimilation in Ireland, to some degree about some of the Irish diaspora or in conversation discussing the relationship between the cultural heritage of the Irish diaspora and the Irish in Ireland. While still echoing its original meaning, contemporary usage of the phrase takes a more open interpretation of assimilation or, in the case of the diaspora, the maintenance of Irish heritage. Debates of the Oireachtas demonstrate the range of contemporary applications of the phrase. Either when discussing the diaspora: I do not think this country will afford sufficient allurements to the citizens of other States... The children of Irish parents born abroad are sometimes more Irish than the Irish themselves, they would come with added experience and knowledge to our country....
Or, more light-heartedly, on assimilation:... in olden times the attractiveness of Irish life made the Norman invaders...'Hiberniores Hibernicis ipsis','more Irish than the Irish themselves', so the charms of Galway, experienced through 25 happy years, have made a woman, born in one of the severed counties, feel entitled to describe herself as'Galviensior Galviensibus ipsis' –'more Galwegian than the Galwegians themselves'. However, S. J. Connolly has written, "The descendents of the English conquerors, it was confidently proclaimed, had become'more Irish than the Irish themselves'. Today it is recognized that the contemporary phrase dates only from the late eighteenth century, the Latin form sometimes used to give it an authentic medieval ring from still." More German than the Germans Plastic Paddy West Brit – a somewhat opposite expression
Belfast is a city in the United Kingdom, the capital city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland. It is second-largest on the island of Ireland, it had a population of 333,871 as of 2015. By the early 19th century, Belfast became a major port, it played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, becoming the biggest linen-producer in the world, earning it the nickname "Linenopolis". By the time it was granted city status in 1888, it was a major centre of Irish linen production, tobacco-processing and rope-making. Shipbuilding was a key industry. Belfast as of 2019 has a major aerospace and missiles industry. Industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Ireland's biggest city and it became the capital of Northern Ireland following the Partition of Ireland in 1922, its status as a global industrial centre ended in the decades after the Second World War of 1939–1945. Belfast suffered in the Troubles: in the 1970s and 1980s it was one of the world's most dangerous cities.
However, a survey conducted by a finance company and published in 2016 rated the city as one of the safest within the United Kingdom. Throughout the 21st century, the city has seen a sustained period of calm, free from the intense political violence of former years, has benefitted from substantial economic and commercial growth. Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as for the arts, higher education and law, is the economic engine of Northern Ireland. Belfast is still a major port, with commercial and industrial docks, including the Harland and Wolff shipyard, dominating the Belfast Lough shoreline, it is served by two airports: George Best Belfast City Airport and Belfast International Airport 15 miles west of the city. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Belfast as a Gamma global city in 2018; the name Belfast is derived from the Irish Béal Feirsde, spelt Béal Feirste. The word béal means "mouth" or "rivermouth" while feirsde/feirste is the genitive singular of fearsaid and refers to a sandbar or tidal ford across a river's mouth.
The name would thus translate as " mouth of the sandbar" or " mouth of the ford". This sandbar was formed at the confluence of two rivers at what is now Donegall Quay: the Lagan, which flows into Belfast Lough, its tributary the Farset; this area was the hub. The Irish name Béal Feirste is shared by a townland in County Mayo, whose name has been anglicised as Belfarsad. An alternative interpretation of the name is "mouth of of the sandbar", an allusion to the River Farset, which flows into the Lagan where the sandbar was located; this interpretation was favoured by John O'Donovan. It seems clear, that the river itself was named after the tidal crossing. In Ulster-Scots, the name of the city has been variously translated as Bilfawst, Bilfaust or Baelfawst, although "Belfast" is used. Although the county borough of Belfast was created when it was granted city status by Queen Victoria in 1888, the city continues to be viewed as straddling County Antrim and County Down; the site of Belfast has been occupied since the Bronze Age.
