The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish adoption or adaptation of Roman morals and way of life in a uniquely Gaulish context; the well-studied meld of cultures in Gaul gives historians a model against which to compare and contrast parallel developments of Romanization in other, less-studied Roman provinces. Interpretatio romana offered Roman names for Gaulish deities such as the smith-god Gobannus, but of Celtic deities only the horse-patroness Epona penetrated Romanized cultures beyond the confines of Gaul; the barbarian invasions beginning in the early fifth century forced upon Gallo-Roman culture fundamental changes in politics, in the economic underpinning, in military organization. The Gothic settlement of 418 offered a double loyalty, as Western Roman authority disintegrated at Rome; the plight of the Romanized governing class is examined by R. W. Mathisen, the struggles of bishop Hilary of Arles by M. Heinzelmann.
Into the seventh century, Gallo-Roman culture would persist in the areas of Gallia Narbonensis that developed into Occitania, Cisalpine Gaul, Orléanais, to a lesser degree, Gallia Aquitania. The Romanized north of Gaul, once it had been occupied by the Franks, would develop into Merovingian culture instead. Roman life, centered on the public events and cultural responsibilities of urban life in the res publica and the sometimes luxurious life of the self-sufficient rural villa system, took longer to collapse in the Gallo-Roman regions, where the Visigoths inherited the status quo in 418. Gallo-Roman language persisted in the northeast into the Silva Carbonaria that formed an effective cultural barrier with the Franks to the north and east, in the northwest to the lower valley of the Loire, where Gallo-Roman culture interfaced with Frankish culture in a city like Tours and in the person of that Gallo-Roman bishop confronted with Merovingian royals, Gregory of Tours. Based on mutual intelligibility, David Dalby counts seven languages descended from Gallo-Romance: Gallo-Wallon, Franco-Provençal, Ladin and Lombard.
However, other definitions are far broader, variously encompassing the Rhaeto-Romance languages, Occitano-Romance languages, Gallo-Italic languages. Gaul was divided by Roman administration into three provinces, which were sub-divided in the third century reorganization under Diocletian, divided between two dioceses and Viennensis, under the Praetorian prefecture of Galliae. On the local level, it was composed of civitates which preserved, broadly speaking, the boundaries of the independent Gaulish tribes, organised in large part on village structures that retained some features in the Roman civic formulas that overlaid them. Over the course of the Roman period, an ever-increasing proportion of Gauls gained Roman citizenship. In 212 the Constitutio Antoniniana extended citizenship to all free-born men in the Roman Empire. During the Crisis of the Third Century, from 260 to 274, Gaul was subject to Alamanni raids because of the civil war. In reaction to local problems the Gallo-Romans appointed their own emperor Postumus.
The rule over Gaul and Hispania by Postumus and his successors is called The Gallic Empire although it was just one set of many usurpers who took over parts of the Roman Empire and tried to become emperor. The capital was Trier, used as the northern capital of the Roman Empire by many emperors; the Gallic Empire ended. The pre-Christian religious practices of Roman Gaul were characterized by syncretism of Graeco-Roman deities with their native Celtic, Basque or Germanic counterparts, many of which were of local significance. Assimilation was eased by interpreting indigenous gods in Roman terms, such as with Lenus Mars or Apollo Grannus. Otherwise, a Roman god might be paired with a native goddess, as with Rosmerta. In at least one case – that of the equine goddess Epona – a native Gallic goddess was adopted by Rome. Eastern mystery religions penetrated Gaul early on; these included the cults of Orpheus, Mithras and Isis. The imperial cult, centred on the numen of Augustus, came to play a prominent role in public religion in Gaul, most at the pan-Gaulish ceremony venerating Rome and Augustus at the Condate Altar near Lugdunum annually on 1 August.
