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Gerhard Armauer Hansen

Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen was a Norwegian physician, remembered for his identification of the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae in 1873 as the causative agent of leprosy. Hansen was born in Bergen and attended the Bergen Cathedral School, he worked at Rikshospitalet as a doctor in Lofoten. In 1868 Hansen returned to Bergen to study leprosy while working at Lungegård Hospital with Daniel Cornelius Danielssen, a noted expert. Leprosy was regarded as hereditary or otherwise miasmic in origin. Hansen concluded on the basis of epidemiological studies that leprosy was a specific disease with a specific cause. In 1870–71 Hansen travelled to Bonn and Vienna to gain the training necessary for him to prove his hypothesis. In 1873, he announced the discovery of Mycobacterium leprae in the tissues of all sufferers, although he did not identify them as bacteria, received little support; the discovery was made with a "new and better" microscope. In 1879 Hansen gave tissue samples to Albert Neisser, who successfully stained the bacteria and announced his findings in 1880, claiming to have discovered the disease-causing organism.

There was some dispute between Neisser and Hansen, Hansen as discoverer of the bacillus and Neisser as identifier of it as the etiological agent. Neisser tried to downplay the assistance of Hansen. Hansen's claim was weakened by his failure to produce a pure microbiological culture in an artificial medium, or to prove that the rod-shaped organisms were infectious. Further Hansen had attempted to infect at least one female patient without consent and although no damage was caused, that case ended in court and Hansen lost his post at the hospital. Hansen remained medical officer for leprosy in Norway and it was through his efforts that the leprosy acts of 1877 and 1885 were passed, leading to a steady decline of the disease in Norway from 1,800 known cases in 1875 to just 575 cases in 1901, his distinguished work was recognized at the International Leprosy Congress held at Bergen in 1909. Hansen had died of heart disease, he was an atheist. Leprosy Museum at St. Jørgen Hospital in Bergen has been dedicated to Hansen.

Haukeland University Hospital has established Armauer Hansens hus as a research facility operated by the University of Bergen. In Jerusalem, a 19th-century leprosarium has borne Hansen's name since 1950, it has been reconstructed into an art center while preserving the physician's surname in its title. Works by or about Gerhard Armauer Hansen at Internet Archive

John Hostettler (author)

John Hostettler was an English writer of legal histories and biographies. His best-known creation, Sir William Garrow was used in the making of the BBC drama series, Garrow's Law. Hostettler was born in Central Middlesex Hospital and grew up in Acton, West London, with a younger sister, his father, John Christian, was a fireman and locomotive engine driver for the Great Western Railway. His mother, had started work at age thirteen on a milk round, they had married in 1923. He passed the 11+ exam, attended Acton County School and became articled to solicitors in Holborn, London. During the Second World War, he volunteered, in 1943, as a Bevin Boy and remained in the South Wales Coalfield for three years. Hostettler remained a lawyer for thirty-five years, he established his own practice in West London in 1958 and had offices in Ealing and Covent Garden during his career. He undertook political and civil liberties cases in Nigeria and Aden, played a key role in the abolition of flogging in colonial prisons following a visit to the latter in 1962.

He sat as a magistrate from 1976 and chaired social security appeals tribunals after he retired as a solicitor. He holds a LLB, a LLM and a PhD from the London School of Economics and 2 PhDs from Sussex University. Hostettler has written twenty five books on legal history, his literary career began in 1992 when he transformed his first PhD thesis into the book, "The Politics of Criminal Law Reform in the Nineteenth Century." His biographical subjects include leading legal figures Sir Matthew Hale, Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, Sir Edward Carson, Lord Halsbury, Thomas Erskine and William Garrow His legal history books include histories of criminal justice and the abolition of capital punishment. He has written about voting in Britain and he was nominated for the Orwell Prize in 2013 for “Dissenters, Radicals and Blasphemers.” Hostettler has written articles for The Anglo-American Law Review, Justice of the Peace and The Legal Executive. Hostettler married Joy Birch in February 1950 in North West London and they have 3 children, 4 grandchildren and 4 great grandchildren.

