Fushun is a prefecture level city in Liaoning province, about 45 km east of Shenyang, with a population of 2,138,090 inhabitants and a total area of 11,272 km2, 714 km2 of, the city proper. Situated on the Hun River, it is one of the economic development hubs in Liaoning; the Ming dynasty first constructed Fushun walled city in 1384. "Fushun" is an abbreviation of Chinese “抚绥边疆，顺导夷民” "to pacify the frontiers. The Jurchen leader Nurhaci married his granddaughter by his son Abatai to the Ming dynasty General Li Yongfang after Li surrendered Fushun in 1618; the offspring of Li received the "Third Class Viscount" title. Fushun was in ruins in the one-and-a-half centuries of early Qing dynasty. In 1783, the new walled city was completed southwest of the old city. In 1908, Fushun became the seat of Xingren County. Fushun was occupied by Russia until 1905 and by Japan until 1945. With the Japanese victory over Imperial Russia and signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth, the South Manchuria branch of the China Far East Railway was transferred to Japanese control.
South Manchuria Railway Company expanded the system inherited from Russia to staggering proportions. Coal mines were developed at Fushun. Under the control of the Japanese and with 30 years of development, Fushun area became industrialized. Fushun gained city status in 1937. Fushun has 2.14 million inhabitants, including 1.34 million in the urban area. It is now part of the Shenyang-Fushun built-up area, home to 6,756,379 inhabitants in 2010; this makes Shenyang-Fushun the 8th most populous built up area in China after the Pearl River Delta conurbation of Guangzhou, Dongguan, Jiangmen and Huizhou Shanghai-Suzhou, Tianjin, Hangzhou-Shaoxing and Nanjing. Fushun consists of 1 county and 2 autonomous counties. Fushun is a industrialized area and nicknamed "the City of Coal", it has developed as a thriving center for fuel and raw materials and is offering more and more opportunities in textiles and electronics. One of the world's largest open-pit coal mines, the West Open Mine, is located south of the city.
Exploited from the 12th century, it was operated as an open pit mine during the 20th and early 21st Century. Total coal production in Fushun as a whole had fallen below 3 million tons, down from 18.3 million tons in 1962. Fushun has a major aluminum-reduction plant and factories producing automobiles, chemicals and rubber; the total GDP of the city of Fushun was 54.27 billion yuan in 2009. The GDP per capita of the city of Fushun was 40391 yuan in 2009.. Fushun is rich in wood, oil shale, copper, gold, marble and marl resources. Fushun is known as "the capital of coal"; the main coal and oil shale company is Fushun Mining Group, which produced about 6 million tons of coal in 2001 blending coking coal and steam coal. The company has coalbed methane resources of around 8.9 billion cubic meters. In addition, it owns geological reserves of high grade oil shale, about 3.5 billion tons, of which the exploitable reserve is 920 million tons. Hydroelectric and thermal power are important locally available energy sources.
Fushun has developed through the utilization of the abundant natural mineral deposits found in the area and is a nationally important heavy industrial base for petroleum, metallurgy machinery and construction material industries. New sectors becoming prominent are electronics, light industry and spinning. In 1928, the commercial-scale production of shale oil began in Fushun with the construction of Fushun Coal Mine Temporary Oil Plant of South Manchurian Railway, aka the Western Refinery, operating Fushun-type retorts. After World War II, shale oil production ceased, but 100 Fushun-type oil shale retorts and the related shale oil processing units were restored in 1949. In 1950,a total of 266 retorts were in operation, each with a capacity of 100–200 tonnes of shale oil per day. In 1954, "Refinery No. 2" began production and in 1959 maximum annual shale oil production increased to 780,000 tonnes. From 1965 oil shale usage in Fushun started to decline with the discovery of Da Qing oil field in the 1960s.
