Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder is a German politician, served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political project was the Agenda 2010. As a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, he led a coalition government of the SPD and the Greens. Before becoming a full-time politician, he was a lawyer, before becoming Chancellor he served as Prime Minister of Lower Saxony. Following the 2005 federal election, which his party lost, after three weeks of negotiations he stood down as Chancellor in favour of Angela Merkel of the rival Christian Democratic Union, he is the chairman of the board of Nord Stream AG and of Rosneft, after having been hired as a global manager by investment bank Rothschild, the chairman of the board of football club Hannover 96. Schröder was born in Mossenberg, German Reich, his father, Fritz Schröder, a lance corporal in the Wehrmacht, was killed in action in World War II in Romania on 4 October 1944 six months after Gerhard's birth.
His mother, worked as an agricultural laborer so that she could support herself and her two sons. Schröder completed an apprenticeship in retail sales in a Lemgo hardware shop from 1958 to 1961 and subsequently worked in a Lage retail shop and after that as an unskilled construction worker and a sales clerk in Göttingen while studying at night school for a general qualification for university entrance, he did not have to do military service. In 1966, Schröder secured entrance to a university, passing the Abitur exam at Westfalen-Kolleg, Bielefeld. From 1966–71 he studied law at the University of Göttingen. From 1972 onwards, Schröder served as a scientific assistant at the university. In 1976, he passed his second law examination, he subsequently worked as a lawyer until 1990. Among his more controversial cases, Schröder helped Horst Mahler, a founding member of the Baader-Meinhof terrorist group, to secure both an early release from prison and permission to practice law again in Germany. Schröder joined the Social Democratic Party in 1963.
In 1978 he became the federal chairman of the Young Socialists, the youth organisation of the SPD. He spoke for the dissident Rudolf Bahro, as did President Jimmy Carter, Herbert Marcuse, Wolf Biermann. In 1980, Schröder was elected to the German Bundestag, where he wore a sweater instead of the traditional suit. Under the leadership of successive chairmen Herbert Wehner and Hans-Jochen Vogel, he served in the SPD parliamentary group, he became chairman of the SPD Hanover district. In a frequently-cited and undenied newspaper story, a drunken Schröder is reported to have stood in 1982 outside the forbidding modernist chancellery building in Bonn, clutching the black iron railings and yelling: "I want to get in." That same year, he wrote an article on the idea of a red/green coalition for a book at Olle & Wolter, Berlin. Chancellor Willy Brandt, the SPD and SI chairman, who reviewed Olle & Wolter at that time, had just asked for more books on the subject. In 1985, Schröder met the GDR leader Erich Honecker during a visit to East Berlin.
In 1986, Schröder became leader of the SPD group. After the SPD won the state elections in June 1990, Schröder became Minister-President of Lower Saxony as head of an SPD-Greens coalition, he was subsequently appointed to the supervisory board of Volkswagen, the largest company in Lower Saxony and of which the state of Lower Saxony is a major stockholder. Following his election as Minister-President in 1990, Schröder became a member of the board of the federal SPD. In 1997 and 1998, he served as President of the Bundesrat. During Schröder’s time in office, first in coalition with the environmentalist Green Party with a clear majority, Lower Saxony became one of the most deficit-ridden of Germany's 16 federal states and unemployment rose higher than the national average of 12 percent. Ahead of the 1994 elections, SPD chairman Rudolf Scharping included Schröder in his shadow cabinet for the party’s campaign to unseat incumbent Helmut Kohl as Chancellor. During the campaign, Schröder served as shadow minister of economic affairs and transport.
In 1996, Schröder caused controversy by taking a free ride on the Volkswagen corporate jet to attend the Vienna Opera Ball, along with Volkswagen CEO Ferdinand Piëch. The following year, he nationalized a big steel mill in Lower Saxony to preserve jobs. In the 1998 state elections, Schöder’s Social Democrats increased their share of the vote by about four percentage points over the 44.3 percent they recorded in the previous elections in 1994 – a postwar record for the party in Lower Saxony that reversed a string of Social Democrat reversals in state elections elsewhere. First term, 1998–2002 Following the 1998 national elections, Schröder became Chancellor as head of an SPD-Green coalition. Throughout his campaign for Chancellor, he portrayed himself as a pragmatic new Social Democrat who would promote economic growth while strengthening Germany's generous social welfare system. After the resignation of Oskar Lafontaine as SPD Chairman in March 1999, in protest at Schröder's adoption of a number of what Lafontaine considered "neo-liberal" policies, Schröder took over his rival's office as well.
