Uppsala University is a research university in Uppsala, is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477. It ranks among the world's 100 best universities in several high-profile international rankings; the university embraces natural sciences. The university rose to pronounced significance during the rise of Sweden as a great power at the end of the 16th century and was given a relative financial stability with the large donation of King Gustavus Adolphus in the early 17th century. Uppsala has an important historical place in Swedish national culture and for the Swedish establishment: in historiography, literature and music. Many aspects of Swedish academic culture in general, such as the white student cap, originated in Uppsala, it shares some peculiarities, such as the student nation system, with Lund University and the University of Helsinki. Uppsala belongs to the Coimbra Group of European universities and to the Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities.
The university has nine faculties distributed over three "disciplinary domains". It has 2,300 doctoral students, it has a teaching staff of 1,800 out of a total of 6,900 employees. Twenty-eight per cent of the 716 professors at the university are women. Of its turnover of SEK 6.6 billion in 2016, 29% was spent on education at Bachelor's and Master's level, while 70% was spent on research and research programs. Architecturally, Uppsala University has traditionally had a strong presence in Fjärdingen, the neighbourhood around the cathedral on the western side of the River Fyris. Despite some more contemporary building developments further away from the centre, Uppsala's historic centre continues to be dominated by the presence of the university; as with most medieval universities, Uppsala University grew out of an ecclesiastical center. The archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century. Uppsala had long been a hub for regional trade, had contained settlements dating back into the deep Middle Ages.
As was the case with most medieval universities, Uppsala had been chartered through a papal bull. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, was issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477, established a number of provisions. Among the most important of these was that the university was given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna; this included the right to establish the four traditional faculties of theology, law and philosophy, to award the bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees. The archbishop of Uppsala was named as the university's Chancellor, was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members; the turbulent period of the reformation of King Gustavus Vasa resulted in a drop in the relatively insignificant number of students in Uppsala, seen as a center of Catholicism and of potential disloyalty to the Crown. Swedish students travelled to one of the Protestant universities in Germany Wittenberg. There is some evidence of academic studies in Uppsala during the 16th century.
At the end of the century the situation had changed, Uppsala became a bastion of Lutheranism, which Duke Charles, the third of the sons of Gustavus Vasa to become king used to consolidate his power and oust his nephew Sigismund from the throne. The Meeting of Uppsala in 1593 established Lutheran orthodoxy in Sweden, Charles and the Council of state gave new privileges to the university on 1 August of the same year. Theology still had precedence, but in the privileges of 1593, the importance of a university to educate secular servants of the state was emphasized. Three of the seven professorial chairs which were established were in Theology. A fourth chair was given to Ericus Jacobi Skinnerus, appointed rector, but whose discipline was not mentioned in the charter. Of the professors, several were taken over from the Collegium Regium in Stockholm, functioning for a few years but closed in 1593. An eighth chair, in Medicine, received no appointee for several years. In 1599 the number of students was 150.
In 1600 the first post-reformation conferment of degrees took place. In the same year, the antiquarian and mystic Johannes Bureus designed and engraved the seal of the university, today used as part of the logotype; the medieval university had been a school for theology. The aspirations of the emergent new great power of Sweden demanded a different kind of learning. Sweden both grew through conquests and went through a complete overhaul of its administrative structure, it required a much larger class of civil educators than before. Preparatory schools, were founded during this period in various cathedral towns, notably Västerås in 1623. Beside Uppsala, new universities were founded in more distant parts of the Swedish Realm, the University of Dorpat in Estonia and the University of Åbo in Finland. Af
Salomon Arvid Achates Lindman was a Swedish rear admiral and conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 1906 to 1911 and again from 1928 to 1930. He was the leader of the right-wing General Electoral Union between 1912 and 1935 as well as leader of Lantmanna- och borgarepartiet from 1913 to 1935, except for a short while during 1917 when he served as Minister for Foreign Affairs, his two tenures as Prime Minister, from 1906 to 1911 and from 1928 to 1930, spanned the introduction of parliamentarianism and universal suffrage. Lindman married Annie Almström in 1888, with, he was a cousin of Alex Lindman. Arvid Lindman was born in Österbybruk, the son of managing director Achates Lindman and Ebba Dahlgren, his career as a naval officer 1882–92 reached its peak in 1907 when he was appointed as Rear Admiral in the naval reserve. During his political career following this he became known as "the Admiral". Lindman was CEO of Iggesunds Bruk from 1892 to 1903 and of Strömbacka bruks AB between 1903 and 1923.
