Royal Doulton was an English ceramic manufacturing company producing tableware and collectables, dating from 1815. Operating in London, its reputation grew in The Potteries, where it was a latecomer compared to Royal Crown Derby, Royal Worcester, Wedgwood and Mintons, its products include dinnerware, cookware, glassware, jewellery, linens and lighting. Three of its brands were Royal Albert and Mintons; these brands are now owned based in Barlaston near Stoke-on-Trent. On 2 July 2015 the acquisition of WWRD by the Finnish company Fiskars Corporation was completed; the Royal Doulton company began as a partnership between John Doulton, Martha Jones, John Watts, with a factory at Vauxhall Walk, London trading as Jones, Watts & Doulton in 1815. After Martha Jones left the partnership in 1820, the trade name was changed to Watts; the business specialised in making stoneware articles, including decorative bottles and salt glaze sewer pipes. The company took the name Co. in 1853 after the retirement of John Watts.
By 1871, Henry Doulton, John's son, launched a studio at the Lambeth pottery, offered work to designers and artists from the nearby Lambeth School of Art. The first to be engaged was George Tinworth followed by artists such as the Barlow family, Frank Butler, Mark Marshall and Eliza Simmance. In 1882, Doulton purchased the small factory of Pinder, Bourne & Co, at Nile Street in Burslem, which placed Doulton in the region known as The Potteries; when the Anglican St. Alban's Church was built in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1887 with Alexandra, Princess of Wales as one of the driving forces, Doulton donated and manufactured an altarpiece, a pulpit and a font, they were executed in terra cotta with glazed details to the design of Tinworth. By this time Doulton was popular for stoneware and ceramics, under the artistic direction of John Slater, who worked with figurines, character jugs, decorative pieces designed by the prolific Leslie Harradine. Doulton products came to the attention of the Royal family.
In 1901 King Edward VII sold the Burslem factory the Royal Warrant, allowing the business to adopt new markings and a new name, Royal Doulton. The company added products during the first half of the 20th century while manufacturing fashionable and high-quality bone china; the headquarters building and factory of the Royal Doulton ceramics firm were in Lambeth, on the south bank of the Thames. This Art Deco building was designed by T. P. Bennett. In 1939 Gilbert Bayes created the friezes; the Lambeth factory closed in 1956 due to clean air regulations preventing urban production of salt glaze. Following closure, work was transferred to The Potteries; the factory building was demolished in 1978 and the friezes transferred to the Victoria & Albert Museum. The office building in Black Prince Road survives, complete with a frieze of potters and Sir Henry Doulton over the original main entrance, executed by Tinworth. In 1971, S. Pearson & Son Ltd, a subsidiary of the Pearson industrial conglomerate acquired Doulton & Co. Pearson & Son owned Allied English Potteries and merged operations into Doulton & Co.
All brands from Allied English Potteries and Doulton & Co. Ltd. including Royal Doulton, Beswick, Dunn Bennett, Colclough, Royal Albert, Royal Crown Derby, Ridgway, Queen Anne, Royal Adderley and Royal Adderley Floral were moved under the umbrella of Royal Doulton Tableware Ltd. Royal Doulton Tableware Ltd was a subsidiary of Co.. Ltd, itself a subsidiary of the Pearson Group Doulton & Co. became Royal Doulton plc in 1993. Pearson spun off Royal Doulton in 1993. Waterford Wedgwood completed a takeover of Royal Doulton in 2005, acquiring all brands. On 30 September 2005, the Nile Street factory closed. Royal Doulton Ltd. along with other Waterford Wedgwood companies, went into administration on 5 January 2009. Royal Doulton is now part of WWRD Holdings Limited; some items are now made in the parent company, WWRD Holdings Ltd in Barlaston, south of the Potteries Conurbation. Further production is carried out in Indonesia On 11 May 2015, in a deal expected to close July 2015, the Fiskars Corporation, a Finnish maker of home products, agreed to buy 100% of the holdings of WWRD.
