The cotillion is a social dance, popular in 18th-century Europe and America. For four couples in square formation, it was a courtly version of an English country dance, the forerunner of the quadrille and, in the United States, the square dance, it was for some fifty years regarded as an ideal finale to a ball but was eclipsed in the early 19th century by the quadrille. It became so elaborate that it was sometimes presented as a concert dance performed by trained and rehearsed dancers; the "German" cotillion included more couples as well as plays and games. The name cotillion appears to have been in use as a dance-name at the beginning of the 18th century but, though it was only identified as a sort of country dance, it is impossible to say of what it consisted at that early date; as we first encounter it, it consists of a main "figure" that varied from dance to dance and was interspersed with "changes" – a number of different figures that broke out of the square formation decided spontaneously by the leading couple or by a caller or "conductor".
Each of these was designed to fit a tune of eight or sixteen measures of 2/4 time. Participants exchanged partners within the formation network of the dance. "Changes" included the "Great Ring", a simple circle dance with which the dance began, as well as smaller Ladies' and Gentlemen's rings and bottom and sides rings, chains. Other changes included the allemande and moulinet. A complete dance composed of a prescribed order of these was called a "set"; the cotillion was introduced into England by 1766 and to America in about 1772. In England from that time onwards there are a large number of references stressing its universal popularity in the best and highest circles of society, many teaching manuals were published to help recall the vast number of changes that were invented. There is a reference in Robert Burns's 1790 poem Tam o' Shanter to the "cotillion brent-new frae France". Dancing masters differed as to the exact way of doing these dances: some, recognising the affair as an English country dance, taught that the steps and jumps of these were appropriate, while others insisted upon French elegance, recommending the basic step of the gavotte or the minuet.
In reality many participants walked through the figure and changes, seeing these as the dance and the exact steps as dispensable. On the other hand, some figures required high skill at social dancing and many performances took place at which the majority preferred to watch rather than dance; the quadrille gained fame a few years as a variety of cotillion that could be danced by only two couples. In London in 1786 Longman & Broderip's 6th book of Twenty Four New Cotillions brings together for the first time the most characteristic dance-figures of the quadrille. However, while the cotillion kept all the dancers in perpetual motion, the quadrille allowed rest to half of the participants while the other half danced. In the 1790s the cotillion was falling from favour, but it re-emerged in a new style in the early years of the next century, with fewer and fewer changes, making it distinguishable from the newly-emerging quadrille, introduced into English high society by Lady Jersey in 1816 and by 1820 had eclipsed the cotillion, though it was recognisably a similar dance as it began to be danced by four couples.
References to the English Cotillion dances persist here and there until the 1840s, but these were more games than fashionable dances, were danced to the waltz or the mazurka. In the United States, the opposite was true: quadrilles were termed cotillions until the 1840s, when it was realised that all the distinctive figures of the earlier dance had been taken up into the newer; the German cotillion was introduced to New York society at a costume ball with a Louis XV theme given by Mr. William Colford Schermerhorn in the early winter of 1854. Here, waltzes, fun and boisterous behaviour at private parties took on a more important role, only some figures of the earlier dances survived; the term cotillion was used to refer to the ball itself and the cotillion and quadrille became the square dance. Aldrich, Elizabeth. From the Ballroom to Hell. Northwestern University Press. ISBN 978-0-8101-0913-1
For various examples of cuisine, see List of German dishes. The cuisine of Germany has evolved as a national cuisine through centuries of social and political change with variations from region to region; some regions of Germany, like Bavaria and neighbouring Swabia, share dishes with Austrian and parts of Swiss cuisine. The Michelin Guide of 2015 awarded 11 restaurants in Germany three stars, the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and 233 one star. German restaurants have become the world's second-most decorated after France; the average annual meat consumption is 59.7 kg per person. The most common varieties are pork and beef. Other varieties of meat are available, but do not play an important role. Source: Statista.com, 2017Meat is braised. Several cooking methods used to soften tough cuts have evolved into national specialties, including Sauerbraten, involving marinating beef, horse meat or venison in a vinegar or wine vinegar mixture over several days. A long tradition of sausage-making exists in Germany.