They live on the coast in West Sussex. John died in his sleep at his West Sussex home on 23 October 2018, he was 93. The Colour of Injustice; the Mysterious Murder of the Daughter of a High Court Judge Twenty Famous Lawyers Garrow’s Law. The BBC Drama Revisited Dissenters, Radicals and Blasphemers Champions of the Rule of Law Cesare Beccaria; the Genius of'On Crimes and Punishments' Thomas Erskine and Trial by Jury Sir William Garrow. His Life and Fight for Justice A History of Criminal Justice in England and Wales Fighting For Justice The History and Origins of Adversary Trial The Criminal Jury Old and New Law and Terror in Stalin's Russia The Red Gown The Life and Works of Sir Matthew Hale Famous Cases Nine Trials That Changed The Law Voting in Britain A History of the Parliamentary Franchise Lord Halsbury At the Mercy of the State Hanging in the Balance A History of the Abolition of Capital Punishment in Britain Sir Edward Coke A Force for Freedom Sir Edward Carson – A Dream Too Far Thomas Erskine and Trial by Jury Politics and Law in the Life of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen The Politics of Punishment Thomas Wakley An Improbable Radical The Politics of Criminal Law Reform in the Nineteenth Century Hostettler's Website Good Reads Waterside Press

Ernst Ottensamer

Ernst Ottensamer was an Austrian classical clarinetist. Born in Wallern an der Trattnach in Upper Austria, Ottensamer's father named Ernst Ottensamer, was a former mayor of Wallern. Ottensamer studied the clarinet at the Bruckner-Konservatorium in Linz, he continued his studies in Vienna at the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, where he completed his studies in 1979. His teachers included Peter Schmidl. Ottensamer joined the orchestra of the Vienna State Opera in 1979, he became principal clarinetist of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra in 1983. He joined the faculty of the Universität für Musik und Darstellende Kunst in Wien in 1986, subsequently attained the title of Universitätsprofessor in 2000, he was a founder-member of such chamber ensembles as the Wiener Bläserensemble, Wiener Virtuosen, the Wiener Solisten Trio. His eldest son Daniel Ottensamer became co-principal clarinetist with the Vienna Philharmonic alongside his father, his youngest son Andreas Ottensamer is principal clarinetist of the Berlin Philharmonic.

Together with his sons Daniel and Andreas, the three of them formed a clarinet ensemble, The Clarinotts. The Clarinotts' first album appeared in 2009, their second album in 2016. Ivan Eröd composed a triple clarinet concerto for The Clarinotts, who premiered the work with the Vienna Philharmonic in January 2016. Ottensamer died after a heart attack on 22 July 2017, his widow Cecilia and his sons survive him. Official website of The Clarinotts Liner notes to Carl Maria von Weber, Clarinet Concertos No.1 in F Minor and No.2 in E Flat Major, Concertino for Clarinet and Orchestra in E Flat Major. Johan Wildner cond. Czecho-Slovak State Philharmonic. Naxos 8.550378

Toot, Toot, Tootsie (Goo' Bye!)

Toot, Tootsie is a 1922 song with music and lyrics by Gus Kahn, Ernie Erdman and Danny Russo, per the credits on the original sheet music cover. Some other sources credit Ted Fio Rito and Robert King for the song, but make no mention of Dan Russo, it debuted on the Broadway musical Bombo. It was first recorded by Al Jolson with Frank Crumit's orchestra for Columbia Records, it was further popularised by Eddie Cantor, nicknamed'Banjo Eyes'. This song has become associated with the age and image of the flapper during the Roaring Twenties.'Toot, Tootsie' appeared in the films The Jazz Singer, Rose of Washington Square and Remains to Be Seen. It was performed in the fifth episode of The Brady Bunch Hour. Other artists who recorded the song include Billy Murray together with Ed Smalle. Recording by Al Jolson

Camp Union

Camp Union was a military training center for the Union Army during the American Civil War. Constructed near Philadelphia, the camp operated from 1861 until 1865, served various Pennsylvania volunteer regiments; the camp, one of 17 training sites in the greater Philadelphia region, was located north of Ridge Road, not far from the Falls of the Schuylkill River. Thousands of recruits were mustered into Federal service, were drilled and taught military tactics before their regiments were sent to the South. 118th Pennsylvania Infantry - Mustered at Camp Union. United States. Army. Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment, 118th. History of the 118th Pennsylvania Volunteers: Corn exchange regiment, from their first engagement at Antietam to Appomattox. To, added a record of its organization and a complete roster. Illustrated with maps and over one hundred illustrations, with addenda. Philadelphia, PA: J. L. Smith. P. 4. Retrieved 11 April 2011