On 2 July 2015 the acquisition of WWRD by Fiskars Corporation was completed including brands Waterford, Royal Doulton, Royal Albert and Rogaška. The acquisition was approved by the US antitrust authorities. In the comedy television series Keeping Up Appearances her Royal Doulton china was mentioned with great pride by the main character, Hyacinth Bucket. A Royal Doulton bowl features prominently in the 2018 film Mary Poppins Returns, is the basis for the song "The Royal Doulton Music Hall". Leslie Harradine Agnete Hoy Charles Noke Royal Doulton Bunnykins List of Royal Doulton figurines List of Bunnykins figurines John Bennett Media related to Royal Doulton at Wikimedia Commons Official Royal Doulton website Examples in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
Man of Steel (film)
Man of Steel is a 2013 superhero film based on the DC Comics character Superman. It is a British-American venture produced by DC Entertainment, Legendary Pictures and Syncopy, distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures, it is the first installment in the DC Extended Universe. The film is directed by Zack Snyder, written by David S. Goyer, stars Henry Cavill, Amy Adams, Michael Shannon, Kevin Costner, Diane Lane, Laurence Fishburne, Antje Traue, Ayelet Zurer, Christopher Meloni and Russell Crowe. Man of Steel is a reboot of the Superman film series. In the film, Clark Kent learns, he assumes the role of superhero as Superman when faced with the threat of humanity's destruction from General Zod and wrestles with saving the world while remaining distant. Development began in 2008, when Warner Bros. took pitches from comic book writers and directors, opting to reboot the franchise. In 2009, a court ruling resulted in Jerry Siegel's family recapturing the rights to Superman's origins and Siegel's copyright.
The decision stated that Warner Bros. did not owe the families additional royalties from previous films, but if they did not begin production on a Superman film by 2011 the Shuster and Siegel estates would be able to sue for lost revenue on an unproduced film. Producer Christopher Nolan pitched Goyer's idea after story discussion on The Dark Knight Rises, Snyder was hired as the film's director in October 2010. Principal photography began in August 2011 in West Chicago, before moving to Vancouver and Plano, Illinois. Man of Steel was released in theaters on June 14, 2013, in conventional 2D, 3D, IMAX formats. Despite receiving mixed reviews, the film became a box office success, grossing more than $668 million worldwide. Critics praised the film's visuals and Hans Zimmer's score, but criticized its pacing and lack of character development. A follow-up entitled Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice was released on March 25, 2016. With Krypton destabilized from mining of the planet's core, Jor-El, chief advisor to Krypton's supreme council, recommends the council give him control of the genetics codex.
Before any action can be taken, soldiers led by General Zod, an old friend of El's, launch an uprising and arrest the councilors. Realising that Krypton is doomed, El steals the genetic codex sought by Zod and infuses them into the DNA of his infant son, Kal-El—the first born Kryptonian child in centuries. Donning his old armor, El sacrifices his life to allow his son to escape on a preprogrammed spacecraft; the council quashes Zod's rebellion, its members are sentenced to exile in the Phantom Zone after being convicted of treason. Krypton explodes soon after. Following El's coordinates, the ship crash lands on Earth in Kansas. A childless couple and Martha Kent, find Kal-El and raise him as their own, naming him Clark. Clark becomes an isolated young man as a result of developing superhuman powers which he tries to hide from others, he learns his true origins from Jonathan, who urges him to keep his powers hidden. Several years Jonathan dies in a tornado while refusing to let Clark rescue him.
Burdened with guilt and looking for a new purpose in his life, Clark leaves to travel the world for an extended period of time under several disguises. Several months Daily Planet reporter Lois Lane receives an assignment to investigate the discovery of a Kryptonian scout ship in the Canadian Arctic. Disguised as a worker, Clark enters the ship and activates its central computer using a key left by Jor-El, which allows him to communicate with an artificial intelligence modeled after his father; the AI explains that Clark was sent to Earth to guide its people, presents him with a Kryptonian uniform bearing his family's symbol. While following Clark, Lois inadvertently triggers the ship's security system. Clark uses his powers to rescue Lois before testing his flying abilities. Unable to convince supervisor Perry White to publish an article on the incident, Lois tracks down Clark in Smallville, with the intent of exposing him. However, after hearing of Jonathan Kent's sacrifice, Lois drops the story, keeping Clark's identity safe, despite Perry's suspicions.