Sinopec, a shale oil producer during those times, shut down its oil shale operations in the beginning of the 1990s. At the same time, the Fushun Oil Shale Retorting Plant was established as a part of the Fushun Mining Group, it started production in 1992. In the same year,the China National Oil Shale Association was established in Fushun. At the end of 2006, the Fushun Mining Group operated the largest shale oil plant in the world, consisting of seven retorting units with 20 retorts in each unit, for a total 140 sets of Fushun type retorts. There are two oil refineries. Fushun Petrochemical Company, a subsidiary of PetroChina, is building a refining and petrochemical complex in Fushun. Fushun is located 40 km from Shenyang Taoxian airport. Railways and highways connect the city to Jilin Province; the seaports of Dalian and Y
Dornier Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer founded in Friedrichshafen in 1914 by Claude Dornier. Over the course of its long lifespan, the company produced many designs for both the civil and military markets. Dornier Metallbau, Dornier Flugzeugwerke took over Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen production facilities when it failed in 1923. Dornier was well known between the two world wars as a manufacturer of large, all-metal flying boats and of land based airliners; the record-breaking 1924 Wal was used on many long distance flights and the Do X set records for its immense size and weight. Dornier's successful landplane airliners, including the Komet and Merkur which were used by Lufthansa and other European carriers during the 1920s and early 30s. Dornier built its aircraft outside Germany during much of this period due to the restrictions placed on German aircraft manufacturers by the Treaty of Versailles: locations included Altenrhein, Switzerland, 12km from Zeppelin's Lindau location.
Foreign factories licence-building Dornier products included CMASA and Piaggio in Italy, CASA in Spain, Kawasaki in Japan, Aviolanda in the Netherlands. Once the Nazi government came to power and abandoned the treaty's restrictions, Dornier resumed production in Germany; the success of the Wal family encouraged the development of derivatives, of more advanced successors, such as the Do 18, Do 24 which saw service in several armed forces, including German, into World War II. Dornier's most important World War II military aircraft design was the Do 17, nicknamed The Flying Pencil, it first flew in 1934 as a mailplane for Lufthansa but due to its narrow fuselage it was not commercially viable and was passed over. Dornier developed it further as a military aircraft, with a prototype bomber flying in 1935, in 1937 it was used in by the German Condor Legion during the Spanish Civil War. Production continued in Germany and it was developed to fill multiple roles for the Luftwaffe; as a medium bomber it saw service during the early part of World War II during the Battle of Britain.
It was developed into a nightfighter to counter the RAF bomber offensive. Dornier developed the similar looking Do 217 from the Do 17 but it was a larger and new design. Dornier developed the fastest piston-engined fighter of the war, the twin-engined Do 335, too late to see service. After WWII aircraft production was again forbidden in Germany, Dornier relocated to Spain and to Switzerland where the firm provided aeronautical consultancy services until returning to Germany in 1954. Post-war, Dornier re-established itself with successful small STOL Do 28 transports. In 1974 it joined in a joint venture with French aircraft manufacturers Dassault-Breguet to develop the Alpha Jet; the plane was ordered as the new standard NATO trainer during the 80s. In 1983, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited bought a production licence for the Dornier Do 228 and manufactured the aircraft for the Asian market sphere. By 2013 a total of 117 Dornier DO-228 aircraft had been produced by HAL with plans to build 20 more during 2013-14.
In 1985, Dornier became a member of the Daimler-Benz group integrating its aeronautic assets with the parent company. As part of this transaction, Lindauer Dornier GmbH was spun off, creating a separate, family-owned firm, concentrating on textile machinery design and manufacturing; the rest of the company was split into several subsidiaries for defence, satellites and aircraft. In 1996, the majority of Dornier Aircraft was acquired by Fairchild Aircraft, forming Fairchild Dornier; this company became insolvent in early 2002. Production of its 328 Jet was acquired by US company Avcraft. Asian groups continued to show interest in its 728 version in August 2004, but production had not restarted; the other subsidiaries became part of the EADS. Dornier Medtech manufactures medical equipment, such as the Dornier S lithotriptor, HM3, Compact Delta to treat kidney stones. Dornier MedTech manufactures laser devices for a wide range of applications; the Dornier family have project, the Dornier Seastar. It is a turboprop-powered amphibious aircraft built of composite materials.
