Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery. Computer animation can be detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures; the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, flip book and film. Television and video are popular electronic animation media that were analog and now operate digitally.
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed. Animation is more pervasive. Apart from short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects. Animation is prevalent in information technology interfaces; the physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a long history in automata. Automata were popularised by Disney as animatronics. Animators are artists; the word "animation" stems from the Latin "animationem", noun of action from past participle stem of "animare", meaning "the action of imparting life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium"; the history of animation started long before the development of cinematography.
Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. In 1833, the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, which would provide the basis for the zoetrope, the flip book, the praxinoscope and cinematography. Charles-Émile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film.
Piano music and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet. When film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys adapted small magic lanterns into toy film projectors for short loops of film. By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops by tracing live-action film footage; some early filmmakers, including J. Stuart Blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomón and Edwin S. Porter experimented with stop-motion animation since around 1899. Blackton's The Haunted Hotel was the first huge success that baffled audiences with objects moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves. J. Stuart Blackton experimented with animation drawn on blackboards and some cutout animation in Humorous Phases of Funny Faces. In 1908, Émile Cohl's Fantasmagorie was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with negative prints from black ink drawings on white paper; the film consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées, Ladislas Starevich started making his influential puppet animations in 1910. Winsor McCay's Little Nemo showcased detailed drawings, his Gertie the Dinosaur was an early example of character development in drawn animation. During the 1910s, the production of animated short films referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters; the most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. El Apóstol was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, the world's first animated feature film. A fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, it is now considered a lost film. In 1919, the silent animated short Feline Follies was released, marking the debut of Felix the Cat, being the first animated character in the silent film era to win a high level of popularity.
The earliest extant feature-length animated film is The Adve
The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins
The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins is a children's book and illustrated by Theodor Geisel under the pen name Dr. Seuss and published by Vanguard Press in 1938. Unlike the majority of Geisel's books, it is written in prose rather than metered verse. Geisel, who collected hats, got the idea for the story on a commuter train from New York to New England while he was sitting behind a businessman wearing a hat. Geisel concluded. Set in feudal times, the story begins in the Kingdom of Didd, when King Derwin is riding through a street past peasant protagonist Bartholomew Cubbins. Ordered to remove his hat, according to the laws, Bartholomew does so, but another hat mysteriously appears; the 500th hat, studded with massive gems and gilding, leaves Bartholomew's head bare. Stunned by the beauty of the hat, King Derwin grants him reprieve and trades him 500 gold coins for the 500th hat; the book received positive reviews from critics. The New York Times reviewer called the book "a lovely bit of tomfoolery which keeps up the suspense and surprise until the end."
Booklist, which had criticized Geisel's previous book, And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, for containing only enough material for one comic strip, praised The 500 Hats as "a brand-new idea, developed into a complete tale, not too long, not too short, just right. Somewhere between the Sunday supplements and the Brothers Grimm, Dr. Seuss has produced a picture book combining features of both." Alexander Laing, who had worked with Geisel on the Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern humor magazine, wrote in his review of the book in the Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, "His several other occupations, madly fascinating as they are, may have been only preludes to a discovery of his proper vocation. That he is a rare and loopy genius has been common knowledge from an early epoch of his undergrad troubles, it now becomes plain that his is the happy madness beloved by children. I do not see what is to prevent him from becoming the Grimm of our times." Not long after publication, the story was adapted for an album issued by RCA Victor.