Gregory of Tours recorded the tradition that after the persecution under the co-emperors Decius and Gratus, future pope Felix I sent seven missionaries to re-establish the broken and scattered Christian communities, Gatien to Tours, Trophimus to Arles, Paul to Narbonne, Saturninus to Toulouse, Denis to Paris, Martial to Limoges, Austromoine to Clermont. In the fifth and sixth centuries, Gallo-Roman Christian communities still consisted of independent churches in urban sites, each governed by a bishop; some of the communities had origins. The personal charisma of the bishop set the tone, as fifth-century allegiances, for pagans as well as Christians, switched from institutions to individuals: most Gallo-Roman bishops were drawn from the highest levels of society as appropriate non-military civil roads to advancement dwindled, they represented themselves as bulwarks of high literary standards and Roman traditions against the Vandal and Gothic interlopers. Bishops took on the duties of civil administrator after the contraction of the Roman imperial administration d
Charles the Simple
Charles III, called the Simple or the Straightforward, was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty. Charles was the third and posthumous son of king Louis the Stammerer by his second wife Adelaide of Paris; as a child, Charles was prevented from succeeding to the throne at the time of the death in 884 of his half-brother, king Carloman II. Instead, Frankish nobles of the realm asked Emperor Charles the Fat to assume the crown, he was prevented from succeeding the unpopular Charles the Fat, deposed in November 887 and died in January 888, although it is unknown if his overthrow was accepted or made known in West Francia before his death. The nobility elected Odo, the hero of the Siege of Paris as the new king, although there was a faction that supported claims of Guy III of Spoleto; the young Charles was put under the protection of Ranulf II, the Duke of Aquitaine, who may have tried to claim the throne for him and in the end used the royal title himself until making peace with Odo.
In 893, Charles was crowned by a faction opposed to the rule of Odo at the Reims Cathedral, becoming monarch of West Francia only after the death of Odo in 898. In 911, a group of Vikings led by Rollo besieged Paris and Chartres. After a victory near Chartres on 26 August, Charles decided to negotiate with Rollo, resulting in the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte which created the Duchy of Normandy. In return for the Vikings' loyalty, they were granted all the land between the river Epte and the sea, as well as Duchy of Brittany, which at the time was an independent country which West Francia had unsuccessfully tried to conquer. Rollo agreed to be baptised and to marry Charles' daughter Gisela. In 911, Louis the Child, the last Carolingian king of East Francia died, nobles of Lotharingia, loyal to him, under the leadership of Reginar, Duke of Lorraine declared Charles their new king, breaking from East Francia which had elected non-Carolingian Conrad I as the new king. Charles had tried to win Lotharingian support for years, for instance, by marrying in April 907 a Lotharingian woman named Frederuna, in 909 his niece Cunigunda married Wigeric of Lotharingia.
Charles defended Lotharingia against two attacks by Conrad I. In 925, Lotharingia was once again seized by East Francia. Queen Frederuna died on 10 February 917 leaving six daughters and no sons, leaving the succession uncertain. On 7 October 919 Charles married Eadgifu, the daughter of Edward the Elder, King of England, who bore him a son, the future King Louis IV of France. By this time, Charles' excessive favouritism towards a certain Hagano had turned the aristocracy against him, he endowed Hagano with monasteries that were the benefices of other barons, alienating them. In Lotharingia, he earned the enmity of the new duke Gilbert, who in 919 declared loyalty to the new king of East Francia Henry the Fowler. Opposition to Charles in Lotharingia was not universal, however; the nobles exasperated with Charles' policies and his favoritism of count Hagano, seized Charles in 920. After negotiations by Archbishop Herveus of Reims the king was released. In 922, the Frankish nobles revolted again led by Robert of Neustria.
