University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System, it was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866; the 933-acre main campus, located on the shores of Lake Mendota, includes four National Historic Landmarks. The University owns and operates a historic 1,200-acre arboretum established in 1932, located 4 miles south of the main campus. UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 30,361 undergraduate and 14,052 graduate students in 2018, its comprehensive academic program offers 136 undergraduate majors, along with 148 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs. A major contributor to Wisconsin's economy, the University is the largest employer in the state, with over 21,600 faculty and staff.
The UW is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. UW–Madison is categorized as a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities; as of October 2018, 25 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields medalists have been associated with UW–Madison as alumni, faculty, or researchers. Additionally, as of November 2018, the current CEOs of 14 Fortune 500 companies have attended UW–Madison, the most of any university in the United States. Among the scientific advances made at UW–Madison are the single-grain experiment, the discovery of vitamins A and B by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, the development of the anticoagulant medication warfarin by Karl Paul Link, the first chemical synthesis of a gene by Har Gobind Khorana, the discovery of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase by Howard Temin, the first synthesis of human embryonic stem cells by James Thomson.
UW–Madison was the home of both the prominent "Wisconsin School" of economics and of diplomatic history, while UW–Madison professor Aldo Leopold played an important role in the development of modern environmental science and conservationism, articulating his philosophy of a "land ethic" in his influential book A Sand County Almanac. The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wisconsin students and alumni have won 50 Olympic medals; the university had its official beginnings when the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature in its 1838 session passed a law incorporating a "University of the Territory of Wisconsin", a high-ranking Board of Visitors was appointed. However, this body never accomplished anything before Wisconsin was incorporated as a state in 1848; the Wisconsin Constitution provided for "the establishment of a state university, at or near the seat of state government..." and directed by the state legislature to be governed by a board of regents and administered by a Chancellor.
On July 26, 1848, Nelson Dewey, Wisconsin's first governor, signed the act that formally created the University of Wisconsin. John H. Lathrop became the university's first chancellor, in the fall of 1849. With John W. Sterling as the university's first professor, the first class of 17 students met at Madison Female Academy on February 5, 1849. A permanent campus site was soon selected: an area of 50 acres "bounded north by Fourth lake, east by a street to be opened at right angles with King street", "south by Mineral Point Road, west by a carriage-way from said road to the lake." The regents' building plans called for a "main edifice fronting towards the Capitol, three stories high, surmounted by an observatory for astronomical observations." This building, University Hall, now known as Bascom Hall, was completed in 1859. On October 10, 1916, a fire destroyed the building's dome, never replaced. North Hall, constructed in 1851, was the first building on campus. In 1854, Levi Booth and Charles T. Wakeley became the first graduates of the university, in 1892 the university awarded its first PhD to future university president Charles R. Van Hise.
Research and service at the UW is influenced by a tradition known as "the Wisconsin Idea", first articulated by UW–Madison President Charles Van Hise in 1904, when he declared "I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home in the state." The Wisconsin Idea holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, that the research conducted at UW–Madison should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, agriculture for all citizens of the state. The Wisconsin Idea permeates the university's work and helps forge close working relationships among university faculty and students, the state's industries and government. Based in Wisconsin's populist history, the Wisconsin Idea continues to inspire the work of the faculty and students who aim to solve real-world problems by working together across disciplines and demographics. During World War II, University
University at Albany, SUNY
The State University of New York at Albany referred to as University at Albany, SUNY Albany or UAlbany, is a public research university with campuses in the New York cities of Albany and Rensselaer and the Town of Guilderland, United States. Founded in 1844, it carries out undergraduate and graduate education and service, it is a part of the State University of New York system. The university has three campuses: the Uptown Campus in Albany and Guilderland, the Downtown Campus in Albany, the Health Sciences Campus in the City of Rensselaer, just across the Hudson River; the university enrolls 17,944 students in nine schools and colleges, which offer 50 undergraduate majors and 125 graduate degree programs. The university's academic choices include new and emerging fields in public policy, homeland security, documentary studies, bio-instrumentation, informatics. Through the UAlbany and SUNY-wide exchange programs, students have more than 600 study-abroad programs to choose from, as well as government and business internship opportunities in New York's capital and surrounding region.