Most Wurst is made with natural casings of sheep or lamb intestines. Among the most popular and most common are Bratwurst made of ground pork and spices, the Wiener, which may be pork or beef and is smoked and cooked in a water bath, Blutwurst or Schwarzwurst made from blood. Thousands of types of cold cuts are available which are called "Wurst" in German. There are many regional specialties, such as the Münchner Weißwurst popular in Bavaria or the Currywurst popular in the metropolitan areas of Berlin and the Ruhr Area. Strict regulations governing what may and may not be put into them have been in force in Germany since the 13th century. In the market ordinance of Landshut in 1236, it was set down that only top-quality meat could be made into sausages. Of salt water fish, Alaska pollock is the most common. Popular freshwater fish on the German menu are trout, pike and European perch are listed frequently. Seafood traditionally was restricted to the northern coastal areas, except for pickled herring, which served in a Fischbrötchen, as Rollmops, or Brathering.
Today, many sea fish, such as fresh herring, mackerel and sardines, are well established throughout the country. Prior to the industrial revolution and the ensuing pollution of the rivers, salmon were common in the rivers Rhine and Oder and only started to return along with a growing consciousness for environmental questions and resulting measures, such as state-of-the-art sewage plants, reduction of agricultural deposits, et cetera. Fish fingers, known as Fischstäbchen, are a popular processed food made using a whitefish, such as cod, haddock or pollock, battered or breaded. Vegetables are used in stews or vegetable soups, but are served as side dishes. Carrots, turnips, peas, beans and many types of cabbage are common. Fried onions are a common addition to many meat dishes throughout the country. Circa 1900, carrots were sometimes roasted with the broth used in place of coffee. Asparagus is a popular seasonal side or main dish with a yearly per-capita consumption of 1.5 kg. The white variety is popular in Germany and more common than green asparagus.
Restaurants will sometimes devote an entire menu to nothing but white asparagus when it is in season. Spargel season traditionally ends on St. John's Day. Breakfast consists of bread, toast, or bread rolls with butter or margarine, cold cuts, jam and eggs. Common drinks at breakfast are coffee, milk, cocoa or fruit juices, it is common to eat hearty toppings at breakfast, including deli meats like ham, salted meats and meat-based spreads such as Leberwurst,Teewurst or Mettwurst and cheeses such as Gouda, Frischkäse, Harzer Roller, Bergkäse and more. Most bakeries tend to sell belegte Brötchen in the morning, for people on the go. Traditionally, the main meal of the day has been lunch, eaten around noon. Dinner was always a smaller meal consisting only of a variety of breads, meat or sausages and some kind of vegetables, similar to breakfast, or sandwiches. Smaller meals added during the day bear names such as Vesper, Kaffee und Kuchen, or Kaffeetrinken, it is a German custom and comparable with the English Five-o'clock-Tea.
It takes time between lunch and dinner on Sundays with the entire family. However, in Germany, as in other parts of Europe, dining habits have changed over the last 50 years. Today, many people eat only a small meal in the middle of the day at work also a second breakfast, enjoy a hot dinner in the evening at home with the whole family. For others, the traditional way of eating is still rather common, not only in rural areas. Breakfast is still popular and may be elaborate and extended on weekends, with friends invited as guests.
