Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French company Michelin for more than a century. The acquisition or loss of a star can have effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin publishes a series of guides to countries. In 1900, fewer than 3,000 cars graced the roads of France, four years later, in 1904, the brothers published a guide to Belgium similar to the Michelin Guide. The brothers subsequently introduced guides for Algeria and Tunisia, the Alps and the Rhine, Germany and Portugal, the British Isles, in 1909, the Michelin Guide for France saw its first English-language version published. During the First World War, publication of the guide was suspended, after the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920. The companys website recounts the story that André Michelin, visiting a tire merchant, based on the principle that man only truly respects what he pays for, the brothers decided to charge a price for the guide, which was about 750 francs or $2.15 in 1954.
They made changes, listing restaurants by specific categories, the debut of hotel listings. In 1926, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments, there was only a single star awarded. Then, in 1931, the hierarchy of zero, finally, In 1936, the criteria for the starred rankings were published, A very good restaurant in its category, Excellent cooking, worth a detour, Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey. In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red, publication of the annual guide resumed on 16 May 1945, a week after VE Day. The first Michelin Guide to Italy was published in 1956 and it awarded no stars in the first edition. In 1974, the first guide to Britain since 1931 was published, in November 2005 Michelin produced its first American guide, concentrating on New York, covering 500 restaurants in the citys five boroughs and 50 hotels. In 2007 a Tokyo Michelin Guide was launched, in the same year the guide introduced a magazine, Étoile. In 2008 a Hong Kong and Macau volume was added to the list of Michelin Guides, the Michelin website in 2013 notes that the guide is published in 14 editions covering 23 countries and sold in nearly 90 countries.
In 2008 the German restaurateur Juliane Caspar was appointed editor-in-chief of the French edition of the guide and she had previously been responsible for the Michelin guides to Germany and Austria. She became the first woman and first non-French national to occupy the French position, Red Guides have historically listed many more restaurants than rival guides have done, relying on an extensive system of symbols to describe each establishment in as little as two lines. Reviews of starred restaurants include two to three culinary specialities, short summaries have been added to enhance descriptions of many establishments
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Salicornia is a genus of succulent, halophyte flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae that grow in salt marshes, on beaches, and among mangroves. Salicornia species are native to North America, South Africa, common names for the genus include glasswort and marsh samphire, these common names are used for some species not in Salicornia. The Salicornia species are annual herbs. They grow prostrate to erect, their simple or branched stems are succulent, older stems may be somewhat woody basally. The opposite leaves are fleshy, sessile, basally connate and decurrent, the leaf blades are reduced to small collar-like scales with narrow scarious margin. Many species are green, but their foliage turns red in autumn, all stems are terminating in spike-like apparently jointed inflorescences. Each joint consists of two minute bracts with an 3-flowered cyme tightly embedded in cavities of the main axis. The flowers are arranged in a triangle, both lateral flowers beneath the central flower, the hermaphrodite flowers are more or less radially symmetric, with a perianth of three fleshy tepals connate nearly to the apex.
There are 1-2 stamens and an ovary with two stigmas, the perianth is persistent in fruit. The vertical seed is ellipsoid, with brown, membranous. Like most members of the subfamily Salicornioideae, Salicornia species use the C3 carbon fixation pathway to take in carbon dioxide from the surrounding atmosphere, the species of Salicornia are widely distributed over the Northern Hemisphere and in southern Africa, ranging from the subtropics to subarctic regions. They are absent from South America and Australia and they grow in coastal salt marshes and in inland salty habitats like shores of salt lakes. Salicornia species are halophytes and can generally tolerate immersion in salt water, Salicornia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the Coleophora case-bearers C. atriplicis and C. salicorniae. The genus probably originated during the Miocene in the region between the Mediterranean basin and Central Asia, evolving from within the perennial and frost-sensitive genus Sarcocornia, the annual, strongly inbreeding and frost-tolerant Salicornia diversified during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene.