In 1904 he became Director-general of Televerket. In 1902 he had declined the post as Minister for Finance in Boström's second cabinet but started a political career in 1905 when he became both Ministry for Naval Affairs in Lundeberg's broad-based cabinet and a member of the Riksdag's first chamber. Staaff's liberal cabinet had hoped to instate complete suffrage for all draft-abiding male citizens under the first past the post system, with implicit support for women's suffrage as well. Through great political skill Lindman managed to enact universal suffrage for male citizens according to the principle of "double proportionality" – in both chambers of parliament – in 1907–09, his six-year government oversaw a number of reforms in the areas of industry and social politics. A defence committee was appointed, decisions were made to build up the navy, the international position of Sweden was confirmed in the Nordic and Baltic Sea agreements. Political and economic opposition resulted in the general strike of 1909, but the strike failed, Lindman's government was allowed to remain in power, ostensibly supported by the king.
Extended suffrage and proportional representation had preserved the right as a parliamentary force yet contributed to a success for the left-wing coalition, when the Liberals and the Social Democrats won the election for the second chamber in 1911. Lindman transferred to the second chamber where he was chairman for the second-chamber right 1912-35, with an interruption in 1917 when he became Minister for Foreign Affairs in Swartz's cabinet; as a leading right-wing politician he had given advice to the King about the creation of the Hammarskjöld and Swartz cabinets, with the goal of blocking the more hard-edged conservative leader of the first-chamber right, Ernst Trygger. During the years 1913-35 Lindman was chairman for the national organisation of right-wing parties, the General Electoral Union – the predecessor of the present Moderate Party – and as such was a driving force in the work to modernize the party organisation after the constitutional change in 1918 which instituted universal male suffrage.
Among other innovations he hired an airplane to take him on speaking tours of the country and introduced the political poster. The GEU lost its status as largest party in 1917 to the Social Democrats, which has retained it since. Proportional representation, managed to sustain a considerable support though surpassed by both Liberals and Social Democrats. After a hard-fought electoral campaign in 1928, when the Social Democrats had controversially formed a coalition with some Communists and suffered great losses in the election, Lindman formed a right-wing government in minority, after the liberals and the Freeminded had turned down the King's request for a broader center-right majority government. Among the things this government did, the calling of the conference on peace in the workplace in 1928 is worth mentioning; the government resigned in 1930 after the Freeminded and the Social Democrats blocked the proposition for raised customs duty on grain, the goal of, the strengthening of the agrarian sector.
No party or union commanded a majority, which made early 1930s notoriously turbulent. Lindman was a modern kind of party leader, who with involvement and eloquence turned directly to the voters. Both as an industrialist and as a politician he was goal-oriented, he was a pragmatic conservative without losing his principles and an effective political peace-broker, who sought a policy of compromise with his adversaries. During the growth of the anti-democratic movements in Europe he acted as a guardian for the principles of government by the people, he spoke out against nazism and fascism; when his party's youth organisation started organising uniformed fascist action groups in the 1930s, he saw to it that they were expelled from the party. The "honest thanks over the battle lines" from the social democratic leader Per Albin Hansson when Lindman resigned as party leader in favor of the younger academic and professor Gösta Bagge in 1935 was an expression of the wide-ranging respect that he had. Lindman died in an aircraft crash on 9 December 1936, when the Douglas DC-2
Instrument of Government (1809)
The Instrument of Government adopted on 6 June 1809 by the Riksdag of the Estates and King Charles XIII was one of the fundamental laws that made up the constitution of Sweden from 1809 to the end of 1974. It came about after the Coup of 1809, when the disastrous outcome in the Finnish War led Swedish nobles and parts of the Army to revolt, forcing King Gustav IV Adolf to involuntarily abdicate and go into exile. For half a century, starting with the Instrument of Government referred to as the Age of Liberty, Sweden had enjoyed parliamentary rule under the Riksdag of the Estates, but in 1772, ended by a coup d'état perpetrated by Gustav III: the Revolution of 1772; the coup enabled Gustav III to rule as an enlightened despot. Gustav III's son, Gustav IV Adolf, succeeded him but proved a less charismatic ruler, the change of sides of Russia in the Napoleonic wars prompted the disastrous Finnish War and the loss of Finland, settled in the Treaty of Fredrikshamn; this provided momentum for the Swedish nobility and other forces to depose the king and restore political power to the Estates.