Narrated by Paul Wing, the audio adaptation had a running time of 37 seconds. The dramatization featured sound effects on two 10" 78rpm records in a bi-fold sleeve; this recording was played in elementary school classrooms during the early 1940s. Geisel wrote the script for the 1943 Puppetoon short of the same name for Paramount Pictures, produced by George Pal, it received an Academy Award nomination for Best Short. Unlike the book's illustrations, in which Cubbins' hats were all the same one, the hats in the film were of many different kinds. Minnesota's Children's Theatre Company produced a version of The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins for the stage in 1973, says this was the first theater adaptation of a Dr. Seuss work; the characters of Bartholomew and King Derwin returned a decade in Bartholomew and the Oobleck. Morgan, Neil. Dr. Seuss Mr. Geisel: A Biography. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80736-7. RCA Victor: The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins "Hats Off to Dr. Seuss"
Linda Anne Ballantyne is a Canadian voice actress. Born in Toronto, she is known for voicing the title role of Serena Tsukino/Sailor Moon in the second half of the English version of Sailor Moon. Linda Ballantyne on IMDb Linda Ballantyne at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Linda Ballantyne on Twitter
Milkshake! is a British preschool television programming block on Channel 5, aimed at children two to seven years old. The block debuted in 1997 and is broadcast on weekdays from 06:00 to 09:15 and weekends from 06:00 to 10:00; the block has a number of presenters, features a range of children's programming. Some of its current programmes include iconic shows such as Thomas and Friends, Peppa Pig, Ben & Holly's Little Kingdom, Fireman Sam, PAW Patrol', Wissper, Shane The Chef, Little Princess, Noddy Toyland Dectective and many more. From 1997–2002 and 2007–2016, Milkshake! aired programmes for older children. When Five Life launched in 2006, Milkshake! was shown on the channel between 09:00 and 13:00 each day. By April 2011, the channel had reduced its broadcast hours and the block was replaced by teleshopping. On 21 August 2017, Milkshake relaunched on 5Star. Milkshake! On 5Star was dropped and removed in 2018. On 6 July 2017, Channel 5 announced a rebranding of Milkshake! that launched on 24 July, including updated branding, a new studio, the launch of a YouTube channel that will feature digital content related to the block.
In November 2008, Channel 5 had been set to launch a new children's channel based on its pre-school programming block. This was a response to the BBC launching the CBBC channel and CBeebies in 2002 and ITV launching the CITV channel in 2006, but plans to launch a standalone pre-school channel were put on hold indefinitely while the broadcaster awaited a buyer. In-vision continuity presenters have been utilised by Milkshake! since the show began in 1997. The original presenters were Konnie Huq. Huq was replaced by former Nickelodeon presenter Eddie Matthews when she left the show to join the BBC as a Blue Peter presenter; the year in brackets denotes when the presenter began presenting Milkshake!. Amy Thompson David Ribi Derek Moran Jen Pringle Kemi Majeks Kiera-Nicole Brennan Nathan Connor Olivia Birchenough Sita Thomas Milkshake! Monkey Anna Williamson Andrew McEwan Beth Evans Casey-Lee Jolleys Curtis Angus Dave Payne Eddie Matthews Hannah Williams Konnie Huq Lucy Alexander Naomi Wilkinson Relief and freelance presenters have anchored Milkshake!
Continuity links, including presenter Ellie Harrison. Official website
Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose
Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose is a 1948 children's book by Dr. Seuss. Thidwick, a moose in a herd numbering sixty who subsist on moose-moss and live on the northern shore of Lake Winna-Bango, grants a small bug's request to ride on his antlers free of charge; the bug takes advantage of the moose's kindness and settles in as a permanent resident, inviting various other animals to live on and in the moose's antlers. The kind-hearted moose acquiesces to the unexpected living arrangements, treating the animals as'guests' though he never told them explicitly that they were allowed to live there, his passengers are thoughtless and selfish, the situation gets out of control. When one of the guests, a woodpecker, begins drilling holes in Thidwick's antlers, the other moose give Thidwick an ultimatum: if he doesn't get rid of his guests he will leave the herd; when Thidwick's sense of decency compels him to forgo the comforts of herd life in favor of indulging his guests, his herd leaves him behind.
Winter comes, the herd swims across the lake to find fresh supplies of moose-moss. Thidwick wants to do the same, but his guests object, insist that Thidwick not take "their home to the far distant side of the lake." As he faces starvation, Thidwick refuses to go against his guests' wishes, he remains on the cold, northern shore of the lake where his guests prefer to reside. Meanwhile, the heartless residents of Thidwick's antlers, who pay no regard to the increasing physical or psychological load that the moose is forced to endure, continue inviting other animals to live with them; the situation comes to a head when a group of hunters spot Thidwick and pursue him, with the goal of shooting him and mounting his head on the wall of the Harvard Club in New York City: a building well known in the 1930s and 1940s for its hunting trophies. Thidwick attempts to outrun the hunters, but the heavy load, including his passengers' refusal to permit him to travel across the lake, prevents him from escaping.