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
"The Germans" is the sixth episode of the BBC sitcom Fawlty Towers. It is remembered for its line "Don't mention the war" and John Cleese's goose-stepping silly walk when he is impersonating Adolf Hitler. Sybil is in hospital for three days for minor surgery to remove an ingrown toenail; when Basil visits her, she reminds him of all his tasks over the next few days: Running a fire drill, hanging a moose head, etc. Basil fights with the Sister caring for Sybil; when Doctor Finn tells him Sybil will be in a lot of pain after the operation, Basil is thrilled. With Sybil gone, she won't be around to annoy Basil, he believes things will run smoothly for once. Back at Fawlty Towers, Basil has a confusing conversation with Major Gowen about women, a cricket game and the "proper" racial slurs for Indians and West Indians; when the Major learns a group of German guests are coming to the hotel, he launches into an angry tirade against Germans. After the Major wanders off, Basil tries to hang the moose head, but he is interrupted by a phone call from Sybil reminding him to do just that.
Basil tries to ask Manuel for a hammer, but he gives up after Manuel thinks that Basil wants a ham sandwich or wants to see his hamster, leaves to get it himself. While he is gone, Manuel steps behind the front desk to practise his English; the Major returns to hear a voice coming from behind the counter and thinks it is coming from the moose head. Basil returns and hangs the moose head, but it falls on his head, he trips over Manuel trying to get to the phone to talk to Sybil again; the next morning, Basil hangs the moose head again. There are just a few minutes remaining until the fire drill, Sybil calls to remind Basil of the drill and say the key for the fire alarm is in the safe. Basil retrieves the key, but he trips the burglar alarm, which the guests mistake for the fire alarm; as Basil tries to explain, the guests ask to hear both bells. Hearing the fire bell from the demonstration and Polly think the fire bell means the drill has started, so Basil has to explain the situation to them, too.
After the demonstration, Basil says the real drill will start in 30 seconds, so the guests stand about in the lobby, to Basil's annoyance. In the kitchen, moments before the drill is to start, Manuel accidentally starts a real fire; as the drill commences, the panicked Manuel tries to explain the situation to Basil, but he does not understand and locks him in the burning kitchen to keep him from scaring the guests. Basil lets the guests back in. Basil tells the guests to exit the building again, he tries to start the alarm again. He hurts his hand trying to smash the glass and hurls the typewriter at it with no success, so he uses the phone instead, he tries to use the fire extinguisher, but he blasts himself in the face, which temporarily blinds him. Trying to help, Manuel accidentally smacks Basil in the head with a frying pan he had been using to try to smother the flames and knocks Basil out. Basil comes to in the hospital. Due to his concussion, he begins acting strangely; the confused, disoriented Basil insults the Sister and insists on going home, saying the hotel needs him as "Polly cannot cope".
Sybil sarcastically refers to Basil falling over waiters, getting jammed under desks, etc. as evidence of his ability to cope. Dr. Finn arrives and puts him to bed, but after he is gone, Basil sneaks out and returns to Fawlty Towers in time to meet the German guests who have arrived; when two German guests want to rent a car, he mistranslates their request, Wir wollen ein Auto mieten, as their volunteering to go out to get some meat. Noticing something is wrong, Manuel fetches Polly, who encourages Basil to lie down, but Basil insists on serving the other German guests their lunch while Polly discreetly calls Dr. Finn. Despite his warning of "don't mention the war", Basil makes constant references to Nazi Germany and the war at every opportunity and makes namechecks to Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, Eva Braun, Joseph Goebbels, Hermann Göring and Joachim von Ribbentrop. One of the German guests starts crying, despite the other Germans telling him to leave them alone, Basil starts telling war jokes and does an impersonation of Hitler goose-stepping across the room, to the guests' fury.