This was developed by Claudius Dornier Jr. Dornier Gs Precursor to Wal destroyed by Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control Dornier Do A Libelle Dornier Spatz Landplane version of Do A Dornier Do B Merkur Development of Do C Dornier Do C Komet Dornier Do C 2, 3, 4 Fighter unrelated to earlier Do C, redesignated Do 10 Dornier Do D Dornier Do E Dornier Do F Dornier Do G Grief Dornier Do H Falke Dornier Do I Dornier Do J Wal Dornier Do K Dornier Do L Delphin Dornier Do N Design for Japanese as Kawasaki Ka 87 Dornier Do O Wal Custom built version of Do J Dornier Do P Dornier Do R.2 and R.4 Superwal Dornier Do S Dornier Do T Dornier Do U Dornier Do X Dornier Do Y Additional unbuilt projects include 3 different Schneider Trophy racers from 1924, 1928 and 1931 and a large multi-engine seaplane similar to the Do X
Heinkel He 70
The Heinkel He 70 is a mail plane and fast passenger aircraft of the 1930s designed by German aeronautics firm Heinkel Flugzeugwerke, used in auxiliary bomber and aerial reconnaissance roles. It had a brief commercial career before it was replaced by types which could carry more passengers; the He 70 was a leading design for its day, setting eight world speed records by the beginning of 1933. The Heinkel He 70 Blitz was designed in the early 1930s to serve as a mailplane for Deutsche Luft Hansa in response to a request for an aircraft faster than the Lockheed Vega and Orion used by Swissair) to service short routes, it was a low-wing monoplane, with the main characteristics of its design being an aerodynamically efficient elliptical wing, twin propellers driven by a single engine, small, rounded control surfaces. In order to meet the demanding speed requirements, the design minimised drag, with flush rivets giving a smooth surface finish, a retractable landing gear, it was powered by a BMW VI V12 cooled by ethylene glycol rather than water, allowing a smaller radiator to further reduce drag.
The pilot and radio operator were seated in tandem, followed by a cabin seating four passengers in twos facing each other. The first prototype flew on 1 December 1932, proved to have excellent performance, setting eight world records for speed over distance, reaching a maximum speed of 377 km/h. Luft Hansa operated He 70s between 1934 and 1937 for a fast flight service which connected Berlin with Frankfurt and Cologne, as well as on the Cologne/Hamburg route, he 70s were flown abroad from Stuttgart to Seville between 1934 and 1936. The route was part of the South America mail service provided by Luft Hansa that continued via Bathurst, The Gambia to Natal, using Junkers Ju 52/3m and Dornier Wal flying boats. Remaining aircraft were transferred to the Luftwaffe in 1937; the Luftwaffe operated He 70s from 1935 as a light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. As soon as purpose built designs became available, it was relegated as a liaison and courier aircraft. Twenty-eight aircraft were sent in the late 1930s to Spain with the German-manned Legion Condor, where they were used during the Spanish Civil War as fast reconnaissance aircraft.
There they were known as the Rayo, Spanish for "lightning". The He 70K was a fast reconnaissance airplane variant used by the German air force. Fitted with a new WM-K-14 radial engine, it was used by the Royal Hungarian Air Force as the He 170A early in World War II during 1941–42; the main weakness of the He 70 in military use was. Elements of the airframe were made out of an flammable magnesium alloy called "Elektron", though the majority of the monocoque fuselage was Duralumin. Elektron is light yet strong, but burns when ignited and is difficult to extinguish. Moreover, each wing contained a non-self-sealing 47-gallon fuel tank, which may have further added to the aircraft's reputation for catching fire. A single hit from a light machine gun is reputed to have set the entire aircraft ablaze; the Hungarian He 170A fleet was retired for this and other reasons, including poor defensive armament, short range and poor view from the cabin, replaced with vintage, high-wing He 46 monoplanes, until modern Bf 109 fighter-reconnaissance and specialized Fw 189 "Uhu" medium altitude observation aircraft could be introduced.