Reifferscheid Castle

The ruins of Reifferscheid Castle stand at a height of 450 metres above sea level near the German-Belgian border between the mountains of the Eifel and the Ardennes in the municipality of Hellenthal. Its name comes from a forest clearing that belonged to a man called Rifhari, the names Rifersceith or Rifheres-sceit mean "woodland strip of Rifhari". All that has survived of the medieval hill castle are the remains of the curtain walls, a gatehouse with two flanking round towers, a gabled entrance and a round, white-plastered bergfried made of rubble stone. Reifferscheid is first recorded in 1106 in the Chronica regia coloniensis under the name Riferschit; the content of the contemporary report relates to the destruction of the castle by its owner, Duke Henry of Limburg and Lower Lorraine. He razed his castle. In 1130 a chapel near the castle was granted the status of a parish church by Archbishop Frederick I of Cologne; the new church was overseen by Steinfeld Abbey and, in 1195, the Lords of Reifferscheid are mentioned for the first time.

Several years the brothers Gerhard and Philip of Reifferscheid divided their lordship, a new branch of the family appeared: the lords of Wildenburg. In 1385, shortly after John V of Reifferscheid had taken over the lordship, the castle was captured by troops of the Meuse-Rhine Alliance, the cities of Cologne and Aachen, the archbishops of Cologne and the Liège as well as the Duke of Jülich, because John had broken the Landfrieden by undertaking numerous raids in the local area and further afield; the siege was unsuccessful and the alliance troops withdrew after three months of unfinished business. In 1416, the Lords of Reifferscheid inherited from the Lower Salm line of the counts of Salm and henceforth called themselves von Salm-Reifferscheid. After a fire in 1509, the damaged castle was rebuilt. Another fire on 23 June 1669 destroyed the town of its castle completely. On the remains of the old building substance, its owner had a representative schloss built in the Baroque style, on the foundations of the old castle walls the houses of the former Burgfreiheit were rebuilt.

But the new splendour did not last long. During the War of the Palatine Succession, troops of Louis XIV slighted the house in 1689; the reconstruction of the castle at that time must have been completed quickly, because a drawing in ink by Mathieu Throuüet shows that the castle was restored around 1725. Troops of the French Revolutionary Army occupied and destroyed the castle in 1794 and, in 1803, it was seized from the lords of Reifferscheid, the Barony of Reifferscheid was dissolved and the ruin was auctioned off for demolition in 1805 to raise money for the French government and went into private hands. In the following decades it served as a quarry and supplied construction material for new buildings in the surrounding area, before it was returned to the possession of the Salm-Reifferscheid family, who had meanwhile been elevated to the status of princes in 1889. Since 1965, the ruin has been owned by the municipality of Hellenthal; the villagers of Reifferscheid have devoted themselves to its preservation over the last few decades, the place has received several awards.

Alfred Esser: Reifferscheid. Eine kurze Geschichte des Ortes, seiner Burg und seiner Kirche. Ingmanns, Schleiden, 1979. Anton Fahne: Geschichte der Grafen jetzigen Fürsten zu Salm-Reifferscheid. J. M. Heberle, Cologne, 1866, First Volume and Cologne, 1858, Second Volume. Walter Pippke und Ida Pallhuber: The Eifel. Entdeckungsreisen durch Landschaft, Kultur und Kunst, von Aachen bis zur Mosel. 2. Aufl. DuMont, Cologne, 1984. P. 47, ISBN 3-7701-1413-2. Olaf Wagener:... wart belacht van dem lantfreden dat slos van Rifferscheit... The Landfriedensexekution gegen Reifferscheid 1385. In: Burgen und Schlösser. Jg. 47, No. 1, 2006, pp. 23–31, ISSN 0007-6201. History of Reifferscheid Castle