Robert, Odo's brother, was elected king by the rebels and crowned, while Charles had to flee to Lotharingia. On 2 July 922, Charles lost his most faithful supporter, Herveus of Reims, who had succeeded Fulk in 900. Charles returned with a Norman army in 923 but was defeated on 15 June at the Battle of Soissons by Robert, who died in the battle. Charles was captured and imprisoned in a castle at Péronne under the guard of Herbert II of Vermandois. Robert's son-in-law Rudolph of Burgundy was elected to succeed him as king. Charles was buried at the nearby abbey of Saint-Fursy, his son by Eadgifu would be crowned in 936 as Louis IV of France. In the initial aftermath of Charles's defeat, Queen Eadgifu and children had fled to England. On 6 December 884, King Carloman II of West Francia died without a male heir and his half-brother, the future Charles the Simple, was just a five-year-old boy; because of this, their cousin Charles the Fat Holy Roman Emperor and King of East Francia, was invited by the nobles of the Kingdom to assume the throne.
Since the beginning, the new monarch was forced to deal with constant Viking raids, with little success. After three years of incompetent government, Charles the Fat was deposed by the Diet of Tribur in 887. Faced with the growing threat of northern invaders, the local nobles again rejected the succession of Charles the Simple because he was too young, Odo, Count of Paris was chosen as the new King of West Francia, after defending Paris against the Vikings, led by Rollo. In 893, aided by Archbishop Fulk of Reims, Charles the Simple attempted to reclaim the throne, but in vain. By 897, the young prince ruled only the city of Laon before Odo on his deathbed designated him as his successor. Following the death of Odo in January 898, Charles the Simple assumed the title of king of West Francia. Soon the new monarch showed his ambition to conquer Lotharingia, the main objective of all the monarchs of West Francia since Charles the Bald. Lotharingia was the cradle of the Carolingian dynasty. Charlemagne's ancestors, the Pippinids were from Lotharingia.
After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the Lotharingia was part of Middle Francia for a short time and both West and East Francia tried to gain control over it. Arnulf of Carinthia, King of East Francia prevented this b
Roman Catholic Diocese of Rodez
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Rodez is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The Episcopal seat is in Rodez; the diocese corresponds to the Department of Aveyron. Erected in the 5th century, the Diocese of Rodez lost territory when the Diocese of Vabres was created by Pope John XXII on 11 July 1317. In 1801, the diocese was suppressed and its territory split and merged with the Diocese of Cahors and the Diocese of Saint-Flour. In 1817, the diocese was restored and given jurisdiction over the ancient Diocese of Rodez, with the exception of the deanery of Saint Antonin, incorporated with the Diocese of Montauban, it was suffragan of the Archdiocese of Bourges until 1676 of the Archdiocese of Albi, until 2002, when the diocese became a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Toulouse. Modern tradition attributes to St. Martial the foundation of the church of Rodez and the sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin at Ceignac, for according to Cardinal Bourret, the church of Rodez honoured St. Martial as early as the sixth century.
There were evidently bishops of Rodez before 475, since Sidonius Apollinaris, in a letter of AD 475, mentions that the Goths left it at that date without bishops. The Benedictine Abbey of Vabres, founded in 862 by Raymond I, Count of Toulouse. In 1061 or 1062 the abbey was in such a state of decay both in personnel and good order that its abbot, arranged for it to submit itself to the control of the Abbey of S. Victor in Marseille; the abbey and its territory was raised to episcopal rank in 1317, its diocesan territory was taken from the southeastern portion of the Diocese of Rodez. Some scholars hold that within the limits of the modern Diocese of Rodez there existed in Merovingian times the See of Arisitum which, according to Louis Duchesne, was in the neighbourhood of Alais; the Diocese of Rodez is famous through the Abbey of Conques and the cult of Saint Faith. Some Christians, flying from the Saracens about 730, sought a refuge in the "Val Rocheux" of the Dourdou and built an oratory there.