While the He 70 saw only limited service in training capacities during World War II, it was the Luftwaffe's first Schnellbomber and served as the antecedent for the majority of bombers involved in both the Battle of Britain and the attack on Pearl Harbor. The He 70 is known as the direct ancestor of the Heinkel He 111, which had the distinctive elliptical wings and streamlined fuselage in a twin-engine configuration. One can see the close similarity of the designs in the tail section and cockpit of the early He 111; the He 111, which began service with the Luftwaffe in 1936, went on to become the most numerous bomber type of the Luftwaffe – with just over 5,600 examples produced during the war in total – in the early years of World War II, before the growing numbers of Junkers Ju 88 bomber variants overtook it in World War II. Heinkel's pioneering design was a model for the He 112 fighter which competed unsuccessfully against the Messerschmitt Bf 109 to become the Luftwaffe's first monoplane fighter.
The He 112 was nonetheless built in small numbers, its performance proved once again the strength of the He 70's original design. The He 70 was inspired the Aichi D3A carrier-launched light bomber; this aircraft shared the He 70's distinctive low-mounted elliptical wing and was one of several collaborations between Heinkel and the Japanese aviation industry. It has been said that the He 70 was an inspiration or influence for the Supermarine Spitfire's elliptical wing. In a letter to Heinkel, written after seeing the aircraft perform with the Rolls Royce Kestrel engine fitted, R. J. Mitchell said: We, at Supermarine Aviation, were impressed, since we have been unable to achieve such smooth lines in the aircraft that we entered for the Schneider Trophy Races.... In addition to this, we investigated the effect that installing certain new British fighter engines would have on the He 70, We were dismayed to find that your new aircraft, despite its larger measurements, is appreciably faster than our fighters.
It is indeed a triumph. However, Beverley Shenstone, RJ Mitchell's aerodynamic advisor denied that the Spitfire wing was copied from the He 70. Shenstone said: It has been suggested that we at Supermarine had cribbed the wing shape from that of the He 70 transport; this was not so
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational corporation known as a manufacturer of motorcycles, heavy equipment and defense equipment, rolling stock and ships. It is active in the production of industrial robots, gas turbines and other industrial products; the company is named after its founder Shōzō Kawasaki, has dual headquarters in Chūō-ku, Kobe and Minato, Tokyo. KHI is known as one of the three major heavy industrial manufacturers of Japan, alongside Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and IHI. Prior to World War II, KHI was part of the Kobe Kawasaki zaibatsu, which included Kawasaki Steel and Kawasaki Kisen. After the war, KHI became part of the DKB Group. Kawasaki is active in a diverse range of the aerospace industry; the Company is a contractor for the Japanese Ministry of Defense and has built aircraft such as the C-1 transport aircraft, T-4 intermediate jet trainer, the P-3C antisubmarine warfare patrol airplane. Since 2007, it has built the P-1 maritime patrol aircraft, since 2010, it has built the C-2 transport aircraft.
Kawasaki builds helicopters, including the BK117, jointly developed and manufactured with MBB. It produces the CH-47J / JA helicopter. In the commercial aviation business, the company is involved in the joint international development and production of large passenger aircraft, it is involved in joint development and production of the Boeing 767, Boeing 777 and Boeing 787 with The Boeing Company, the 170, 175, 190 and 195 jets with Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica. It is involved in the joint international development and production of turbofan engines for passenger aircraft such as the V2500, the RB211/Trent, the PW4000 and the CF34. Kawasaki works for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency; the Company was responsible for the development and production of the payload fairings, payload attach fittings and the construction of the launch complex for the H-II rocket. It continues to provide services for the H-IIA rocket. Kawasaki has participated in projects such as the development of reusable launch vehicles for spacecraft that will handle future space transport, space robotics projects such as the Japanese Experiment Module for the International Space Station, the HOPE-X experimental orbiting plane and the docking mechanism for the ETS-VII.