Just before his capture, Thidwick remembers that it is time for him to shed his antlers. At the last moment he drops his antlers, makes a snide comment to his former guests, escapes by swimming across the lake to rejoin his herd, his former guests are captured by the hunters and are stuffed and mounted, still perched on his antlers, on the trophy wall of the Harvard Club. The story explores the limits of sharing. Neil Reynolds had discussed it as a parable of the social welfare state. Aeon J. Skoble discusses Thidwick at length as an exemplification of the idea of property rights, of Locke's formulation of property rights. Skoble argues that Thidwick is badly mistaken in viewing the other animals as "guests", that the story demonstrates this. In a essay in the same volume, Henry Cribbs makes a similar point, considering whether "Thidwick" is a case of squatter's rights. Shortly after the book was published, David Dempsey, writing in The New York Times, said: "Thidwick is a masterpiece of economy, a shrewd satire on the "easy mark" who lets the conventions of society get the better of him.
The genius of the story, lies in its finale. A man of less consistence than Seuss would have let Thidwick be rescued by the creatures he is defending but Seuss' logic is rooted in principle, rather than sentiment, the sponging animals get what they deserve. Incidentally, this is what the child expects." Welcome, a 1986 Soviet animated film Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose, a 1992 direct-to-video short following Horton Hears a Who! Thidwick the Big-Hearted Moose at Seuss Dude Thidwick, the Big-hearted Moose at Google Books
The Cat in the Hat Comes Back
The Cat in the Hat Comes Back is a children's book written and illustrated by Dr. Seuss and published by Random House in 1958; the book is a sequel to The Cat in the Hat. Once again and her brother are being left home alone for the day, but this time, their mother has left them with instructions to clear away a large amount of snow while she is out for the day. However, they are soon interrupted in their work by the arrival of the Cat in the Hat. Sally warns her brother not to talk to the Cat, she tells him not to let him come near. She tells her brother, "You know what he did the last time he was here?". But the Cat lets himself into their house to get out of the snow, when the brother follows him in, he finds the Cat eating a cake in the tub with the hot and cold water on; the brother tells the Cat. The Cat, however taunts the brother, he says, "But I love to eat cake in the tub. You should try it sometime"; the brother gets mad, turns off the water, drains the tub only to find that a long pink ring has formed around the sides of the bath tub.
The Cat offers to help, but his preliminary attempts to remove the pink spot fail as he only transfers the mess to a succession of other objects: their mother's white dress, the wall, their father's pair of $10 shoes, a rug, their mother and father's bed. Unsure of how to remove the stain from the bed, the Cat calls on the help of Little Cat A, who lives inside his hat, who lifts his hat to reveal Little Cat B, Little Cat C; the three Little Cats go to work, sending the stain to the television a pan, outside. Seeing the spot cover the snow, Little Cat C lifts his hat to reveal Little Cats D through G; the seven Little Cats wage war on the snow spots. This only spreads the spots more, so Little Cat G lifts his hat to reveal Little Cats H through V. All the cats work more, but the spot keeps spreading, until all the snow is pink, so Little Cat V takes off his hat to uncover Little Cats W, X, Y and the microscopic Little Cat Z. Z takes his hat off and unleashes a "Voom", which cleans up the spot, clears all the snow from the paths.
Conrad says. But he does say, "But it does clean up spot", he puts all of the Little Cats back into the Cat's hat. The Cat leaves, with the promise that the Little Cats, from A through Z, will return someday; the book ends in a burst of flamboyant versification, with the full list of little cats arranged into a metrically perfect rhymed quatrain, designed to teach the reader the alphabet. After the 2003 film adaption of the original story, it was planned to make a sequel based on The Cat in the Hat Comes Back. However, due to negative reception, Theodore Geisel's widow, Audrey Geisel, decided to not allow any future live-action adaptions of her husband's works and the plans for the sequel were cancelled; the book has included other stories, Fox in Socks & There's a Wocket in My Pocket. Morgan, Neil. Dr. Seuss Mr. Geisel: a biography. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80736-7. Nel, Philip; the Annotated Cat: Under the Hats of Seuss And His Cats. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-83369-4. Nel, Philip.