In a move meant to signal a deepening alliance between Schröder and Prime Minister Tony Blair of the United Kingdom, the two leaders issued an eighteen-page manifesto for economic reform in June 1999. Titled Europe: The Third Way, or Die Neue Mitte in German, it called on Europe's cen
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Antony Garrard Newton Flew was an English philosopher. Belonging to the analytic and evidentialist schools of thought, Flew was most notable for his work related to the philosophy of religion. During the course of his career he taught at the universities of Oxford, Aberdeen and Reading, at York University in Toronto. For much of his career Flew was known as a strong advocate of atheism, arguing that one should presuppose atheism until empirical evidence of a God surfaces, he criticised the idea of life after death, the free will defence to the problem of evil, the meaningfulness of the concept of God. In 2003 he was one of the signatories of the Humanist Manifesto III. However, in 2004 he changed his position, stated that he now believed in the existence of an Intelligent Creator of the universe, shocking his fellow colleagues and atheists. In order to further clarify his personal concept of God, Flew made an allegiance to Deism, more a belief in the Aristotelian God, dismissed on many occasions a hypothetical conversion to Christianity, Islam or any other religion.
He stated that in keeping his lifelong commitment to go where the evidence leads, he now believed in the existence of a God. In 2007 a book outlining his reasons for changing his position, There is a God: How the World's Most Notorious Atheist Changed His Mind was written by Flew in collaboration with Roy Abraham Varghese; the book has been the subject of controversy, following an article in The New York Times Magazine alleging that Flew's intellect had declined due to senility, that the book was the work of Varghese. He was known for the development of the no true Scotsman fallacy, his debate on retrocausality with Michael Dummett. Flew, the son of Methodist minister/theologian Robert Newton Flew and his wife Winifred née Garrard, was born in London, he was educated at St Faith's School, Cambridge followed by Bath. He is said to have concluded by the age of 15. During the Second World War he studied Japanese at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, was a Royal Air Force intelligence officer.
After a period with the Inter-Services Topographical Department in Oxford, he was posted to Bletchley Park in June 1944. After the war, Flew achieved a first class degree in Literae Humaniores at St John's College, Oxford, he won the John Locke Scholarship in Mental Philosophy in the following year. Flew was a graduate student of Gilbert Ryle, prominent in ordinary language philosophy. Both Flew and Ryle were among many Oxford philosophers fiercely criticised in Ernest Gellner's book Words and Things. A 1954 debate with Michael Dummett over backward causation was an early highlight in Flew's career. For a year, 1949 -- 50, Flew was a lecturer in philosophy at Oxford. From 1950 to 1954 he was a lecturer at the University of Aberdeen, from 1954 to 1971 he was a professor of philosophy at the University of Keele, he held a professorship at the University of Calgary, 1972–73. Between 1973 and 1983 he was professor of philosophy at the University of Reading. At this time, he developed one of his most famous arguments, the No true Scotsman fallacy in his 1975 book, Thinking About Thinking.
Upon his retirement, Flew took up a half-time post for a few years at Toronto. Politically Flew was a libertarian-leaning conservative and wrote articles for The Journal of Libertarian Studies, his name appears on letterheads into 1992 as a Vice-President of the Conservative Monday Club, he held the same position in the Western Goals Institute. He was one of the signatories to a letter in The Times along with Lord Sudeley, Sir Alfred Sherman, Dr. Harvey Ward, on behalf of the Institute, "applauding Alfredo Cristiani's statesmanship" and calling for his government's success in defeating the Cuban and Nicaraguan-backed communist FMLN terrorists in El Salvador. Flew married on 28 June 1952, he had two daughters. Flew died on 8 April 2010, while nursed in an Extended Care Facility in Reading, suffering from dementia. While an undergraduate, Flew attended the weekly meetings of C. S. Lewis's Socratic Club regularly. Although he found Lewis to be "an eminently reasonable man" and "by far the most powerful of Christian apologists for the sixty or more years following his founding of that club", he was not persuaded by Lewis's argument from morality as found in Mere Christianity.
Flew criticised several of the other philosophical proofs for God's existence. He concluded that the ontological argument in particular failed because it is based on the premise that the concept of Being can be derived from the concept of Goodness. Only the scientific forms of the teleological argument impressed Flew as decisive. During the time of his involvement in the Socratic Club, Flew wrote the article "Theology and Falsification", which argued that claims about God were vacuous where they could not be tested for truth or falsehood. Though published in an undergraduate journal, the article came to be reprinted and discussed. Flew was critical of the idea of life after death and the free will defence to the problem of evil. In 1998, he debated Christian philosopher William Lane Craig over the existence of God. One of Antony Flew's most influential professional works was his 1976 The Presumption of Atheism in which Flew forwarded the proposition that the question of God's existence should begin with the presumption of atheism:"What I want to examine is
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Aish HaTorah is a Jewish Orthodox organization and yeshiva. Aish HaTorah was established in Jerusalem by Rabbi Noah Weinberg in 1974, after he left the Ohr Somayach yeshiva, which he had co-founded; the organization worked to proselytize young Jewish travelers and volunteers in favor of Orthodox Judaism. It expanded worldwide, continues promotes its extensive adult education classes. After the passing of his father, Rabbi Noah Weinberg, in February 2009, Rabbi Hillel Weinberg became dean of the Aish HaTorah yeshiva in Jerusalem. Aish HaTorah describes itself as blending the traditions of the Lithuanian yeshivas with the doctrines of Hasidism. Weinberg himself was a product of Lithuanian schools but he was a grandson of the Slonimer Rebbe, his teachings reflect influences of both schools as well as certain facets of the Kabbalah of Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, the Vilna Gaon and others. Aish HaTorah describes itself as pro-Israel and encourages Jewish people to visit Israel and connect to the land and its history.
The organization's stated mission is "providing opportunities for Jews of all backgrounds to discover their heritage." The organization is politically conservative and its officials have stated they oppose a full hand over of the West Bank to the Palestinians. The name Aish HaTorah "Fire the Torah", was inspired by the Talmudic story of Rabbi Akiva, the once illiterate 40-year-old shepherd who subsequently became the most famous sage of the Mishnah. Elie Wiesel said, "Aish HaTorah means to me the passion of the passion of learning; the study of Torah, the source of Jewish values, is the way to Jewish survival." Aish HaTorah operates about 35 full-time branches on five continents, providing seminars, singles events, executive learning groups and Jewish holiday programs, community building. In Jerusalem, the Aish HaTorah yeshiva offers both beginners' drop-in classes and full-time, intensive study programs for Jewish men and women of all backgrounds and levels of knowledge, it has a high-tech main campus and outreach center that features a rooftop vista overlooking the Temple Mount, the Kirk Douglas Theatre, which houses a dramatic film presentation of the Jewish contribution to humanity.
An "Explorium" of Jewish History is scheduled to open in 2013, designed to accommodate 300,000 visitors annually. Aish HaTorah runs the Discovery Seminar; the four-hour seminar reviews Jewish history, Jewish philosophy, Jewish philosophy questions. In 2005 Aish HaTorah produced a documentary film, Inspired which chronicles the lives of selected baalei teshuvah. Aish HaTorah believes that the high rate of intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews has diluted the Jewish people’s vitality. Inspired was produced to encourage more observant Jews to share their positive Jewish religious experiences of Jewish life with non-observant Jews, as a way to strengthen the baal teshuva movement and revitalize Jewish life. In 2007 Aish released a sequel, Inspired Too; these films paved the way for Project Inspire, the grassroots organization that helps inspire Orthodox Jews to reach out to non-affiliated Jews to teach them about their heritage. Once an offshoot of Aish HaTorah, Project Inspire is now an independent organization under the umbrella of Aish Global.
In 2008, the Clarion Project, an organization that shares staff, fundraising sources and an address with Aish HaTorah, has been linked in media reports with Aish HaTorah, distributed its film called "Obsession." The film had been criticized for being unfair in its portrayal of Muslims as violent. The film was sent to more than 28 million people in the United States in anticipation of the United States presidential election. Aish HaTorah denied any connection to the film; the Council on American–Islamic Relations filed a complaint about the film with the Federal Election Commission. In 2012, the Clarion Project released; the film was produced by Raphael Shore. The film was called "Islamophobic" by The Forward; when the Israeli Foreign Ministry sought to combat anti-Israel ideas on college campuses, it worked with Aish HaTorah to develop the Hasbara Fellowships. This program has flown hundreds of student leaders to Israel for intensive training in pro-Israel activism training. In North America, Hasbara Fellowships guides and funds pro-Israel activities on over 100 college campuses.