The Giant's Ring, a 5,000-year-old henge, is located near the city, the remains of Iron Age hill forts can still be seen in the surrounding hills. Belfast remained a small settlement of little importance during the Middle Ages. John de Courcy built a castle on what is now Castle Street in the city centre in the 12th century, but this was on a lesser scale and not as strategically important as Carrickfergus Castle to the north, built by de Courcy in 1177; the O'Neill clan had a presence in the area. In the 14th century, Cloinne Aodha Buidhe, descendants of Aodh Buidhe O'Neill, built Grey Castle at Castlereagh, now in the east of the city. Conn O'Neill of the Clannaboy O'Neills owned vast lands in the area and was the last inhabitant of Grey Castle, one remaining link being the Conn's Water river flowing through east Belfast. Belfast became a substantial settlement in the 17th century after being established as a town by Sir Arthur Chichester, it was settled by Protestant English and Scottish migrants at the time of the Plantation of Ulster.
In 1791, the Society of United Irishmen was founded in Belfast, after Henry Joy McCracken and other prominent Presbyterians from the city invited Theobald Wolfe Tone and Thomas Russell to a meeting, after having read Tone's "Argument on Behalf of the Catholics of Ireland". Evidence of this period of Belfast's growth can still be seen in the oldest areas of the city, known as the Entries. Belfast blossomed as a commercial and industrial centre in the 18th and 19th centuries and became Ireland's pre-eminent industrial city. Industries thrived, including linen, rope-making, heavy engineering and shipbuilding, at the end of the 19th century, Belfast overtook Dublin as the largest city in Ireland; the Harland and Wolff shipyards became one of the largest shipbuilders in the world, employing up to 35,000 workers. In 1886 the city suffered intense riots over the issue of home rule. In 1920–22, Belfast became the capital of the new entity of Northern Ireland as the island of Ireland was partitioned.
The accompanying conflict cost up to 500 lives in Belfast, the bloodiest sectarian strife in the city until the Troubles of the late 1960s onwards. Belfas
Conn O'Neill, 1st Earl of Tyrone
Conn O'Neill, 1st Earl of Tyrone, was King of Tír Eógain, the largest and most powerful Gaelic lordship in Ireland. In 1541 O'Neill travelled to England to submit to Henry VIII as part of the surrender and regrant policy that coincided with the creation of the Kingdom of Ireland, he was made Earl of Tyrone, but his plans to pass the title and lands on to a chosen successor Matthew were thwarted by a violent succession dispute that led to another son, Séan Ó Néill, emerging triumphant. His grandson Hugh O'Neill succeeded him as Earl and became head of the O'Neill dynasty. Hugh continued his grandfather's alliance with the Crown until his eventual leadership of Tyrone's Rebellion and Flight of the Earls led to the collapse of the power of the traditional Irish lords in Ulster. Conn Bacach O'Neill was the son of Conn Mór O'Neill, King of Tír Eógain, Lady Eleanor Fitzgerald. Con Mor O'Neill was the son of King of Tír Eógain. Lady Eleanor Fitzgerald was the daughter of 7th Earl of Kildare. Con Bacach O'Neill was the first of the Ó Néills whom the English, in their attempts to subjugate Ireland in the 16th century, brought to the front as leaders of the native Irish.
His father, the King of Tír Eógan, was murdered in 1493 by his brother. Conn, became chief of the Tyrone branch of the Ó Néills c. 1519 after the death of his uncle. At that time, to assume the title The O'Neill Mór, meant one assumed control over the entire Ó Néill nation; when his kinsman Kildare became viceroy in 1524, Ó Néill consented to act as his swordbearer in ceremonies of state. With the attainder of the Earl of Kildare and following rebellion, Conn sided with his in-laws the FitzGeralds. An alliance referred to as the Geraldine League sought the restoration of the heir of the FitzGerald lordship without interference from King Henry VIII of England; that rebellion was stoked with the idea of casting off England's Protestant church in Ireland, to the point that Pope Paul III wrote to Conn calling him "King of our Realm in Ireland", encouraging him to fight King Henry in 1538. After Tír Eógain was invaded in 1541 by Sir Anthony St Leger, the lord deputy and the Geraldine League were defeated and he made his submission.