In 790 the hermit Dadon made this his abode and aided by Louis the Pious King of Aquitaine, founded an abbey, which Louis named Conques. In 838 Pepin, King of Aquitaine, gave the monastery of Figeac to Conques. Between 877 and 883 the monks carried off the body of the youthful martyr Faith or Foy from the monastery of Sainte Foy to Conques, where it became the object of a great pilgrimage. Abbot Odolric built the abbey church between 1030 and 1060. Abbot Begon enriched Conques with a superb reliquary of beaten gold and cloisonne's enamels of a kind rare in France. Pope Paschal II gave him permission for the name of Sainte-Foy to be inserted in the Canon of the Mass after the names of the Roman virgins. At this time Conques, with Agen and Schelestadt in Alsace, was the centre of the cult of Saint Faith which soon spread to England and America; the statue of St. Faith seated, which dates from the tenth century, was a small wooden one covered with gold leaf. In time, gems and precious stones were added in such quantities that it is a living treatise on the history of the goldsmiths' art in France between the eleventh and sixteenth centuries.
It was known during the Middle Ages as the "Majesté de Sainte Foy". The shrine enclosing the relics of the saint, which in 1590 was hidden in the masonry connecting the pillars of the choir of the abbey church, was rediscovered in 1875, transferred to the cathedral of Rodez for a novena, brought back to Conques, a distance of 40 km, on the shoulders of the clergy; the Cistercian Abbeys of Silbanès, Loc-Dieu and Bonnecombe were model-farms during the Middle Ages. Attacked by brigands in the Rouergue country on his way to Santiago di Compostella, Viscount of Flanders, erected in 1031 a monastery known as the Domerie d'Aubrac, a special order of priests, lay brothers and lay sisters for the care and protection of travellers. At Milhau, Rodez and Bozouls, styled "Commanderies", of this order of Aubrac adopted the rule of St. Augustine in 1162; the Franciscans had four houses, at Rodez, Villefranche and Saint-Antonin. The Carmelites had two houses, at Millau, Saint-Antonin; the Benedictines had two houses, at Rieupayroux.
The Carthusians had two houses, at Villefranche. The Capuchins had four houses, at Rodez, Villefranche and Saint-Antonin. There were Augustinian Canons at Saint-Geniès-d'Olt. During the Middle Ages the Bishop of Rodez held temporal dominion over that portion of the town known as the Cité while in the eleventh century the Bourg became the County of Rodez; until the expulsion of the English, the Rouergue was subject to the ducs de Guyenne, who were kings of England. In 1770 the Bishop was the Count of Rodez, was possessed of high and low justice. In 1770 the town itself had a population of around 5,000 persons, was divided into two parishes, Saint-Amans and Saint Martin-des-Près, in addition to the Cathedral parish; the cathedral of Rodez is a beautiful Gothic building, famous for its unique rood-beam. The design of the façade is attributed to Guillaume Philandrier, secretary of Bishop Georges d'Armagnac, and, given a Canon
Aurillac is the prefecture of the Cantal department, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aurillacoises. Aurillac is at 600 metres above sea level and located at the foot of the Cantal mountains in a small Sedimentary basin; the city is built on the banks of a tributary of the Cère. It is 223 km north of Toulouse. Aurillac was part of a former Auvergne province called Haute-Auvergne and is only 20 km away from the heart of the Auvergne Volcano Park. Access to the commune is by numerous roads including the D922 from Naucelles in the north, the D17 from Saint-Simon in the north-east, Route nationale N122 from Polminhac in the east which continues to Sansac-de-Marmiesse in the south-west, the D920 to Arpajon-sur-Cère in the south-east, the D18 to Ytrac in the west; the Figeac-Arvant railway passes through the commune with a station in the centre of town but there is no TGV service. About 50 % of the commune is urbanised with farmland to the west of the urban area.