In August 2016, the Israeli government announced an Israel-Diaspora outreach program called The Israel-Diaspora Initiative. The program partners were announced as Chabad and Olami Worldwide, an organization that works with Aish. Aish Gesher is an English speaking Yeshiva for young men with a solid basis in Halacha, it is integrated with Aish Discovery and Essentials classes. Aish HaTorah has websites in English, Spanish and Hebrew, they get over 1.2 million monthly visits. Aish.com AishHatorah.com Aish Gesher Aish Essentials
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University is a public research university in College Station, United States. Since 1948, it has been the founding member of the Texas A&M University System; the Texas A&M system endowment is among the 10 largest endowments in the nation. As of 2017, Texas A&M's student body is the largest in Texas and the second largest in the United States. Texas A&M's designation as a land and space grant institution–the only university in Texas to hold all three designations–reflects a range of research with ongoing projects funded by organizations such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research. In 2001, Texas A&M was inducted as a member of the Association of American Universities; the school's students, alumni—over 450,000 strong—and sports teams are known as Aggies. The Texas A&M Aggies athletes compete in 18 varsity sports as a member of the Southeastern Conference; the first public institution of higher education in Texas, the school opened on October 4, 1876, as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas under the provisions of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts.
The college taught no classes in agriculture, instead concentrating on classical studies, languages and applied mathematics. After four years, students could attain degrees in scientific agriculture and mechanical engineering, language and literature. Under the leadership of President James Earl Rudder in the 1960s, A. M. C. Desegregated, became coeducational, dropped the requirement for participation in the Corps of Cadets. To reflect the institution's expanded roles and academic offerings, the Texas Legislature renamed the school to Texas A&M University in 1963; the letters "A&M," A. M. C. Short for "Agricultural and Mechanical College," are retained as a link to the university's tradition; the main campus is one of the largest in the United States, spanning 5,200 acres, is home to the George Bush Presidential Library. About one-fifth of the student body lives on campus. Texas A&M has more than 1,000 recognized student organizations. Many students observe the traditions, which govern daily life, as well as special occasions, including sports events.
Working with various A&M-related agencies, the school has a direct presence in each of the 254 counties in Texas. The university offers degrees in more than 150 courses of study through ten colleges and houses 18 research institutes; as a Senior Military College, Texas A&M is one of six American public universities with a full-time, volunteer Corps of Cadets who study alongside civilian undergraduate students. The U. S. Congress laid the groundwork for the establishment of A. M. C. in 1862 with the adoption of the Morrill Act. The act auctioned land grants of public lands to establish endowments for colleges where the "leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and mechanical arts... to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life". In 1871, the Texas Legislature used these funds to establish the state's first public institution of higher education, the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas known as Texas A.
M. C. Brazos County donated 2,416 acres near Bryan, for the school's campus. A detailed listing and backgrounds of all of the University's presidents can be found on the Brazos County Texas Genealogical Association's site Enrollment began on October 2, 1876. Six students enrolled on the first day, classes began on October 4, 1876, with six faculty members. During the first semester, enrollment increased to 48 students, by the end of the spring 1877 semester, 106 students had enrolled. Admission was limited to white males, all students were required to participate in the Corps of Cadets and receive military training. Although traditional Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets "campusologies" indicate 40 students began classes on October 4, 1876, the exact number of students enrolled on that day is unknown. Enrollment climbed to 258 students before declining to 108 students in 1883, the year the University of Texas opened in Austin, Texas. Although envisioned and annotated in the Texas Constitution as a branch of the University of Texas, Texas A.
M. C. had a separate Board of Directors from the University of Texas from the first day of classes and was never enveloped into the University of Texas System. In the late 1880s, many Texas residents saw no need for two colleges in Texas and clamored for an end of Texas A. M. C. In 1891, Texas A. M. C. was saved from potential closure by its new president Lawrence Sullivan Ross, former governor of Texas, well-respected Confederate Brigadier General. Ross made many improvements to the school and enrollment doubled to 467 cadets as parents sent their sons to Texas A. M. C. "to learn to be like Ross". During his tenure, many enduring Aggie traditions were born, including the creation of the first Aggie Ring. After his death in 1898, a statue was erected in front of what is now Academic Plaza to honor Ross and his achievements in the history of the school. In 2017, the status of this statue was in doubt after other schools removed statues of former Confederate officers. In contrast, the Texas A&M Chancellor and President announced the Sul Ross statue would remain as Ross's statue's place of honor was not based upon his service in the Confederate Army.
Under pressure from the legislature, in 1911 the school began allowing women to attend classes during the summer semester. At the same time, A. M. C. began expanding its academic pursuits with the establishment o
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website