Conn delivered up his son Phelim Caoch as a hostage. He attended a parliament held at Trim, crossing to England, became a Protestant, made his submission at Greenwich to Henry VIII. Henry created him earl of Tyrone for life, presented him with money and a valuable gold chain, he was made a privy councillor in Ireland, received a grant of lands within the Pale called Balgriffin. This event created a deep impression in Ireland, where Ó Néill's submission to the English king, his acceptance of an English title, were resented by his clansmen and dependents; the rest of the earl's life was occupied by endeavours to maintain his influence, by an undying feud with his younger son Shane, arising out of his transaction with Henry VIII. For not only did the nomination of Ó Néill's reputed son Matthew as his heir with the title of baron of Dungannon by the English king conflict with the Irish custom of tanistry, which employed derbfine to define strict rules of direct relationship within male blood lines to regulate qualification for the chieftainship of the Irish clans, but Matthew, whose claim to being an actual son of Conn Ó Néill was in considerable doubt, was at best illegitimate and at worst an adoptee favoured against his own sons by Conn for his mother's sake.
Feardorcha's mother Alison was Conn's most recent mistress and her son was publicly acknowledged to have been fathered sixteen years before by her husband, a Dundalk blacksmith. Shane, Conn's eldest living legitimate son after the assassination of Phelim Caoch by an adherent of Feardorcha, was not the man to submit tamely to any invasion of his right of succession; the fierce family feud in which Feardorcha was supported by the Dublin Castle administration was only terminated when Feardorcha was murdered by agents of Shane in 1558. Conn had numerous sons, his first wife was Lady Alice Fitzgerald, daughter of Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare and Conn's first cousin. His known sons were Phelim Caoch O'Neill. "Caoch" was the nickname for someone with poor eyesight or "the blind". In early 1542'The son of O'Neill was killed with one cast of a javelin by MacDonnell Gallowglagh" according to the entry recording his death in the Annals of the Four Masters of Ireland. Just prior to his father's submission to Henry VIII.
His second wife was Sorcha O'Neill, daughter of Hugh Oge O'Neill, chief of the O'Neills of Clandeboye. Sources differ in regards to the mother of Shane O'Neill; some stating he was the son of Conn and Sorcha and some stating he was from Conn and Lady Alice Fitzgerald. Conn claimed and illegitimate son named Matthew or Ferdocha "the dark one" with Allison Kelly, the widowed wife of a blacksmith in Dundalk. Parenting aside, it was this Matthew, he became the Baron of Dungannon. This act caused great angst within the O'Neill clan and leading to civil war and the death of Matthew at the instigation of his half brother Shane O'Neill; as well an illegitimate daughter of Conn married the celebrated Sorley Boy MacDonnell, the man who took part in the death of Shane O'Neill himself. His family spread throughout
Glens of Antrim
The Glens of Antrim, known locally as The Glens, is a region of County Antrim, Northern Ireland. It comprises nine glens; the Glens are an area of outstanding natural beauty and are a major tourist attraction in north Antrim. The main towns and villages in the Glens are Ballycastle, Cushendall, Waterfoot and Glenarm; the Glens are mentioned in the song "Ireland's Call". The Lordship of the Glens, from the mid-13th century, first belonged to the Scoto-Irish Norman Bissett family. In the mid-16th century it came into the ownership of the MacDonnells of Antrim; the nine glens from northernmost to southernmost are: Glenravel is sometimes considered a tenth glen. It lies to the southwest of Glenballyeamon and Glenariff, being separated from the latter by the Glenariff forest park; the main settlements of Glenravel are Cargan and Skerry. In the Glens there is evidence of Neolithic communities. At Glencloy, Neolithic people had megalithic tombs in the uplands, while they lived in settlements near the coast at the end of the valley.
The beaches were sources of flint. At Madman's Window Neolithic chipping floors and stone axe rough outs were found along with Neolithic pottery, scrapers and leaf-shaped arrowheads. At Bay Farm in Carnlough, a Neolithic site near marshland, archaeologists found occupation debris, postholes, flint cores and Neolithic pottery. Glens of Antrim Historical Society Glens of Antrim Website Glens of Antrim Historical Society Children's short story set in the Antrim Glens Landscapes Unlocked - Aerial footage from the BBC Sky High series explaining the physical and economic geography of Northern Ireland