Escaping the Phantom Zone and his crew intercept a transmission from the scout vessel and travel to Earth. Deducing that Kal-El is nearby, they broadcast a global address demanding that he surrender or risk war. Clark meets with the United States Air Force and agrees to comply, with Lois joining him as a hostage. Zod reveals that he possesses numerous terraforming devices, the largest called a World Engine, which he salvaged from Kryptonian outposts, which he intends to use to transform Earth into a new Krypton, his science officer, Jax-Ur, extracts Clark's genes to create Kryptonian colonists who will annihilate humanity and build a society based on Zod's ideals of genetic purity. Using the Jor-El AI to take over the ship and Lois flee and warn the U. S. military after an explosive confrontation between Clark and Zod's troops in Smallville, just as Zod orders an invasion. Zod deploys the World Engine from the Kryptonian ship, which touches down in the Indian Ocean and begins firing a beam through the planet towards the ship damaging Metropolis, initiating the terraforming strategy.
Given the codename "Superman", Clark destroys the terraforming platform while the military launches a suicide attack, sending Zod's troops back to the Phantom Zone. With the ship destroyed and Krypton's only hope of revival gone, Zod vows to destroy the Earth and its inhabitants just to spite Superman; the two Kryptonians engage in a lengthy battle across Metropolis, which concludes when Superman is fo
Faora is the name of several fictional female supervillains appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics in association with Superman. All of them have some connection to Superman's home planet of Krypton; the character was created by Cary Bates and Curt Swan, first appeared in Action Comics #471. Most Faora is an ally and sometimes the wife and/or lover of Superman's Kryptonian nemesis General Zod. Faora first was created by Cary Bates and Curt Swan; the first Faora, Faora Hu-Ul, was introduced in Action Comics #471. She was a beautiful Kryptonian woman whose unexplained hatred for men led her to torture and kill 23 men in a secret concentration camp. For this, she was imprisoned in the Phantom Zone to complete a sentence of 300 Kryptonian years, the second longest term after Jax-Ur; this allowed her to survive her homeworld's destruction, along with the other Phantom Zone prisoners, albeit in an invisible ghostlike form. While imprisoned in the Phantom Zone, she was depicted plotting against Superman with General Zod and Jax-Ur.
Her hatred of men was not limited to Kryptonians, as demonstrated by her pointless murder of a young Frenchman, attracted by her beauty. Faora was an expert at the Kryptonian martial art of Horo-Kanu, which utilized the pressure points on the Kryptonian body; this made her an dangerous foe for Superman to face in hand-to-hand combat-—he was forced to flee from their first encounter. During one of her first appearances, Faora could manifest some sort of "mental lightning" to physically attack other Kryptonians, but did not exhibit this additional power during appearances. Following the Crisis on Infinite Earths, another Faora appeared in the Pocket Universe created by the Time Trapper, along with General Zod and Quex-Ul; the three tricked the Pocket Universe's Lex Luthor into releasing them from the Phantom Zone. After the Pocket Earth's population continued to resist their conquest of it, the three villains destroyed the atmosphere, killing all life. Superman defeated them by permanently stripping the three of their super powers with gold kryptonite.
He executed them with kryptonite in punishment for their crimes, to protect the real Earth after they threatened to somehow regain their powers and destroy it as well. Zaora pleaded with Superman for her life, offering him "all sorts of favors", before she succumbed to the kryptonite. In the Eradicator mini-series, the Eradicator was pressured into embracing his programming by another construct of Kem-L's; this artifact, trapped in the Phantom Zone, claimed to be called Faora, after Kem-L's grandmother, to be the ultimate repository of Kryptonian mythology. However it is unclear; the Eradicator rejected Faora, "downloading" all the aspects of Kem-L's programming that contradicted Dr. David Conner's morality into the Faora program. Unknown to him, this gave it a new, monstrous form and the ability to leave the Zone, it targeted Conner's family; the Eradicator not before it killed Conner's wife. Another Faora was introduced as one of the aides of General Zod of the fictional nation of Pokolistan.