By events of intercontinental dispersals, they reached southern Africa twice, two tetraploid lineages expanded rapidly, with the ability to colonize lower belts of the saltmarshes than their diploid relatives. Inbreeding and geographical isolation led to a number of reproductive isolated species that are only weakly differentiated. The genus Salicornia was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus, Salicornia europaea was selected as the type species. The taxonomic classification of this genus is difficult, determination of species seems almost impossible for non-specialists
The common quail is a small ground-nesting game bird in the pheasant family Phasianidae. Coturnix is the Latin for this species, with its characteristic call of wet my lips, this species of quail is more often heard than seen. It is widespread in Europe and North Africa, and is categorised by the IUCN as least concern and it should not be confused with the domesticated Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, native to Asia, although visually similar, has a very distinct call. It is a small, round bird, essentially streaked brown with a white eyestripe, and, in the male, as befits its migratory nature, it has long wings, unlike the typically short-winged gamebirds. It measures roughly 18. 0–21.9 cm and weighs 91–131 g This is a species, feeding on seeds. It is notoriously difficult to see, keeping hidden in crops, even when flushed, it keeps low and soon drops back into cover. Often the only indication of its presence is the distinctive wet-my-lips repetitive song of the male, the call is uttered mostly in the mornings and sometimes at night.
It is a migratory bird, unlike most game birds. Upon attaining an age of 6–8 weeks, this quail breeds on open farmland and grassland across most of Europe and Asia. The eggs take from 16–18 days to hatch and this species was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758 as Tetrao coturnix. The Eurasian race, C. c. coturnix, overwinters southwards in Africas Sahel, the populations on Madeira and the Canary Islands belong to the nominate race. The African race, C. c. africana, described by Temminck and Schlegel and it overwinters within Africa, some moving northwards from South Africa. The common quails of Madagascar and the Comoros belong to the same African race, although those found around Ethiopia make up a different subspecies and it is still heavily hunted as game on passage through the Mediterranean area. This species over recent years has seen an increase in its propagation in the United States, most of this increase is with hobbyists. European Quail photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Coturnix coturnix at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Common quail on Xeno-canto
Maaemo is a Norwegian Restaurant located in Schweigaardsgate in Oslo, Norway. In March 2012 it was awarded two stars in the Michelin Guide, the first time a Nordic restaurant has been awarded two stars in its first mention in the guide, the restaurant is run by Danish Head Chef, Esben Holmboe Bang. In February 2016 it was awarded three stars, at the time as the Danish restaurant Geranium, the first Nordic restaurants given three stars. Maaemo focuses on food and only uses organic, biodynamic. In June 2016, Maaemo was voted 61st best restaurant in the world at The Worlds 50 Best Restaurants awards, official website Video, MAAEMO – Chapter I
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
The Bocuse dOr is a biennial world chef championship. e. Based on an event first arranged in 1983, when the Salon des Métiers de Bouche took place in Lyon as an exhibition organised by professionals for professionals, the initial Bocuse dOr took place in January 1987. France, the home team, has won gold on six occasions, while Belgium, Norway. The U. S. team never placed higher than sixth as in 2003 and 2009, the 2007 Bocuse dOr was featured in the documentary film, El Pollo, el Pez, y el Cangrejo Real. The U. S. effort leading up to the 2009 Bocuse dOr is the subject of the book Knives at Dawn. The U. S. won second place in 2015 when Philip Tessier, coached by Gavin Kaysen, Thomas Keller, Jerome Bocuse and Daniel Boulud, this was an extraordinary milestone for a country that had competed every year since the competitions inception in 1987. After its 20th anniversary, the format was expanded, with the first Bocuse dOr Asia contest taking place in May 2008 in Shanghai, the inaugural winners were Yasuji Sasaki from Japan and Geir Skeie of Norway, respectively.
Skeie went on to win the 2009 world final, Team USA was represented by Timothy Hollingsworth, sous-chef at French Laundry, coached by Roland Henin. Paul Bocuse stated, I hope will win because wed really like this competition to cross the Atlantic, the Bocuse dOr USA2010 took place at the earlier February 2010 date arranged at The Culinary Institute of America in Hyde Park, New York. The winner was James Kent who represented Team USA in Lyon in 2011, the Bocuse dOr Asia 2010 was again arranged in Shanghai in March 2010, won by the Malaysian all-women team of See Lay Na. The Bocuse dOr Europe 2010 arranged in Geneva in June 2010 was won by Danish previous Bocuse dOr bronze and silver medalist Rasmus Kofoed, the Bocuse dOr Asia taking place in June 2012, again in Shanghai, was won by Yew Eng Tong representing Singapore. Two days the German daily newspaper Die Welt published the article Gourmet-Skandal, the controversy lead to amendments to the rules for future Bocuse dOr contests, with the addition of a Kitchen Supervising Committee to control the candidate products and equipment.