Main products Aircraft Space systems Helicopters Simulators Jet engines Missiles Electronic equipment Kawasaki is Japan’s largest manufacturer of rolling stock. It began operations in the industry in 1906, it manufactures express and commuter trains, subway cars, freight trains, locomotives and new transit systems. Kawasaki is involved in the development and design of high-speed trains such as Japan’s Shinkansen. Main Products Electric cars Monorails Passenger coaches and freight cars Diesel locomotives Electric locomotives Platform screen door systems Passenger coaches and freight cars integrated transit systems Shipbuilding is the historical industry in which Kawasaki Heavy Industries was created and developed, as from the company's 1878 founding as the Kawasaki Dockyard Co. Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary of Kawasaki Heavy Industries, its product range include high-performance LNG and LPG carriers, container ships, bulk carriers and VLCCs, as well as submarines.
The Company is involved in the development of offshore structures and research vessels. Kawasaki produces marine machinery and equipment, including main engines, propulsion systems, steering gears and fishing machinery. Kawasaki has shipyards at Kobe and Sakaide, Kagawa.. The company builds ships as a part of joint ventures with COSCO in China, i.e. the Nantong COSCO KHI Ship Engineering Co. Ltd. in Nantong and the Dalian COSCO KHI Ship Engineering Co. Ltd. in Dalian, China. Main products LNG carriers LPG carriers Container ships High speed vessels Submarines VLCCs Bulk carriers Offshore structures Marine machinery and equipment Kawasaki's key offering are high-performance gas turbines; the company is involved in development of new energy sources as an alternative to fossil fuels such as wind power generation, biomass power generation, photovoltaic systems and rechargeable batteries. Main products Small and medium-sized gas turbine generators Gas turbine cogeneration systems Gas Engines Wind turbine generators Ash handling systems Combined cycle power plants Nuclear power plant equipment Boilers Kawasaki develops and builds a vast array of industrial plants and equipment, including large cement and nonferrous metal plants, prime movers, compact precision machinery.
It offers industrial plant engineering from design to sales. Kawasaki develops automation systems. Industrial robots for processes such as assembly, welding and sealing, as well as automation systems for distribution and logistics such as automated product- and cargo-handling systems for plants and airports. Main products Industrial plants Industrial robots Aerodynamic machinery Hydraulic equipment Kawasaki is involved in the development of equipment that prevents pollution in a wide range of industries. Among the leading products are fuel gas desulfurization and denitrification systems, ash handling systems; the Company supplies municipal refuse incineration plants and melting systems, sewage treatment and sludge incineration plants. Kawasaki has been developing systems that enable a wide range of municipal and industrial waste to be recovered and put to new use; such systems include refuse paper and plastic fuel production facilities that convert wastepaper/plastics into an easy-to-
Heinkel He 162
The Heinkel He 162 Volksjäger, the name of a project of the Emergency Fighter Program design competition, was a German single-engine, jet-powered fighter aircraft fielded by the Luftwaffe in World War II. It was designed and built and made of wood as metals were in short supply and prioritised for other aircraft. Volksjäger was the Reich Air Ministry's official name for the government design program competition won by the He 162 design. Other names given to the plane include Salamander, the codename of its construction program, Spatz, the name given to the plane by Heinkel. Through 1943 the U. S. 8th Air Force and German Luftwaffe entered a period of rapid evolution as both forces attempted to gain an advantage. Having lost too many fighters to the bombers' defensive guns, the Germans invested in a series of heavy weapons that allowed them to attack from outside the guns' effective range; the addition of heavy cannons like the 30mm calibre MK 108, heavier Bordkanone autoloading weapons in 37mm and 50mm calibres on their Zerstörer heavy fighters, the spring-1943 adoption of the Werfer-Granate 21 unguided rockets, gave the German single and twin-engined defensive fighters a degree of firepower never seen by Allied fliers.