The aged and childless brother of Gustav III, Charles XIII was made king in 1809, but he was a mere puppet in the hands of the Estates and the question of his successor had to be solved. The election, by the Riksdag of the Estates, of the French Marshal and Prince of Pontecorvo Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte in 1810, provided not only a successor, but a vital regent and a new dynasty; the rights of Bernadotte's successors to accede to the Swedish throne were codified in an amendment to the constitution in the form of the Act of Succession. The Instrument of Government of 1809 replaced the Instrument of Government of 1772, it established a separation of powers between the legislative branch. The King and Riksdag possessed joint power over legislation, while the Riksdag had sole power over the budget and state incomes and expenses including military burdens. While the king's power was somewhat reduced compared to the enlightened absolutism of Gustav III, the new document enabled the king to take a more active role in politics than during the Age of Liberty.
Ministers were politically responsible to the king, who appointed and dismissed them. However, they were responsible to the Riksdag and a special court according to a special statute and to law in general if they committed legal offences; as the Riksdag's authority grew, it became difficult for a government to stay in office with the Crown's support. This culminated in 1907, when a government was chosen, dependent more on the confidence of the Riksdag than on that of the king. However, in 1914, when Gustaf V made a speech opposing the program of the incumbent liberal government, it resigned, the king appointed a conservative government of civil servants responsible to him; the liberals won a decisive victory in 1917, but Gustaf tried to appoint another conservative ministry. However, it could not garner nearly enough support in the Riksdag, it was now obvious that the king could no longer pick a government of his choosing, nor could he keep it in office against the will of the Riksdag. Gustaf yielded and appointed a liberal-social democratic coalition that arrogated most of the crown's political powers to itself.
At that time, it was definitively established that ministers were politically responsible to the Riksdag. From on, while ministers were still formally appointed by the king, convention required him to ensure they had the support of a majority in the Riksdag and to act on his ministers' advice. Although the Instrument's statement that "the King alone shall govern the realm" remained unchanged, it was understood that he was to exercise his powers through the ministers, who did most of the actual work of governing. During the period when it was in force several important reforms took place without affecting its status. In 1866 the Four Estates were replaced by a bicameral parliament, in 1876 the office of the Prime Minister of Sweden was introduced. In the early 20th century universal suffrage was introduced and the country became a de facto parliamentary monarchy. In 1970 the parliament was transformed from a bicameral legislature to a unicameral one. In 1975, it was replaced by a new Instrument of Government, which stripped the king of nominal political power and made Sweden a de facto crowned republic.
History of Sweden Politics of Sweden Constitution of Sweden King in Council Privy Council of Sweden Gustavian Party Regeringsform 1809 - at Wikisource Historiska dokument - at Wikisource
Erik Gustaf Boström
Erik Gustaf Bernhard Boström was a Swedish landowner and politician, a member of the Swedish Parliament and the longest-serving Prime Minister of Sweden of the 19th century. He served twice, first from 1891 to 1900 and again from 1902 to 1905, he was known as E. G. Boström or E. Gust. Boström. In 1871, he married Carolina "Lina" Almqvist, with whom he had one son. Brother of County Governor Filip Boström and nephew of the philosopher Christopher Jacob Boström. Boström’s governmental policy was marked by its pragmatism. Over time, Boström gained a good reputation as being a rallying national icon despite being the first prime minister to have neither an academic education nor experience with upper governmental positions, he was quite popular with King Oscar II. Boström’s eventual downfall was caused by his refusal to budge on the issue of Norway. Erik Gustaf Boström was born in Stockholm, the son of Eric Samuel Boström, chief judge of the district court and his wife Elisabet Gustava Fredenheim; the family was one branch of the Laestadius family of priests from Norrland.