The Honors College, which opened in fall 2006, offers opportunities for well-prepared students to work with faculty. The UAlbany faculty had $103.0 million in research expenditures in 2016-17. For work advancing discovery in a wide range of fields; the research enterprise is in four areas: social science, public policy, life sciences and atmospheric sciences. SUNY Albany offers many cultural benefits, such as a contemporary art museum and the New York State Writers Institute. UAlbany plays a major role in the economic development of the Capital New York State. An economic impact study in 2004 estimated UAlbany's economic impact to be $1.1 billion annually in New York State — $1 billion of that in the Capital Region The University at Albany was an independent state-supported teachers' college for most of its history until SUNY was formed in 1948. The institution began as the New York State Normal School on May 7, 1844, by a vote of the State Legislature. Beginning with 29 students and four faculty in an abandoned railroad depot on State Street in the heart of the city, the Normal School was the first New York State-chartered institution of higher education.
Dedicated to training New York students as schoolteachers and administrators, by the early 1890s the “School” had become the New York State Normal College at Albany and, with a revised four-year curriculum in 1905, became the first public institution of higher education in New York to be granted the power to confer the bachelor's degree. A new campus — today, UAlbany's Downtown Campus — was built in 1909 on a site of 4.5 acres between Washington and Western avenues. By 1913, the institution was home to 590 students and 44 faculty members, offered a master's degree for the first time, bore a new name — the New York State College for Teachers at Albany. Enrollment grew to a peak of 1,424 in 1932. By this time, the College for Teachers, or "Albany State" as it was called for short, had developed a curriculum similar to those found at four-year liberal arts colleges, but it did not abandon its primary focus on training teachers. In 1948 the State University of New York system was created, with the College for Teachers and the state's other teacher-training schools as the nuclei.
SUNY, including the Albany campus, became a manifestation of the vision of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who wanted a public university system to accommodate the college students of the post–World War II baby boom. To do so, he launched a massive construction program. Reflecting a broadening mission, the College for Teachers changed its name to SUNY College of Education at Albany in 1959. In 1961, it became a full-fledged four-year liberal arts college as the State University College at Albany. In 1962, the State University College was designated a doctoral-degree granting university center of SUNY as the State University of New York at Albany; the same year, Rockefeller broke ground for the current Uptown Campus on the former site of the Albany Country Club. The new campus's first dormitory opened in 1964, the first classes on the academic podium in the fall of 1966. By 1970, a year beyond the university's 125th anniversary, enrollment had grown to 13,200 and the faculty to 746; that same year the growing protest movement against the Vietnam war engulfed the university when a student strike was called for in response to the killing of protesters at Kent State.
The Uptown Campus, designed by architect Edward Durell Stone, accommodated this growth and gave visible evidence of the school's transition from a teachers college to a broad-based liberal arts university. The Downtown Campus became dedicated to the fields of public policy: criminal justice, public affairs, information science and social welfare. In 1985, the university added the School of Public Health, a joint endeavor with the state's Department of Health. In 1983, the New York State Writers Institute was founded by Pulitzer Prize-winning author William Kennedy; as of 2013, the Institute had hosted, over time, more than 1,200 writers, journalists, historians and filmmakers. The list includes eight Nobel Prize winners, nearly 200 Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award winners, several Motion Picture Academy Award winners and nominees, numerous other literary prize recipients. In addition, the institute has hosted up-and-coming writers to provide them with exposure at the beginning of their writing careers.
During the 1990s, the university built a $3 billion, 450,000-square-foot Albany NanoTech complex, extending the Uptown Campus westward. By 2006, it became home to the College of Nanoscale Science an
Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins, his $7 million bequest —of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U. S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U. S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.
C. with international centers in Italy and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood; the medical school, the nursing school, the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university consists of the Peabody Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the School of Education, the Carey Business School, various other facilities. Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. Johns Hopkins University is cited as among the world's top universities; the university is ranked 10th among undergraduate programs at National Universities in U. S. News & World Report latest rankings, 10th among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2019 rankings, as well as 12th globally in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
Over the course of more than 140 years, 37 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014. On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States; the first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons for his father and that son would become the university's benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins."
Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh." The original board opted for an novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the Humboldtian model of higher education, the German education model of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it became dedicated to research. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States, its success shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and James B. Angell of Michigan, they each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University and he became the university's first president. Gilman, a Yale-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the University of California prior to this appointment.
In preparation for the university's founding, Gilman visited University of Freiburg and other German universities. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research, he dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are those who are free and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester. Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate support of faculty research; the new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations; the Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research-focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of acad
University of Wyoming
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet, between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW to people close to the university; the university was founded in March 1886, four years before the territory was admitted as the 44th state, opened in September 1887. The University of Wyoming is unusual in that its location within the state is written into the state's constitution; the university offers outreach education in communities throughout Wyoming and online. The University of Wyoming consists of seven colleges: agriculture and natural resources and sciences, education and applied sciences, health sciences, law; the university offers over 120 undergraduate and certificate programs including Doctor of Pharmacy and Juris Doctor. The University of Wyoming was featured in the 2011 Princeton Review Best 373 Colleges. In addition to on-campus classes in Laramie, the university's Outreach School offers more than 41 degree and endorsement programs to distance learners across the state and beyond.
These programs are delivered through the use of technology, such as online and video conferencing classes. The Outreach School has nine regional centers in the state, with several on community college campuses, to give Wyoming residents access to a university education without relocating to Laramie. On September 27, 1886, the cornerstone of Old Main was laid marking the beginning of the University of Wyoming; the stone is inscribed Domi Habuit Unde Disceret, translated, "He need not go away from home for instruction." The following year, the first class of women began their college education. For the next decade the building housed a library and administration offices; the style of Old Main set a precedent for all future University buildings. The main stone used is rough-cut sandstone from a quarry east of Laramie and the trim stone is smooth Potsdam Sandstone from a quarry near Rawlins. Old Main was designed to be a monumental structure and was designed to be a symmetrical building with a prominent central spire as the focal point.
The building was designed to reflect the character of Wyoming and the rough stone and smooth trim represented the progressing frontier. The design of Old Main had a lasting effect on university structures, most visible by the use of sandstone façade on nearly every building. In 1916, the central spire was removed due to structural concerns and the auditorium was reduced in size during a 1936 renovation. In 1949, the building was remodeled—the auditorium and exterior stairs were removed, it became known as Old Main and the name was carved above the east entrance. Old Main houses university administration including the President's Office and the board room where the Trustees meet. Prexy's Pasture is a large grassy area located within a ring of classroom and administrative buildings and serves as the center mall of the campus; the name is attributed to an obscure rule that the university president, or "prexy", is given exclusive use of the area for livestock grazing. During the administration of Arthur G. Crane the name, "Prexy's Pasture", was formally declared.
Prexy's, as it is called today, is known for the unique pattern formed by concrete pathways that students and faculty use to cross the pasture. When the University of Wyoming first opened its doors in 1887, Prexy's Pasture was nothing more than an actual pasture covered in native grasses; the football team played their games on the pasture until 1922, when Corbett Field opened at the southeast corner of campus. Over time, as the needs of the university has changed, the area has been redesigned; the original design was established in 1924 and in 1949 the area was landscaped with Blue Spruce and Mugo Pine. In February 1965, the Board of Trustees decided to construct the new science center on the west side of Prexy's Pasture; the board president, Harold F. Newton, concerned about the location, leaked the decision to the local press; the uproar that followed caused the board to decide on a new location for the science center and resulted in a new state statute making it necessary for any new structure built on the pasture to receive legislative approval.
The statue known as "University of Wyoming Family" was installed in 1983 by UW Professor Robert Russin in anticipation of the centennial celebration. In the summer of 2004, Prexy's Pasture was remodeled as the first step in a two part redesign project; this step involved removing the asphalt roadway that circled the pasture and replacing it with concrete walkways to make the area a walking campus, as recommended by the 1966 and 1991 Campus Master Plans. The grassy area was increased and new lampposts were installed for better lighting; the second phase of the project involves the construction of a plaza at each corner featuring trees and rocks styled after the rocky outcrops of nearby Vedauwoo. Two of the plazas, Simpson Plaza and Cheney Plaza, have been completed. Several exhibits from the exhibition Sculpture: A Wyoming Invitational are featured along the exterior walkway. Outside of its primary use by students travelling to and from classes or socializing, the area is host to campus barbecues and fall welcome events.