The U. S. effort was impeded in the 2007 finals, the qualification format has seen changes over the years, with a restructured scheme ahead of the 2009 Bocuse dOr. Furthermore,3 entrants are selected from national application, as well as 2 wild card selections, each team consists of two chefs, one lead chef, and a commis/assistant chef who must be under 22 years of age at the time of the competition. The team has 5 hours and 35 minutes to prepare two elaborate presentations, a dish and a fish dish. From the 2009 contest, a designated coach located on the outside of the area is permitted to communicate with the team. The jury is divided two groups of 12, each half to judge either the fish dish or the meat dish. The foods quality determines two-thirds of the score,40 points, in the event of a tie, another 20 points will be awarded based on factors such as organization, teamwork and lack of waste
Parken Stadium, known for sponsorship reasons as Telia Parken, is a football stadium in the Indre Østerbro district of Copenhagen, built from 1990–1992. It currently has a capacity of 38,065 for football games, and is the ground of FC Copenhagen. The capacity for concerts exceeds the capacity for matches – the stadium can hold as many as 50,000 people with a setup and 55,000 with a center-stage setup. Telia Parken has been announced as one of 13 host venues of the UEFA Euro 2020 and it will host three group stage matches, as well as a round of 16 match. Telia Parken, originally named just Parken, was built on the site of former Denmark national stadium, Idrætsparken, from 1990 to 1992. The stadium was rebuilt by investors Baltica Finans A/S in turn of the guarantee from the Danish Football Association, the re-construction, tore down and re-built three of the original four stands, cost 640 million Danish kroner. Parken was included in UEFAs list of 4-star stadiums in the Autumn of 1993, being a 4-star stadium, Parken can not apply for the biggest European club game, the UEFA Champions League final, as that demands 50,000 seats.
On 2 June 2007, Parken was the venue for the UEFA Euro 2008 qualifier fan attack, on 1 May 2014 a new stadium covering Wi-Fi solution, powered by Telia was published. The deal provides free high speed Wi-Fi for all spectators at any event at the stadium, the agreement includes a 7 year long naming sponsorship, and on 17 July 2014, the stadium name was changed to Telia Parken. Parken is used as a venue, and hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2001. As a direct consequence of this, and to make Parken a more useful venue in general, a retractable roof was applied to the existing structure. E. M. Metallica, Bruce Springsteen, Tina Turner, David Bowie, Roger Waters, Paul McCartney, Lady Gaga, Justin Bieber, One Direction and Michael Jackson have performed at Parken. The biggest concert ever held in Parken was a performance by Michael Jackson on 14 August 1997, during his HIStory tour, speedway Grand Prix of Denmark Official website Tourist info from copenhagen. com Stadium Guide Article Parken Stadium
A chef is a highly trained and skilled professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation of a particular cuisine. The word chef is derived from the chef de cuisine. Chefs can receive both formal training from an institution, as well as through apprenticeship with an experienced chef, the Brigade system is a system of hierarchy found in restaurants and hotels employing extensive staff, many of which use the word chef in their titles. Underneath the chefs are the kitchen assistants, a chefs standard uniform includes a hat called a toque, double-breasted jacket and shoes with steel or plastic toe-caps. The word chef is derived from the chef de cuisine. In English, the chef in the culinary profession originated in the haute cuisine of the 19th century. The culinary arts, among other aspects of the French language introduced French loan-words into the English language, various titles, detailed below, are given to those working in a professional kitchen and each can be considered a title for a type of chef.
Many of the titles are based on the brigade de cuisine documented by Auguste Escoffier, other names include executive chef, chef manager, head chef, and master chef. Chef de cuisine is the traditional French term from which the English word chef is derived and this is often the case for executive chefs with multiple restaurants. Involved in checking the sensory evaluation of dishes after preparation and they are aware of each sensory property of those specific dishes. The Sous-Chef de Cuisine is the second-in-command and direct assistant of the Chef de Cuisine and this person may be responsible for scheduling the kitchen staff, or substituting when the head chef is off-duty. Also, he or she will fill in for or assist the Chef de Partie when needed and this person is accountable for the kitchens inventory, cleanliness and the continuing training of its entire staff. A sous-chefs duties can include carrying out the head chefs directives, conducting line checks, smaller operations may not have a sous-chef, while larger operations may have more than one.