His paternal grandfather Christopher Laestander, a townsman and ship carpenter in the city of Piteå, took the surname Boström. He was tutored by Kristian Claëson, whose first cousin served as the Minister of Ecclesiastical Affairs under Boström in 1898. In 1854, he became a student at the Uppsala Cathedral School, the year his father died, it is worth noting that five of his fellow cabinet members during his first term attended the same school: Axel Rappe, Edvard von Krusenstjerna, Ludvig Annerstedt, Gustaf Gilljam and Lars Åkerhielm. In 1861, he transferred to Uppsala University, where he studied until 1863 when his mother died and he had to take over her manor at Östanå Castle; as a youth he availed himself of the opportunity to pay to avoid conscription, last possible in 1872. Boström was quite successful as a farmer and he started to get involved in local politics. In January 1870, he became a member of the executive committee of the Agricultural Society of Stockholm County and of the county council of Stockholm County, where he served as vice-chairperson and chairperson for many years.
In 1871, he married daughter of Justice Councillor and Minister Ludvig Almqvist. In 1875, he was elected to the lower house of parliament to represent the judicial district of Södra Roslagen. In parliament, he joined the Lantmanna Party and positioned himself as a leading protectionist, supporting tariff protection, in the Standing Committees of Ways and Means and of Banking. In addition, he was interested in a strong defence, which he considered to have manifested itself as a strong marine defence, a strong opposition to the abolition of the Swedish allotment system. After he retired from his position as Prime Minister, Boström became the Chancellor of the Swedish Universities, where he tried unsuccessfully to prevent Bengt Lidforss from continuing on as associate professor at Lund University, he tendered his resignation from his position as chancellor, although he retracted it. Boström continued to be interested in politics and in a letter that he wrote to his dear old friend Carl Herslow on 4 June, he stated that it would be desirable for the retired government to have been able to stay on.
He said in a letter that Karl Staaff's government could take of social policy better than a conservative government could and that Staaff appeared to possess the ability to accomplish a lot, although he chose a different way. Boström died in his home in Stockholm on 21 February 1907. A few days the bells pealed out over Stockholm to commemorate the former Prime Minister. One brother, County Governor of Södermanland County Filip Boström. One sister Ebba Augusta. Six daughters: Hedvig, Carolina Elisabeth, Sofia Lovisa, Clara Gustafva, Ingeborg Maria and Eva Margareta. One son: Chamberlain Gustaf Samuel Boström. Married to Carolina Almqvist, daughter of Councillor of Justice and Minister Ludvig Almqvist
Karl Hjalmar Branting was a Swedish politician. He was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, Prime Minister during three separate periods; when Branting came to power in 1920, he was the first Social Democratic Prime Minister of Sweden. When he took office for a second term after the general election of 1921, he became the first socialist politician in Europe to do so following elections with universal suffrage. In 1921, Sweden's Prime Minister Hjalmar Branting shared the Nobel Peace Prize with the Norwegian secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union Christian Lous Lange, he was born to the noblewoman and pianist Emma af Georgii. Branting was educated at Uppsala University, he developed a scientific background in mathematical astronomy and was an assistant at the Stockholm Observatory, but gave up his devotion to scientific work to become a journalist in 1884 and began editing the newspapers Tiden and Social-Demokraten. His decision to publish an article by the more radical socialist Axel Danielsson - a piece denounced by opponents as insulting to religious sensitivities - resulted in political convictions for blasphemy and imprisonment for both men.
Branting was imprisoned for three months in 1888. Together with August Palm, Branting was in 1889 one of the main organizers of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, he was its first Member of Parliament from 1896, for six years the only one. In the early years of the 20th century, Branting led the Social Democrats in opposing a war to keep Norway united with Sweden; when the crisis came in 1905, he coined the slogan "Hands off Norway, King!" The Social Democrats organized resistance to a call-up of reserves and a general strike against a war, are credited with a substantial share in preventing one. Hjalmar Branting accepted Eduard Bernstein's revision of Marxism and became a reformist socialist, advocating a peaceful transition from capitalism towards socialism, he believed. Branting supported the February Revolution in Russia in 1917, he was pro-Menshevik and defended the government of Alexander Kerensky, whom he personally visited in Petrograd. When the October Revolution broke out the same year, Branting condemned the Bolshevik seizure of power.