In September 1937, the university obtained a Public Works Administration loan during the Great Depression for $149,250 for construction of a student union. On March 3, 1938, ground was broken and construction began on what would become the Wyoming Union. Many students were involved in the construction and twenty-five students were trained to be stone-cutters. From the begin
Bernard N. Baker
Bernard Nadal Baker was a shipping magnate from Baltimore, Maryland. Baker descended from generations of wealthy Baltimore merchants and glass manufacturers, he studied in Philadelphia with the geologist and chemist Frederick Genth and was a special student at Yale College. In the 1880 Census Baker identified himself as a glass manufacturer, but he had founded three businesses supplying coal and lighters and cold storage facilities in Baltimore harbor. Although the U. S. mercantile marine had been declining for decades in the face of British competition and high domestic operating costs, Baker’s ambition was to build a major American owned transatlantic steamship line in Baltimore. In 1881, with the support of the Pennsylvania Railroad Baker established the Atlantic Transport Line. Shipping freight and livestock from Baltimore and Philadelphia, Baker became the second-largest American steamship operator. In 1892 he initiated the first class direct London to New York passenger service for which the A.
T. L. became famous. Baker’s move to sell the line to his principal British competitor in the late 1890s led to the creation of J Pierpont Morgan's colossal International Mercantile Marine Company in 1902 through the merger of the A. T. L. and six other companies. Baker retired from the shipping business when the IMM was formed and lost much of his fortune when the IMM shares for which he exchanged his A. T. L. shares plummeted in value. But he had gained an international reputation as an authority on shipping and was consulted by the U. S. Government on the Panama Canal and was one of four experts appointed for a National Sub-Committee on Transportation Problems, he supplied much of the data for the contentious shipping bill in 1915, having been one of the moving spirits in its creation, he was appointed by President Woodrow Wilson as one of the five members of the United States Shipping Board during World War I. Baker held many directorships and other positions, was for example a Trustee of Johns Hopkins University, President of the Conservation Congress, a member of the Baltimore-based Moral Education Board.
But despite his wealth and influence he had no active interest in politics. Described as "large of heart and of indefatigable energy," Baker was a determined and skilled executive, not afraid to use new methods or to branch out into new lines of business, he was remarkably successful in all of his ventures but a newspaper article of the day commented that "he lives modestly and gives a great deal of his money away." He lent vessels to carry grain to starving Russians and for use as hospital ships in time of war, he gave large sums to a wide variety of worthy causes. Baker was an Anglophile who knew England as well as he knew Maryland, he married Elizabeth Livezey in 1877 and the couple had two daughters, of whom Marguerite Harrison had an adventure-filled life as a journalist and spy. In 1889, Baker built a 49-room Georgian mansion "Ingleside" in Catonsville. In 1916 Baker fathered a third daughter. Baker was wintering in California when he was taken ill and died in December 1918. A chair in chemistry at Johns Hopkins University and a World War II Baltimore-built Liberty Ship were named after him.
The American Line, Flayhart William Henry III, 2000 The Baltimore Sun, December 1918 A Century of Atlantic Travel: 1830-1930, Frank Charles Bowen, 1930 Men of Mark in Maryland, David H & Thomas G Boggs, B. F. Johnson, Baltimore, 1911 Some Financial Aspects of the International Mercantile Marine Company, Earl A. Saliers, The Journal of Political Economy, November 1915 The Atlantic Transport Line 1881 - 1936 The White Star Line and The International Mercantile Marine Company, William B Saphire, The Titanic Historical Society
Langmuir is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, established in 1985 and is published by the American Chemical Society. It covers research in the areas of colloid chemistry; the title honors winner of the 1932 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. The founding editor-in-chief was Arthur W. Adamson. Langmuir is indexed in Chemical Abstracts Service, Scopus, EBSCOhost, British Library, PubMed, Web of Science, SwetsWise. Official website
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds, which are the subjects of organic chemistry; the distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the subdiscipline of organometallic chemistry. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, surfactants, medications and agriculture. Many inorganic compounds are ionic compounds, consisting of cations and anions joined by ionic bonding. Examples of salts are magnesium chloride MgCl2, which consists of magnesium cations Mg2+ and chloride anions Cl−. In any salt, the proportions of the ions are such that the electric charges cancel out, so that the bulk compound is electrically neutral; the ions are described by their oxidation state and their ease of formation can be inferred from the ionization potential or from the electron affinity of the parent elements.
Important classes of inorganic compounds are the oxides, the carbonates, the sulfates, the halides. Many inorganic compounds are characterized by high melting points. Inorganic salts are poor conductors in the solid state. Other important features include their high melting ease of crystallization. Where some salts are soluble in water, others are not; the simplest inorganic reaction is double displacement when in mixing of two salts the ions are swapped without a change in oxidation state. In redox reactions one reactant, the oxidant, lowers its oxidation state and another reactant, the reductant, has its oxidation state increased; the net result is an exchange of electrons. Electron exchange can occur indirectly as well, e.g. in batteries, a key concept in electrochemistry. When one reactant contains hydrogen atoms, a reaction can take place by exchanging protons in acid-base chemistry. In a more general definition, any chemical species capable of binding to electron pairs is called a Lewis acid.
As a refinement of acid-base interactions, the HSAB theory takes into account polarizability and size of ions. Inorganic compounds are found in nature as minerals. Soil may contain iron sulfide as calcium sulfate as gypsum. Inorganic compounds are found multitasking as biomolecules: as electrolytes, in energy storage or in construction; the first important man-made inorganic compound was ammonium nitrate for soil fertilization through the Haber process. Inorganic compounds are synthesized for use as catalysts such as vanadium oxide and titanium chloride, or as reagents in organic chemistry such as lithium aluminium hydride. Subdivisions of inorganic chemistry are organometallic chemistry, cluster chemistry and bioinorganic chemistry; these fields are active areas of research in inorganic chemistry, aimed toward new catalysts and therapies. Inorganic chemistry is a practical area of science. Traditionally, the scale of a nation's economy could be evaluated by their productivity of sulfuric acid.
The top 20 inorganic chemicals manufactured in Canada, Europe, India and the US:Aluminium sulfate, Ammonium nitrate, Ammonium sulfate, Carbon black, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, oxygen, phosphoric acid, sodium carbonate, sodium chlorate, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, sodium sulfate, sulfuric acid, titanium dioxide. The manufacturing of fertilizers is another practical application of industrial inorganic chemistry. Descriptive inorganic chemistry focuses on the classification of compounds based on their properties; the classification focuses on the position in the periodic table of the heaviest element in the compound by grouping compounds by their structural similarities. When studying inorganic compounds, one encounters parts of the different classes of inorganic chemistry. Different classifications are: Classical coordination compounds feature metals bound to "lone pairs" of electrons residing on the main group atoms of ligands such as H2O, NH3, Cl−, CN−. In modern coordination compounds all organic and inorganic compounds can be used as ligands.
The "metal" is a metal from the groups 3-13, as well as the trans-lanthanides and trans-actinides, but from a certain perspective, all chemical compounds can be described as coordination complexes. The stereochemistry of coordination complexes can be quite rich, as hinted at by Werner's separation of two enantiomers of 6+, an early demonstration that chirality is not inherent to organic compounds. A topical theme within this specialization is supramolecular coordination chemistry. Examples: −, 3+, TiCl42; these species feature elements from groups II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, 0 of the periodic table. Due to their similar reactivity, the elements in group 3 and group 12 are generally included, the lanthanides and actinides are sometimes included as well. Main group compounds have been known since the beginnings of chemistry, e.g. elemental sulfur and the distillable white phosphorus. Experiments on oxygen, O2, by Lavoisier and Priestley not only iden