This character, who debuted in Action Comics #779, was an orphan metahuman. Faora has the ability to disrupt molecular bonds, she was the creator of the mutagenic virus, the linchpin of Zod's plan. Her whereabouts following the General's defeat are unknown. In a 2001–2002 storyline and Lois Lane visit a version of Krypton, revealed to have been created by the villainous Brainiac 13 and based on Jor-El's favorite period in Kryptonian history. In this Krypton and Clark become fugitives and are pursued by Faora and Kru-El, romantically linked manhunters known as "the Hounds of Zod." This version of Faora, calling herself "the Tigress of Zod" returns as an ally of Jor-El. She and Kru-El are both killed in a struggle against Kryptonian religious zealots. Like all Kryptonians, Faora possesses superhuman abilities derived from the yellow solar radiation of the sun of Earth's solar system, her basic abilities are superhuman strength, superhuman speed and superhuman stamina sufficient to bend steel in her bare hands, overpower a locomotive, leap over a tall building in a single bound and outrun a speeding bullet.
She possesses heightened senses of hearing and sight including X-ray vision as well as telescopic and microscopic vision. In the DC Bombshells continuity, Faora led a coup on Krypton during its final days which consisted of herself, Lara Lor-Van, Alura In-Ze, who weren't considered "clean" enough by Kryptonians for fertility; the three conceived a daughter that they believed would be the strongest of Krypton, as she had a balance of "clean" and "unclean" Kryptonian genes. When Lara and Alura discovered Faora was willing to kill to achieve her vision, they banished her to the Phantom Zone, her pod is discovered and broken open by the Thanagarians, who provided her with a ship that could allow her to travel anywhere. She travels to Earth; when the baby's pod would land in Russia and the girl would become adopted by the Starikov's and named Kara, Faora took samples of Kara's blood from the pod, which allowed her ally scientist Hugo Strange to create clones of Kara who would become known as Power Girl and Superman.
She allied herself with other villains who wanted to take over the world such as Paula von Gunther, the Joker's Daughter, Killer Frost. She monitor's Kara's progress in the Soviet Army and as Supegirl under the disguise of General Khulun. S
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
A boot knife or a gambler's dagger is a small fixed-blade knife, designed to be carried in or on a boot. Such a knife is worn on a belt or under a pant leg. If worn around the neck they become a neck knife. Boot knives come with a sheath that includes some form of a clip. Most have double-edged blades, like a dagger. A boot-knife carries with it a multitude of legal issues, as each defining factor is to cause legal trouble in certain jurisdictions; some regions prohibit carrying fixed-blade knives, double edged knives, concealed knives, or knives over certain length. Boot knives have been made by companies such as Blackjack Knives, Ek Knives, Valor Cutlery, Gerber Legendary Blades, Kershaw Knives, Parker Brothers, Cold Steel
Rörstrand porcelain was one of the most famous Swedish porcelain manufacturers, with production at Karlberg Sea on Kungsholmen in Stockholm. Rörstrand has been documented as early as the 13th century, when Magnus Ladulås donated property to the Clara Convent. In 1527, under Gustavus Vasa, the area was returned to the crown; the area was named "Rörstrand". After an ”Associations contract between all concerned in the Swedish Porcelain works, which will be established at great Rörstrand in the Delft manner” was signed in 1726, a porcelain factory was built at the castle Rörstrand; the factory had indeed been privileged to produce true porcelain, but faience was the only thing that came to be produced until the 1770s. In 1758, rival Marieberg began to produce flintware. High production costs, small market, strong competition from imported Chinese porcelain, kept Rörstrand from trying to copy Marieberg's goods. By the 1770s, Rörstrand begins its own production of the English flintware, however, it takes time before Rörstrand succeed in developing its own technology in the new technique.