Just Dr. Finn arrives to sedate Basil and take him back to the hospital, but Basil makes a run for it through the hotel until he spitefully hits Manuel over the head; the moose head, falls from the wall again, hitting Basil on the head and knocking him out while landing on Manuel's head, leading the Major once again to think that Manuel complaining is the moose talking. The German guests watch the whole ordeal in disbelief, one wonders aloud how the British won the war. Interior scenes of this episode were recorded on 31 August 1975, in Studio TC6 of the BBC Television Centre, before a live audience; this was the only episode not to begin with an exterior shot of the hotel. Instead, an exterior shot of the Northwick Park Hospital in Brent was used. In the scene where Manuel attempts to put out a fire in the kitchen, firemen were on standby to put out the flames; however in the next shot where Manuel walks out to alert Basil of the fire, two chemicals were added to his arm, to create smoke. During rehearsal and filmi
The Germanic peoples are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Northern European origin identified by their use of the Germanic languages. Their history stretches from the 2nd millennium BCE up to the present day. Proto-Germanic peoples are believed to have emerged during the Nordic Bronze Age, which developed out of the Battle Axe culture in southern Scandinavia. During the Iron Age various Germanic tribes began a southward expansion at the expense of Celtic peoples, which led to centuries of sporadic violent conflict with ancient Rome, it is from Roman authors. The decisive victory of Arminius at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE is believed to have prevented the eventual Romanization of the Germanic peoples, has therefore been considered a turning point in world history. Germanic tribes settled the entire Roman frontier along the Rhine and the Danube, some established close relations with the Romans serving as royal tutors and mercenaries, sometimes rising to the highest offices in the Roman military.
Meanwhile, Germanic tribes expanded into Eastern Europe, where the Goths subdued the local Iranian nomads and came to dominate the Pontic Steppe launching sea expeditions into the Balkans and Anatolia as far as Cyprus. The westward expansion of the Huns into Europe in the late 4th century CE pushed many Germanic tribes into the Western Roman Empire, their vacated lands were filled by Slavs. Much of these territories were reclaimed in following centuries. Other tribes became known as the Anglo-Saxons. With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, a series of Germanic kingdoms emerged, of which, Francia gained a dominant position; this kingdom formed the Holy Roman Empire under the leadership of Charlemagne, recognized by Pope Leo III in 800 CE. Meanwhile, North Germanic seafarers referred to as Vikings, embarked on a massive expansion which led to the establishment of the Duchy of Normandy, Kievan Rus' and their settlement of the British Isles and the North Atlantic Ocean as far as North America.
With the North Germanic abandonment of their native religion in the 11th century, nearly all Germanic peoples had been converted to Christianity. In about 222 BCE, the first use of the Latin term "Germani" appears in the Fasti Capitolini inscription de Galleis Insvbribvs et Germ; this may be referring to Gaul or related people. The term Germani shows up again written by Poseidonios, but is a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, whose memoirs are based on first-hand experience. From Caesar's perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine opposite Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control; this word provides the etymological origin of the modern concept of "Germanic" languages and Germany as a geographical abstraction. For some classical authors Germania included regions of Sarmatia, as well as an area under Roman control on the west bank of the Rhine.
Additionally, in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar and others noted differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine, but the theme of all these cultural references was that this was a wild and dangerous region, less civilized than Gaul, a place that required additional military vigilance. Caesar used the term Germani for a specific tribal grouping in northeastern Belgic Gaul, west of the Rhine, the largest part of whom were the Eburones, he made clear. These are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be related to the peoples east of the Rhine, descended from immigrants into Gaul. Tacitus suggests that this was the original meaning of the word "Germani" – as the name of a single tribal nation west of the Rhine, ancestral to the Tungri, not the name of a whole race as it came to mean, he suggested that two large Belgic tribes neighbouring Caesar's Germani, the Nervii and the Treveri, liked to call themselves Germanic in his time, in order not to be associated with Gaulish indolence.