Dr. Seuss: American Icon. Continuum Publishing. ISBN 0-8264-1434-6
Channel 5 (UK)
Channel 5 is a British free-to-air television network. It was launched in 1997, was the fifth national terrestrial analogue network in the United Kingdom after BBC One, BBC Two, ITV, Channel 4, it is the fifth-placed network in the country in audience share, has been since its inception. The station was branded as Five between 2011, when it was owned by the RTL Group. Richard Desmond purchased the station from RTL on 23 July 2010, announcing plans to invest more money in programming and return to the name Channel 5 with immediate effect, it was relaunched on 14 February 2011. On 1 May 2014 the channel was acquired by Viacom for £450 million. Channel 5 is a general entertainment channel that shows both internally commissioned programmes such as Fifth Gear, Big Brother & Celebrity Big Brother, The Gadget Show, The Hotel Inspector, Can't Pay? We'll Take It Away! and Gibraltar: Britain in the Sun and foreign programmes. The station has been successful with imports from the United States in particular, including the CSI franchise, the NCIS franchise, the first 3 series in the Law & Order franchise, Power Rangers, The Mentalist, Body of Proof, Once Upon a Time and Under the Dome.
In July 2014, Channel 5 announced plans to open up its production arm and allow it to create shows for other channels, following the new policies of the BBC and ITV Studios. Channel 5 Broadcasting Limited was licensed by the UK Government in 1995 after a bidding process that started in 1993 and lasted throughout 1994; the initial round of bidders, which included a network of city-TV stations planned by Thames Television and the Italian politician and media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi, was rejected outright and the ITC contemplated not awarding the licence at all. The difficulty with the project lay in use of television broadcast frequencies, allocated to RF outputs from domestic videocassette recorders. To achieve national coverage, large numbers of domestic video recorders had to be retuned or fitted with a filter, at the bidding company's expense; the project was revived in mid-1994. Tom McGrath, then-president of Time Warner International Broadcasting, put together a revised frequency plan with NTL and consulting engineer Ellis Griffiths, involving less retuning and greater signal coverage.
Lord Hollick chief executive of Meridian Broadcasting took up the project as lead investor as UK law prohibited Time Warner from owning more than 25%. Pearson Television, who by now owned original licence bidders Thames Television came on board; when McGrath left to become President of Paramount, Time Warner dropped out of the project and was replaced by CLT. Other bidders for the licence included UKTV (led by Canwest and Select TV which bid £36m for the licence, New Century Television Virgin TV Wolf Olins and Saatchi & Saatchi were the main companies behind the pre-launch advertising campaign: "Give Me 5"; the channel would be both mainstream. A logo and visual motif were used, an attempt was made to establish a collection of Channel 5 faces. A series of pre-launch screens were displayed on the frequencies Channel 5 would begin broadcasting on in the months before launch as well, including a trailer for the channel and information screens. After re-tuning, around 65% of the population's televisions could view the channel on launch night.
The channel's launch on Easter Sunday 1997 at 6 pm featured the Spice Girls singing a re-written version of Manfred Mann's hit "5-4-3-2-1" as "1-2-3-4-5". Presenters Tim Vine and Julia Bradbury introduced the nation to the UK's fifth terrestrial channel with half-an-hour of previews; the rest of the Channel 5 launch night schedule, along with the official viewing figures, was as follows: Overall, an estimated 2,490,000 tuned in to see Britain's fifth free network launch, a figure higher than that achieved by launch of Channel 4, fourteen and a half years earlier. On 16 September 2002, Channel 5 re-branded to Five, in a multimillion-pound project directed by Trevor Beattie; the channel's director of marketing at the time, David Pullen, said: On 27 February 2004, it was reported that Five and Channel 4 were discussing a possible merger. Channel 4 and Five announced in November of that year. Early in 2009, rumours started re-surfacing about Five, Channel 4 and ITV conducting a three-way merger.
Pearson Television and CLT merged, becoming RTL Group who became part of Bertelsmann and, control the network, after buying UBM's 35.4% stake for £247.6 million on 20 July 2005. The acquisition was approved on 26 August 2005. After Holleck became involved, he and McGrath brought on board Greg Dyke as interim CEO during the application and launch phase of the project. On 18 November 2005, it was announced that Five had bought a stake in DTT's pay-TV operator, Top Up TV, it was said that the investment may lead to the development of new free and pay services on DTT, other platforms. Following this, Five launched two new digital TV channels in autumn 2006 on Freeview and Virgin Media: 5 STAR launched as Five Life on 15 October 2006