Aurillac – Tronquières Airport is located in the south of the commune with its runway extending beyond the commune boundary. It is connected to Paris by two daily flights by the Air France subsidiary HOP!. The commune was awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom; the Jordanne river flows through the heart of the commune from north to south where it joins the Cère just south of the commune. Boudieu on the N122, called the Route de Sansac-de-Marmiesse or de Toulouse, is a farm with a farm house from the 1900s and three farm buildings. Boudieu-Bas on the N122 is a set of houses built in the 1960s with some buildings used commercially or for crafts. Gueret on the N122 is a farm with two agricultural buildings; this hamlet is traversed by an old country road from a place called Julien from which name for the SNCF Julien Bridge comes. The former Julien is towards the Chateau of Tronquières in the urban area on Avenue Charles de Gaulle opposite the Medico-Surgical Centre.
This farm with its house and barn were absorbed by the city on the creation of a district in the 1970s until the mid 1980s. The agricultural buildings were demolished to make room for a shop. La Sablère on the RN122 is a set of dwellings from the 1980s. There was a farm; this place spreads over two communes: Aurillac and Arpajon-sur-Cere with the majority of the buildings in Arpajon-sur-Cere. Le Barra near the avenue Aristide Briand called the Ancienne route de Vic or the old N120; this is houses. Les Quatre Chemins at the intersection of the D120 and the D922 on the borders of Aurillac and Ytrac, it is a complex of commercial buildings and residences on the crossroads of the two former National highways. Tronquières on an avenue, it was a farm with a chateau but the chateau and outbuildings were demolished in 2011. Today it is a grouping of housing units specializing in housing assistance for the integration of disabled people and the airport, it is the reception area for a former landfill and rubbish centre.
Before the construction of the airport the meadows were areas for summer grazing for nearby farms such as the Boudieu farm. Aurillac has an oceanic climate with cool winters and warm summers due to its distance from the ocean and its altitude. Rainfall, however, is abundant with 130 days per year with precipitation. Snow is common and sometimes abundant with 31 snow days per year and during some snowfalls the quantity of snow can be high. Frost is common with 80 days of frost per year with the period of freezing extending from October to May. Despite its altitude, Aurillac still has 8 days of high temperatures. Days with heavy frosts are frequent; the city has 2118 sunshine hours per year. The record low temperature was −24.5 °C on 9 January 1985 and the record high was 38.0 °C on 30 July 1983. The origin of the name Aurillac is from Aureliacum meaning "Villa of Aurelius" and dates back to the Gallo-Roman era, it is attested in the polygonal Fanum d'Aron, built in the 1st century and discovered in 1977 at Lescudillier.
It is thought that in the Gallic era the original site of the city was on the heights overlooking the current city at Saint-Jean-de-Dône and, like most oppida, it was abandoned after the Roman conquest in favour of a new city established on the plain. With the return of instability in the Lower Roman Empire there was a movement towards Encastellation and a new fortified site was established in mid-slope between the former oppidum and the old Gallo-Roman city where the Chateau of Saint-Étienne is today; the history of the city is only known from 856, the year of the birth of Count Gerald of Aurillac at the castle where his father named Gerald, was lord. In 885 he founded a Benedictine monastery which bore his name, it was in this monastery that Gerbert, the first French pope under the name of Sylvester II, studied. The city was made in a Sauveté area, located between four crosses and was founded in 898 by Gerald shortly after the abbey; the first urban area was built close to the Abbey of Aurillac.
Gerald died around 910 but his influence was such that over the centuries Gerald was always a baptismal name prevalent in the population of Aurillac and the surrounding area. It was in the 13th century that municipal conflict began between abbots. After taking the Chateau of Saint-Étienne in 1255 and two negotiated agreements called the Peace of Aurillac, relations were
Georges Duby was a French historian who specialised in the social and economic history of the Middle Ages. He ranks among the most influential medieval historians of the twentieth century and was one of France's most prominent public intellectuals from the 1970s to his death. Born to a family of Provençal craftsmen living in Paris, Duby was educated in the field of historical geography before he moved into history, he earned an undergraduate degree at Lyon in 1942 and completed his graduate thesis at the Sorbonne under Charles-Edmond Perrin in 1952. He taught first at Besançon and at the University of Aix-en-Provence before he was appointed in 1970 to the Chair of the History of Medieval Society in the Collège de France, he remained attached to the Collège until his retirement in 1991. He was elected to the Académie française in 1987. Although Duby authored dozens of books and reviews during his prolific career—for academic as well as popular audiences—his reputation and legacy as a scholar will always be attached to his first monograph, a published version of his 1952 doctoral thesis entitled La société aux XIe et XIIe siècles dans la région mâconnaise.