Caesar described this group of tribes both as Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail; the geographer Ptolemy described the place where these people lived as Germania, which according to his accounts was bordered by the Rhine and Danube Rivers, but he circumscribed into Greater Germania an area which included Jutland and an enormous island known as Scandia. While saying that the Germani had ancestry across the Rhine, Caesar did not describe these tribes as recent immigrants, saying that they had defended themselves some generations earlier from the invading Cimbri and Teutones, it has been claimed, for example by Maurits Gysseling, that the place names of this region show evidence of an early presence of Germanic languages, as early as the 2nd century BCE. The Celtic culture and language were however influential als
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
The German Shepherd is a breed of medium to large-sized working dog that originated in Germany. In the English language, the breed's recognized name is German Shepherd Dog; the breed was known as the Alsatian in Britain until 1977 when its name was changed back to German Shepherd. The German Shepherd is a new breed of dog, with their origin dating to 1899; as part of the Herding Group, German Shepherds are working dogs developed for herding sheep. Since that time however, because of their strength, intelligence and obedience, German Shepherds around the world are the preferred breed for many types of work, including disability assistance, search-and-rescue and military roles, acting; the German Shepherd is the second-most registered breed by the American Kennel Club and seventh-most registered breed by The Kennel Club in the United Kingdom. German Shepherds are medium to large-sized dogs; the breed standard height at the withers is 60–65 cm for males, 55–60 cm for females. German Shepherds are longer than tall, with an ideal proportion of 10 to 8 1/2.
The AKC official breed standard does not set a standard weight range. They have a long square-cut muzzle with strong jaws and a black nose; the eyes are brown. The ears are large and stand erect, open at the front and parallel, but they are pulled back during movement. A German Shepherd has a long neck, raised when excited and lowered when moving at a fast pace; the tail reaches to the hock. German Shepherds have a two-layer coat, close and dense with a thick undercoat; the coat is accepted in two variants. The long-hair gene is recessive. Treatment of the long-hair variation differs across standards; the FCI accepted the long-haired type in 2010, listing it as the variety b—while short-haired type is listed as the variety a. Most German Shepherds are either tan/black or red/black. Most color varieties have black masks and black body markings which can range from a classic "saddle" to an over-all "blanket." Rarer color variations include the sable, pure-black, pure-white, silver and panda varieties.
The all-black and sable varieties are acceptable according to most standards. German Shepherds were bred for their intelligence, a trait for which they are now famous. In the book The Intelligence of Dogs, author Stanley Coren ranked the breed third for intelligence, behind Border Collies and Poodles, he found that they had the ability to learn simple tasks after only five repetitions and obeyed the first command given 95% of the time. Coupled with their strength, this trait makes the breed desirable as police and search and rescue dogs, as they are able to learn various tasks and interpret instructions better than other breeds. German Shepherds are moderately active are described in breed standards as self-assured; the breed is marked by an eagerness to have a purpose. They are curious, they can become over-protective of their family and territory if not socialized correctly. They are not inclined to become immediate friends with strangers. German Shepherds are intelligent and obedient, as well as being protective of their owners.
While an Australian report from 1999 provides statistics showing that German Shepherds are the breed third most to attack a person in some Australian locales, once their popularity is taken into account, the percentages of GSD attacks drops to 38th. According to the National Geographic Channel television show Dangerous Encounters, the bite of a German Shepherd has a force of over 1,060 newtons; the modern German Shepherd breed is criticized by some for straying away from Max von Stephanitz's original ideology that German Shepherds should be bred as working dogs and that breeding should be controlled to eliminate defects quickly. He believed that, above all else, German Shepherds should be bred for intelligence and working ability; the Kennel Club, in the United Kingdom, is involved in a dispute with German Shepherd breed clubs about the issue of soundness in the show-strain of the breed. The show-strains have been bred with an sloping topline that causes poor gait in the hind legs. Working-pedigree lines, such as those in common use as service dogs retain the traditional straight back of the breed.
The debate was catalyzed when the issue was raised in the BBC documentary, Pedigree Dogs Exposed, which said that critics of the breed describe it as "half dog, half frog". An orthopedic vet remarked on footage of dogs in a show ring that they were "not normal"; the Kennel Club's position is that "this issue of soundness is not a simple difference of opinion, it is the fundamental issue of the breed's essential conformation and movement." The Kennel Club has decided to retrain judges to penalize dogs suffering these problems. The Kennel Club recommends tes