1917 saw a split in the Swedish Social Democratic Party on this question, the youth league and the revolutionary sections of the party broke away and formed the Social Democratic Left Party of Sweden, headed by Zeth Höglund. This group soon became the Swedish Communist Party. Zeth Höglund returned to the Social Democratic Party, wrote a two-volume biography about Hjalmar Branting; as Prime Minister he brought Sweden into the League of Nations and was active as a delegate within it. When the question of whether Åland should be handed over to Sweden after the independence of Finland from Russia was brought up, he let the League of Nation decide upon the issue, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1921 for his work in the League of Nations, sharing the prize with the Norwegian Christian Lous Lange. Branting is commemorated by the Branting Monument in Stockholm. Additionally in Gothenburg, there is a tram and bus interchange named after Branting, in Swedish it is Hjalmar Brantingsplatsen. Stockholms Plads in Copenhagen was renamed Hjalmar Brantings Plads in 1925.
Swedish general election, 1921 Works by or about Hjalmar Branting at Internet Archive Nobel Committee information on 1921 Laureates. Hjalmar Branting at Find a Grave Newspaper clippings about Hjalmar Branting in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Carl Gustaf Ekman
Carl Gustaf Ekman was a Swedish politician. He was a Member of Parliament from 1911 to 1932, leader of the Freeminded People's Party between 1924 and 1932, served as Prime Minister from 1926 to 1928 and again from 1930 to 1932. Carl Gustaf Ekman was born in Munktorp in Västmanland County, to farmer and soldier Carl Ekman and Josefina Säfström, he began working at the age of twelve as a farmhand, read everything he could get his hands on, was entrusted with duties inside the temperance movement, where he became a functionary. He was promoted to director of the Friends of the Temperance Movement's disability and burial fund in the industrial town of Eskilstuna. In 1908 he was appointed as chief editor of the liberal newspaper Eskiltuna-Kuriren, his attempt to be elected to the Riksdag failed because of the domination of the Social Democrats in Eskiltuna, but in 1911 the Liberal Party gave him a seat in the upper house for the county of Gävleborg. He established himself as the country's leading proponent of total prohibition of alcohol.
In 1913 he moved to Stockholm, won a seat representing the city in the Riksdag. Ekman became the most controversial politician of the 1920s. Among Social Democrats he was regarded as a "class traitor", having come from a working-class background, but having become a member of a non-socialist party, he was in fact behind the downfall of several Social Democrat governments: Hjalmar Branting's in 1923, Rickard Sandler's in 1926, but that of Arvid Lindman in 1930. In 1924 Ekman became the leader of the newly formed Freeminded People's Party, after those Liberals opposed to prohibition had departed to form the Liberal Party of Sweden; as party leader he worked to strengthen the party's influence by cooperating with both the right and left. His strategy for power was based on controlling the political center in order to'control the game', this being predicated upon no one bloc having a clear majority in the Riksdag. After Sandler's fall from power in 1926, Ekman became Prime Minister for the first time.
He was able to play the right off against the left by appealing to both and by doing so he became more successful than expected. He resolved an old debate on local taxes with a law on proportional taxation, still in effect to this day, he concluded a sweeping reform of the school system. In the 1928 elections the conservative General Electoral League won, he was forced to give up power to Arvid Lindman. Ekman returned as Prime Minister in 1930, when he and Per Albin Hansson defeated the government's proposal to raise tariffs on grain, his second period as Prime Minister was difficult. Ekman's traditional attitude of thriftiness made it difficult for him to accept economic-stimulation programs that would involve heavy public spending. In addition to this, a debate began after the Kreuger Crash about political contributions from Ivar Kreuger which Ekman had accepted on behalf of his party. At first Ekman denied having received any such money, but in the end the public debate forced him to resign from office a month before the Riksdag election of 1932, which resulted in a great defeat for the Freeminded People's Party.
Ekman never returned to politics. Less than two years after his resignation, his party was gone. Not his enemies thought that he had taken money for himself. Ekman's legacy has been colored to a great extent by his political maneuvering as well as by the scandal leading to his resignation, he died in Stockholm on 15 June 1945. He was married to Laura Ekman, with whom he had four children