La société exerted a profound influence on medieval scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century, placing the study of medieval feudal society on an new footing. Working from the extensive documentary sources surviving from the Burgundian monastery of Cluny, as well as the dioceses of Mâcon and Dijon, Duby excavated the complex social and economic relationships among the individuals and institutions of the Mâconnais region, charting a profound shift in the social structures of medieval society around the year 1000. Duby argued that in early eleventh century, governing institutions—particularly comital courts established under the Carolingian monarchy—that had represented public justice and order in Burgundy during the ninth and tenth centuries receded and gave way to a new feudal order wherein independent aristocratic knights wielded power over peasant communities through strong-arm tactics and threats of violence; the emergence of this new, decentralized society of dynastic lords could explain such eleventh-century phenomena as the Peace of God, the Gregorian reform movement and the Crusades.
Following upon this, Duby formulated a famous theory about the Crusades: that the tremendous response to the idea of holy war against the Muslims can be traced to the desire of disinherited second and third sons of this French parvenue aristocracy to make their fortunes by venturing abroad and settling in the Levant. While Duby's theory had long-lasting influence scholars such as Jonathan Riley-Smith have done much to discredit it, arguing that there was no large-scale shortage of land in Western Europe at the time, that knights lost money going on crusade, that lay religious sentiment was their primary motivation. Duby's intensive and rigorous examination of a local society based on archival sources and a broad understanding of the social and economic bases of daily life became a standard model for medieval historical research in France for decades after the appearance of La société. Throughout the 1970s and 80's, French doctoral students investigated their own corners of medieval France and Spain in a similar way, hoping to compare and contrast their own results with those of Duby's Mâconnais and its thesis about the transformation of European society at the end of the first millennium.
Although he was never formally a student in the circle of scholars around Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre that came to be known as the Annales School, Duby was in many ways the most visible exponent of the Annaliste tradition, emphasizing the need to place people and their daily lives at the center of historical inquiry. Duby was a pioneer in what he and other Annaliste historians in the 1970s and 80's came to call the "history of mentalities", or the study of not just what people did, but their value systems and how they imagined their world. In books like The Three Orders: Feudal Society Imagined and The Age of Cathedrals, Duby showed how ideals and social reality existed in dynamic relationship to one another, his distilled biographical essay on William Marshal set the knight's career in the context of feudal loyalties and the chivalric frame of mind. Duby's interest in the idea of historical "mentalities" extended to thinking about the position of contemporary society vis-a-vis its past. In Le Dimanche de Bouvines on the pivotal 1214 battle of Bouvines, Duby chose not to analyze the battle itself, but the ways it had been represented and remembered over time and the role its memory had played in the formation of French ideas about its medieval past.