After Marieberg was acquired in 1785, Rörstrand was the only major Swedish porcelain factory and the technology was not a priority. Only after Gustafsberg is founded in 1825 does mass production of printed tableware in earthenware take off. During the 1860s, Rörstrand porcelain was one of the nation's largest industries. In 1900, there were around 1,100 employees; the factory's products had a worldwide reputation and participated in various fields of art and industrial exhibitions. The expansion of the city meant; the factory in Rörstrand was closed and demolished in 1926. Production was moved first to Gothenburg after acquiring the Gothenburg porcelain factory, to Lidköping in the 1930s. Between 1960-1990, Rörstrand passed through several owners, including Upsala-Ekeby AB, Finnish Wärtsilä, Hakusan and Gustavsberg porcelain factory; as of 2001, Rörstrand is a part of Iittala, because of losses, moved production to Sri Lanka and Hungary. On 30 December 2005 the factory in Lidköping closed, thus ended a nearly 280-year-old Swedish industrial history.
In 2007 Iittala, which included the Rörstrand brand, was bought by Fiskars. The former porcelain factory is now a museum. During the early years it was possible to order larger table sets in the same spot, but most were ordering goods and some named tableware was not; when the printed decors for mass production turn up - the first dinnerware dates from 1826 - all without the name. In the mid-1800s, they started in price list are few illustrative names as "Turkish pattern" but only at the end of the 1800s created real name in tableware; the exception is the well-Willow, but its name and reputation in England - Rörstrand made a variant of the decor around 1830-1888. Purple lace pattern was one of the 1800s most popular tableware and manufactured well into the 1900s. At the turn of the century created a range of tableware which remains in the range of nearly 50 years as Bella, Vineta. Another of Rörstrands long-running dinnerware was "Green Anna"; until 1926, made it to Gothenburg porcelain. The purple lace pattern produced from about 1845 and forward to 1934 had a long run.
Ostindia is an example of one of the factory's popular designs, still produced today. As for more recent productions, "Mon Amie" - the white porcelain tableware with cobalt blue nuanced flowers - was designed by Marianne Westman in 1952. Through the years "Mon Amie" became a classic and was relaunched in 2008 as a celebration to Marianne Westman´s 80th birthday. In 1956, the Rörstrand designer Hertha Bengtson gave form to "Koka Blå". In the following decade, the 1960s, the "Koka" design was launched in the versions brown and green. Since the 1760s leading manufacturers of stoves 1760s first printed decors 1770s first pieces of earthenware 1881 first dinner service of feldspar porcelain 1930 presentation of the National tableware, designed by Louise Adelborg, the Stockholm Exhibition of 1930 1991 presentation of the Nobel tableware, used since the Nobel Banquet Porcelain manufacturing companies in Europe Ankarberg, Carl-Henrik. ISBN 978-91-7031 - 184-0. Libris 10,468,157 Bæckström, Arvid: Employment and disciplinary conditions in Rörstrands porcelain factory during the 1700s, the Museum of Technology, Stockholm 1934.
Libris 10,353,271. Bæckström, Arvid: A so-called Cadogan-pitcher from Rörstrands childhood, Gothenburg 1951. Libris 10,553,574 Bæckström, Arvid: Some ceramic messages: one more Cadogan-pitcher, Gothenburg 1953. Libris 10,553,585 Candr'eus, Cecilia: "... new materials and manageable products...": of Gustavsberg Fabriker manufacture of household plastics 1945-1970, Department of Art History University of Uppsala, Uppsala, 1998. Libris 10,145,021 Eriksson, Gunilla: Flint Porcelain with printed decoration, Lund 1969. Libris 10,556,682 Folcker, Eric G.: The oldest Rörstrandsfajanserna, 1910-1925. Libris 10,556,740. Herlitz Gezelius, Ann Marie: Rörstrand, Lund 1989, Books on Art, 99-0345976-9. ISBN 91-85330-91-4. Libris 7748022 Jarefjäll, Katali. ISBN 91-972714-2-X. Libris 10,283,218 Johansson, G.: Rörstrand: from manufacture to modern large-scale industry, 1726–1944, Malmo 1944. Libris 9820376 Lage
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti