Television in the United States
Television is one of the major mass media of the United States. As of 2011, household ownership of television sets in the country is 96.7%, with 114,200,000 American households owning at least one television set as of August 2013. The majority of households have more than one set; the peak ownership percentage of households with at least one television set occurred during the 1996–97 season, with 98.4% ownership. As a whole, the television networks that broadcast in the United States are the largest and most distributed in the world, programs produced for U. S.-based networks are the most syndicated internationally. Due to a recent surge in the number and popularity of critically acclaimed television series during the 2000s and the 2010s to date, many critics have said that American television is undergoing a modern golden age. In the United States, television is available via broadcast – the earliest method of receiving television programming, which requires an antenna and an equipped internal or external tuner capable of picking up channels that transmit on the two principal broadcast bands high frequency and ultra high frequency, in order to receive the signal – and four conventional types of multichannel subscription television: cable, unencrypted satellite, direct-broadcast satellite television and IPTV.
There are competing video services on the World Wide Web, which have become an popular mode of television viewing since the late 2000s with younger audiences as an alternative or a supplement to the aforementioned traditional forms of viewing television content. Individual broadcast television stations in the U. S. transmit on either VHF channels 2 through 13 or UHF channels 14 through 51. During the era of analog television, broadcast stations transmitted on a single universal channel; the UHF band spanned from channels 14 to 83, though the Federal Communications Commission has twice rescinded the high-end portions of the band from television broadcasting use for emergency and other telecommunications purposes in 1983 and 2009. As in other countries, television stations require a license to broadcast and must comply with certain requirements in order to retain it. Free-to-air and subscription television networks, are not required to file for a license to operate. Over-the-air and free-to-air television do not necessitate any monthly payments, while cable, direct broadcast satellite, IPTV and virtual MVPD services require monthly payments that vary depending on the number of channels that a subscriber chooses to pay for in a particular package.
Channels are sold in groups, rather than singularly. Most conventional subscription television services offer a limited basic tier, a minimum base package that includes only broadcast stations within the television market where the service is located, public and government access cable channels. Elevated programming tiers start with an expanded basic package, offering a selection of subscription channels intended for wide distribution. A la carte subscription services in the U. S. are limited to pay television channels that are offered as add-ons to any programming package that a customer of a multichannel video programming distributor can subscribe to for an additional monthly fee. The United States has a "decentralized", market-oriented television system in regard to broadcast television; the nation has a national publi
The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins
The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins is a children's book and illustrated by Theodor Geisel under the pen name Dr. Seuss and published by Vanguard Press in 1938. Unlike the majority of Geisel's books, it is written in prose rather than metered verse. Geisel, who collected hats, got the idea for the story on a commuter train from New York to New England while he was sitting behind a businessman wearing a hat. Geisel concluded. Set in feudal times, the story begins in the Kingdom of Didd, when King Derwin is riding through a street past peasant protagonist Bartholomew Cubbins. Ordered to remove his hat, according to the laws, Bartholomew does so, but another hat mysteriously appears; the 500th hat, studded with massive gems and gilding, leaves Bartholomew's head bare. Stunned by the beauty of the hat, King Derwin grants him reprieve and trades him 500 gold coins for the 500th hat; the book received positive reviews from critics. The New York Times reviewer called the book "a lovely bit of tomfoolery which keeps up the suspense and surprise until the end."
Booklist, which had criticized Geisel's previous book, And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, for containing only enough material for one comic strip, praised The 500 Hats as "a brand-new idea, developed into a complete tale, not too long, not too short, just right. Somewhere between the Sunday supplements and the Brothers Grimm, Dr. Seuss has produced a picture book combining features of both." Alexander Laing, who had worked with Geisel on the Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern humor magazine, wrote in his review of the book in the Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, "His several other occupations, madly fascinating as they are, may have been only preludes to a discovery of his proper vocation. That he is a rare and loopy genius has been common knowledge from an early epoch of his undergrad troubles, it now becomes plain that his is the happy madness beloved by children. I do not see what is to prevent him from becoming the Grimm of our times." Not long after publication, the story was adapted for an album issued by RCA Victor.
Narrated by Paul Wing, the audio adaptation had a running time of 37 seconds. The dramatization featured sound effects on two 10" 78rpm records in a bi-fold sleeve; this recording was played in elementary school classrooms during the early 1940s. Geisel wrote the script for the 1943 Puppetoon short of the same name for Paramount Pictures, produced by George Pal, it received an Academy Award nomination for Best Short. Unlike the book's illustrations, in which Cubbins' hats were all the same one, the hats in the film were of many different kinds. Minnesota's Children's Theatre Company produced a version of The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins for the stage in 1973, says this was the first theater adaptation of a Dr. Seuss work; the characters of Bartholomew and King Derwin returned a decade in Bartholomew and the Oobleck. Morgan, Neil. Dr. Seuss Mr. Geisel: A Biography. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80736-7. RCA Victor: The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins "Hats Off to Dr. Seuss"
If I Ran the Zoo
If I Ran the Zoo is a children's book written by Dr. Seuss in 1950; the book is written in anapestic tetrameter, Seuss's usual verse type, illustrated in Seuss's pen-and-ink style. It tells the story of a child named Gerald McGrew who, when visiting a zoo, finds that the exotic animals are "not good enough", he says that if he ran the zoo, he would let all of the current animals free and find new, more bizarre and exotic ones. Throughout the book he lists these creatures, starting with a lion with ten feet and escalating to more imaginative creatures, such as the Fizza-ma-Wizza-ma-Dill, "the world's biggest bird from the island of Gwark, who eats only pine trees, spits out the bark." The illustrations grow wilder as McGrew imagines going to remote and exotic habitats and capturing each fanciful creature, bringing them all back to a zoo now filled with his wild new animals. He imagines the praise he receives from others, who are amazed at his "new Zoo, McGrew Zoo"; some of the animals featured in If I Ran the Zoo have been featured in a segment of The Hoober-Bloob Highway, a 1975 CBS TV special.
In this segment, Hoober-Bloob babies don't have to be human if they don't choose to be, so Mr. Hoober-Bloob shows them a variety of different animals; such animals include: Obsks, a flock of Wild Bippo-No-Bungus, a Tizzle-Topped Tufted Mazurka, a Big-Bug-Who-Is-Very-Surprising, Chuggs, a Deer with Horns-That-Are-Just-A-Bit-Queer, a New Sort-Of-A-Hen, an Elephant-Cat, an Iota. If I Ran the Zoo is credited with the first printed modern English appearance of the word "nerd," although the word is not used in its modern context, it is the name of an otherwise un-characterized imaginary creature, appearing in the sentence "And just to show them, I'll sail to Ka-Troo/And Bring Back an It-Kutch, a Preep, a Proo,/A Nerkle, a Nerd, a Seersucker too!" Dr. Seuss's Zoo book is the main theme for one of the children's play areas at Universal Studios' Islands of Adventure; the small play area is located inside the area of the park known as Seuss Landing. An animation short directed and produced by Ray Messecar and narrated by Brett Ambler was released in 1992.
If I Ran the Circus
On Beyond Zebra!
On Beyond Zebra! is an illustrated children's book by Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss. In this boundary-pushing take on the genre of alphabet book, Seuss presents, instead of the twenty-six letters of the conventional English alphabet, twenty more letters that purportedly follow them; the young narrator, not content with the confines of the ordinary alphabet, reports on additional letters beyond Z, with a fantastic creature corresponding to each new letter. For example, the letter "FLOOB" corresponds to the Floob-Boober-Bab-Boober-Bubs, which have large buoyant heads and float serenely in the water. In order, the letters, followed by the creatures that correspond to them, are YUZZ, WUM, UM, HUMPF, FUDDLE, GLIKK, NUH, SNEE, QUAN, THNAD, SPAZZ, FLOOB, ZATZ, JOGG, FLUNN, ITCH, YEKK, VROO, HI!. The book ends with an unnamed letter, more complicated than those with names. A list of all the additional letters is shown at the end. Judith and Neil Morgan, Geisel's biographers, note that most of the letters resemble elaborate monograms, "perhaps in Old Persian".
These letters are not encoded in Unicode, but the independent ConScript Unicode Registry provides an unofficial assignment of code points in the Unicode Private Use Area for them. Some of the animals from On Beyond Zebra! appear in the 1975 CBS TV Special The Hoober-Bloob Highway. In this segment, Hoober-Bloob babies don't have to be humans if they don't choose to be, so Mr. Hoober-Bloob shows them a variety of different animals; such animals include: a Jogg-oon, a Sneedle, a Zatz-it, a Wumbus, a Yekko. Fensch, Thomas; the Man Who Was Dr. Seuss. Woodlands: New Century Books. ISBN 0-930751-11-6. MacDonald, Ruth. Dr. Seuss. Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0-8057-7524-2. Morgan, Neil. Dr. Seuss Mr. Geisel: a biography. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80736-7. Nel, Philip. Dr. Seuss: American Icon. Continuum Publishing. ISBN 0-8264-1434-6. Pease, Donald E.. Theodor Seuss Geisel. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532302-3
The King's Stilts
The King's Stilts is a children's book written and illustrated by Theodor Geisel under the pen name Dr. Seuss, published in 1939 by Random House. Unlike many Dr. Seuss books, it is narrated in prose rather than verse; the King's Stilts tells the story of King Birtram of Binn, who dedicates himself to safeguarding his kingdom, which lives in a precarious existence. It is surrounded by water, held back from flooding the land by a ring of dike trees, which are in turn subject to attack from flocks of nizzards. To protect the kingdom, a legion of Patrol Cats is organized to keep the nizzards at bay, King Birtram sees to their care personally; when not attending to his royal duties, the King enjoys himself with a rigorous cavorting on his personal red stilts, which distresses his minister Lord Droon. When Droon manipulates the King's page boy Eric to steal and hide the stilts, the King grows depressed and begins to neglect his duties; as a result, the Patrol Cats become less vigilant, soon the nizzards make headway in eating away the dike trees.
Seeing the results of his actions, Eric resolves to return the stilts to the King and succeeds in doing so despite Lord Droon's efforts to stop him. King Birtram summons the energy to mobilize the Patrol Cats to fight off the nizzards and save the kingdom. Lord Droon is imprisoned and forced to eat nizzard every day while Eric is rewarded with his own pair of red stilts, joining the King on his outings; the King's Stilts was published in 1939, as Geisel's second book for Random House and his fourth book overall. Although it was more successful than his previous book, The Seven Lady Godivas, its sales were still a disappointment: 4,648 copies were sold in 1939 and 394 in 1940. Cohen, Charles; the Seuss, the Whole Seuss and Nothing But the Seuss: A Visual Biography of Theodor Seuss Geisel. Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN 0-375-82248-8. OCLC 53075980
Milkshake! is a British preschool television programming block on Channel 5, aimed at children two to seven years old. The block debuted in 1997 and is broadcast on weekdays from 06:00 to 09:15 and weekends from 06:00 to 10:00; the block has a number of presenters, features a range of children's programming. Some of its current programmes include iconic shows such as Thomas and Friends, Peppa Pig, Ben & Holly's Little Kingdom, Fireman Sam, PAW Patrol', Wissper, Shane The Chef, Little Princess, Noddy Toyland Dectective and many more. From 1997–2002 and 2007–2016, Milkshake! aired programmes for older children. When Five Life launched in 2006, Milkshake! was shown on the channel between 09:00 and 13:00 each day. By April 2011, the channel had reduced its broadcast hours and the block was replaced by teleshopping. On 21 August 2017, Milkshake relaunched on 5Star. Milkshake! On 5Star was dropped and removed in 2018. On 6 July 2017, Channel 5 announced a rebranding of Milkshake! that launched on 24 July, including updated branding, a new studio, the launch of a YouTube channel that will feature digital content related to the block.
In November 2008, Channel 5 had been set to launch a new children's channel based on its pre-school programming block. This was a response to the BBC launching the CBBC channel and CBeebies in 2002 and ITV launching the CITV channel in 2006, but plans to launch a standalone pre-school channel were put on hold indefinitely while the broadcaster awaited a buyer. In-vision continuity presenters have been utilised by Milkshake! since the show began in 1997. The original presenters were Konnie Huq. Huq was replaced by former Nickelodeon presenter Eddie Matthews when she left the show to join the BBC as a Blue Peter presenter; the year in brackets denotes when the presenter began presenting Milkshake!. Amy Thompson David Ribi Derek Moran Jen Pringle Kemi Majeks Kiera-Nicole Brennan Nathan Connor Olivia Birchenough Sita Thomas Milkshake! Monkey Anna Williamson Andrew McEwan Beth Evans Casey-Lee Jolleys Curtis Angus Dave Payne Eddie Matthews Hannah Williams Konnie Huq Lucy Alexander Naomi Wilkinson Relief and freelance presenters have anchored Milkshake!
Continuity links, including presenter Ellie Harrison. Official website
Children's television series
Children's television series are television programs designed for and marketed to children scheduled for broadcast during the morning and afternoon when children are awake. They can sometimes run during the early evening, allowing younger children to watch them after school; the purpose of the shows is to entertain and sometimes to educate. Children's television is nearly as old as television itself; the BBC's Children's Hour, broadcast in the UK in 1946, is credited with being the first TV programme for children. Television for children tended to originate from similar programs on radio. In the US in the early 1930s, adventure serials such as Little Orphan Annie began to emerge, becoming a staple of children's afternoon radio listening. Early children's shows included Kukla and Ollie, Howdy Doody, Captain Kangaroo. Many of the earliest Westerns were targeted at a children's audience, stemming back to when children's radio serials were set in a Western setting. Shows for young children include Sesame Street, The Electric Company, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood.
In the United States, early children's television was a marketing branch of a larger corporate product, such as Disney, it contained any educational elements. This practice continued, albeit in a much toned-down manner, through the 1980s in the United States, when the Federal Communications Commission prohibited tie-in advertising on broadcast television; these regulations do not apply to cable, out of the reach of the FCC's content regulations. The effect of advertising to children remains debated and extensively studied. Non-educational children's television programs included the science fiction programmes of Irwin Allen, the fantasy series of Sid and Marty Krofft, the extensive cartoon empire of Hanna-Barbera and the numerous sitcoms that aired as part of TGIF in the 1990s, many of these programs fit a broader description of family-friendly television, targeting a broad demographic that includes adults without excluding children. Commercial free children television debuted with Sesame Street on the Public Broadcasting Service PBS in the United States November 1969, produced by what is today the Sesame Workshop.
In the United States, Saturday mornings were scheduled with cartoon from the 1960s to 1980s as viewership with that programming would pull in 20 million watchers which dropped to 2 million in 2003. In 1992, teen comedies and a "Today" show weekend edition were first to displace the cartoon blocks on NBC. Starting in September 2002, the networks turned to their affiliated cable cartoon channels or outside programmers for their blocks; the other two Big Three television networks soon did the same. Infomercials replaced the cartoon on Fox in 2008; the Saturday cartoons were less of a draw due to the various cable cartoon channels being available all week starting in the 1990s. With recordable options becoming more prevalent in the 1990s with Videocassette recorder its 21st century replacements of DVDs, DVRs and streaming services. FCC rule changes in the 1990s regarding the E/I programming and limitation on kid-focus advertising made the cartoons less profitable. Another possible contributor is the rising divorce rate and the following children's visitation pushed more "quality time" with the kids instead of TV watching.
On September 27, 2014, the last traditional Saturday network morning cartoon block, Vortexx and was replaced the following week by the syndicated One Magnificent Morning on The CW. Children's television series can target a wide variety of key demographics. Few television networks target infants and toddlers under two years of age, in part due to widespread opposition to the practice. Children's programming can be targeted toward persons 2 to 11 years of age. Preschool-oriented programming is more overtly educational. In a number of cases, such shows are produced in consultation with educators and child psychologists in an effort to teach age-appropriate lessons. Adaptations of illustrated children's book series are one subgenre of shows targeted at younger children. A format that has increased in popularity since the 1990s is the "pseudo-interactive" program, in which the action of the show stops and breaks the fourth wall to give a young viewer the opportunity to answer a question or dilemma put forth on the show, with the action continuing as if the viewer answered correctly.
Shows that target the demographic of persons 6 to 11 years old focus on entertainment and can range from comedic cartoons to action series. Most children's television series targeting this age range are animated, many specifically target boys, girls or sometimes both. Efforts to create educational programming for this demographic have had a mixed record of success.