The book remains a classic of Annales-style historiography, eschewing the "great man" and event-oriented theories of political history in favor of asking questions about the evolution of historical perceptions and ideas over the long term, the longue durée. Duby wrote in newspapers and popular journals and was a regular guest on radio and television programs promoting historical awareness and support for the arts and social sciences in France, he served as the first director of Société d'édition de programmes de télévision, a French broadcast network dedicated to educational programming. His last book, is an intellectual autobiography. In it, Duby stresses the importance of the historian as a public figure who can make the past relevant and exciting to those in the present. Commandeur of the Legion of Honour. Grand officier of the National Order of Merit. Commandeur of the Ordre des Palmes
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
"Comes", plural "comites", is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective denominated a "comitatus" the suite of a magnate, being in some instances sufficiently large and/or formal to justify specific denomination, e. g. a "cohors amicorum". "Comes" derives from "com-" and "ire". "Comes" was a common epithet or title, added to the name of a hero or god in order to denote relation with another god. The coinage of Roman Emperor Constantine I declared him "comes" to Sol Invictus qua god. More significant, "Comes" became a secular title granted to trusted officials of the Imperial Curia, present or former, others as sign of Imperial confidence, it developed into a formal, dignitary title, derived from the "Companions" of Alexander the Great and rather equivalent to the Hellenistic title of "philos basilikos" or the paladin title of a knight of the Holy Roman Empire and a Papal Palatinus. Thus the title was retained when the titulary was appointed promoted, to an office away from court in the field or a provincial administration.
Subsequently, it was thought logical to connect the title to specific offices that demanded an incumbent official of high dignity, to include it as part of the official title. As the Imperial Roman Curia increased in number and assimilated all political power, the Roman Emperors instituted a casual practice of appointing faithful servants to offices; this had been done elsewhere, e. g. regarding the Prefect of the Praetorian Guard and the amici principis. As Imperial administration expanded, new offices became necessary and decentralization demanded modifications; the result was the institution of the rank of "comes". The "comites" translated "counts", though they were neither feudal nor hereditary, became principal officials of the Roman Empire, they held offices of all kinds from the army to the civil service, while retaining their direct accesses to the Emperor. Emperor Constantine I finalized them as the governmental echelon of "comites provinciarum"; the comites were enumerated as early as the beginning of the AD 5th century in the Notitia Dignitatum, but as offices were added, it is not exhaustive.
The following sections describe examples of the kinds of comites. Several of the major departments of the Imperial Curia and household had a principal official, styled "comes" and assisted by an "officium" similar to that of a Roman governor, they included: comes dispositonum: A deputy to the powerful magister officiorum responsible for organizing the Imperial calendar and preparing the correspondence for distribution to the proper offices for transcription. Comes domesticorum: A vir illustris, principal of the domestici, a corps of bodyguards of the Emperor who were stationed in the Imperial Palace. There were two of these comital commanders, the comes domesticorum equitum for the equestrian knights and the comes domesticorum peditum for the foot soldiers. Comes privatae largitionis: The custodian of the privy purse, who answered and was subordinate to the comes rerum privatarum. Comes rerum privatarum: A powerful Imperial official responsible for the private estates and holdings of the Emperor and his family.
He maintained the properties and collected the rents, of which most were deposited in the Aerarium, i. e. the treasury of the public funds of the State, some in the Fiscus, i. e. the treasury of privy funds of the Emperor that the comes privatae largitionis administered. Comes sacrarum largitionum: A vir illustris, custodian of the sacrae largitiones of the Emperor and manager of the Imperial finances, he controlled all of the mints, each managed by a procurator. Comes sacrae vestis: The master of the wardrobe of the Emperor; the 3 comites largitionum: The regional financial administrators of Italy and Illyricum. Comes commerciorum for Illyricum. Comes metallorum per Illyricum: The official responsible for that region's gold mines. Exceptionally, a gubernatorial position was styled "comes". For example, the comes Orientis one of the vicarii, was an official who controlled the large and strategically important Imperial Diocese of the East by supervising the governors of this collection of provinces, but he was in turn supervised by the praefectus praetorio Orientis.
Further, the principal officials of some less important governmental departments who were under the authority of otherwise styled, high ranking, territorial officials could be titled "comes", e. g. under the praefectus urbi of Rome, himself a vir illustris, was a comes formarum, comes riparum et alvei Tiberis et Cloacarum, comes Portus. The title "comes consistorianus" or "comes consistorialis" indicated specially appointed members to the consistorium, the council of the Roman emperor's closest advisors; the comes rei militaris held martial appointments, ranking superior to a dux but inferior to the magister peditum and magister equitum.