The sous chef is responsible when the Executive Chef is absent, a chef de partie, known as a station chef or line cook, is in charge of a particular area of production. In large kitchens, each chef de partie might have several cooks or assistants, in most kitchens, the chef de partie is the only worker in that department. Line cooks are often divided into a hierarchy of their own, starting with first cook, second cook, kitchen-hands assist with basic food preparation tasks under the chefs direction. They carry out relatively unskilled tasks such as peeling potatoes and washing salad, stewards/ kitchen porters are involved in the scullery, washing up and general cleaning duties. In a smaller kitchen, these duties may be incorporated, a communard is in charge of preparing the meal for the staff during a shift
The blue mussel, known as the common mussel, is a medium-sized edible marine bivalve mollusc in the family Mytilidae, the mussels. Blue mussels are subject to use and intensive aquaculture. Systematically blue mussels consist of a group of three closely related taxa of mussels, known as the Mytilus edulis complex. Collectively they occupy both coasts of the North Atlantic and of the North Pacific in temperate to polar waters, the distribution of the component taxa has been recently modified as a result of human activity. The taxa can hybridise with other, if present at the same locality. Mytilus edulis sensu stricto, Native to the North Atlantic, Mytilus edulis platensis, the Chilean mussel, Temperate waters in the Southern Hemisphere. Mytilus galloprovincialis, the Mediterranean mussel, Native in the Mediterranean, introduced in the temperate North Pacific, South Africa and elsewhere in the Southern Hemisphere. A distinct lineage native to the Southern Hemisphere exists, Mytilus trossulus, North Pacific, northern parts of the North Atlantic, Baltic Sea.
The Atlantic blue mussel is native on the North American Atlantic coast, in Europe it is found from French Atlantic coast northwards to Novaya Zemlya and Iceland, but not in the Baltic Sea. In France and in the British Isles, it makes hybrid zones with M. galloprovincialis, a genetically distinct lineage of M. edulis is present in the Southern Hemisphere, and has been attributed to subspecies Mytilus edulis platensis. The shape of the shell is triangular and elongate with rounded edges, the shell is smooth with a sculpturing of fine concentric growth lines but no radiating ribs. The shells of species are purple, blue or sometimes brown in color. The outer surface of the shell is covered by the periostracum which as eroded, Blue Mussels are semi-sessile, having the ability to detach and reattach to a surface allowing the mollusk to reposition itself relative to the water position. Once the sperm and eggs are developed they are released into the water column for fertilization. Although there are about 10,000 sperm per egg, large proportions of eggs deposited by blue mussel are never fertilized, as few as 1% of larvae that do mature ever reach adulthood, the majority are eaten by predators before completing metamorphosis.
If the adult mussels are stressed during the beginning of gametogenesis, when stressed while fresh gametes are present, adult mussels reabsorb gametes. Larvae viability is affected by the condition of parents, high temperatures and scarcity of food. The reduction in viability is probably due to the lack of lipid reserves distributed to the eggs, larval development can last from 15 to 35 days depending environmental conditions including salinity and temperature, as well as location
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are generally served and eaten on the premises, but many offer take-out and food delivery services. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer, some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may serve a single meal or they may serve two meals or even a kids meal. Restaurants may be classified or distinguished in different ways. The primary factors are usually the food itself, the cuisine and/or the style of offering, beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes. In the former case, customers usually wear casual clothing, in the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. Typically, at mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, after eating, the customers pay the bill.
Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant, customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants typically still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages, fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant. The travelling public has long been catered for with ships messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, many railways, the world over, cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants, specifically designed for tourists, have been created and these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurants proprietor is called a restaurateur /ˌrɛstərəˈtɜːr/, like restaurant, professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurant will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery.
In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître dhôtel to welcome customers and to them. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working ones way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck, once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened. This trend has become common in the UK and the US, a chefs table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu prepared and served by the head chef, Restaurants can require a minimum party and charge a higher flat fee