Meanwhile, the single-engine aircraft like specially equipped Fw 190As added armor to protect their pilots from fire, allowing them to approach to distances where their heavy weapons could be used with some chance of hitting the bombers. All of this added to the weight being carried by both the single and twin-engine fighters affecting their performance; when the 8th Air Force re-opened its bombing campaign in early 1944 with the Big Week offensive, the bombers returned to the skies with the long-range P-51 Mustang in escort. Unencumbered with the heavy weapons needed to down a bomber, the Mustangs were able to fend off the Luftwaffe with relative ease; the Luftwaffe responded by changing tactics, forming in front of the bombers and making a single pass through the formations, giving the defense little time to react. The 8th Air Force responded with a change of its own, after Major General Jimmy Doolittle had ordered a change in fighter tactics earlier in 1944, amounting to an air supremacy entry into German airspace far ahead of the bombers' combat box formations — when at the end of April, he added additional directives allowing the fighters, following the bombers' flight back home to England, to roam over Germany and hit the Luftwaffe's defensive fighters wherever they could be found.
This change in tactics resulted in a sudden increase in the rate of irreplaceable losses to the Luftwaffe day fighter force, as their laden aircraft were "bounced" long before reaching the bombers. Within weeks, many of their aces were dead, along with hundreds of other pilots, the training program could not replace their casualties enough; the Luftwaffe put up little fight during the summer of 1944, allowing the Allied landings in France to go unopposed from the air. With few planes coming up to fight, Allied fighters were let loose on the German airbases and truck traffic. Logistics soon became a serious problem for the Luftwaffe, as maintaining aircraft in fighting condition became impossible. Getting enough fuel was more difficult because of a devastating campaign against German petroleum industry targets. Addressing this posed a considerable problem for the Luftwaffe. Two camps developed, both demanding the immediate introduction of large numbers of jet fighter aircraft. One group, led by General Adolf Galland, the Inspector of Fighters, reasoned that superior numbers had to be countered with superior technology, demanded that all possible effort be put into increasing the production of the Messerschmitt Me 262 in its A-1a fighter version if that meant reducing production of other aircraft in the meantime.
The second group pointed out that this would do little to address the problem. Instead, they suggested that a new design be built - one so inexpensive that if a machine was damaged or worn out, it could be discarded and replaced with a fresh plane straight off the assembly line, thus was born the concept of the "throwaway fighter". Galland and other Luftwaffe senior officers expressed vehement opposition to the light fighter idea, while Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring and Armaments Minister Albert Speer supported the idea. Göring and Speer got their way, a contract tender for a single-engine jet fighter, suited for cheap and rapid mass production was established under the name Volksjäger; the official RLM Volksjäger design competition parameters specified a single-seat fighter, powered by a single BMW 003, a lower-thrust engine not in demand for either the Me 262 or the Ar 234 in service. The main structure of the Volksjäger competing airframe designs would use cheap and unsophisticated parts made of wood and other non-strategic materials and, more could be assembled by semi- and non-skilled labor, including slave labor.
Specifications included a weight of no more than 2,000 kg, with maximum speed specified as 750 km/h at sea level, operational endurance at least a half hour, the takeoff run no more than 500 m. Armament was specified as either two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons with 100 rounds each, or two 30 mm MK 108 cannons with 50 rounds each; the Volksjäger ne
The relations between Germany and Japan were established in 1861 with the first ambassadorial visit to Japan from Prussia. Japan modernized after the Meiji Restoration of 1867 using German models through intense intellectual and cultural exchange. After 1900 Japan aligned itself with Britain, Germany and Japan were enemies in World War I. Japan declared war on the German Empire in 1914 and seized key German possessions in China and the Pacific. In the 1930s, both countries adopted aggressive militaristic attitudes toward their respective regions; this led to a rapprochement and a political and military alliance that included Italy: the "Axis". During the World War II, the alliance was limited by the great distances between the Axis powers. After the Second World War, the economies of both nations experienced rapid recoveries. Today and Germany are the third and fourth largest economies in the world, benefit from many kinds of political, cultural and economic cooperation. According to a late 2012 Bertelsmann Foundation Poll, the Germans view Japan overwhelmingly positively, regard that nation as less a competitor and more a partner.
The Japanese views of Germany are positive as well, with 97% viewing Germany positively and only 3% viewing Germany negatively. Relations between Japan and Germany date from the Tokugawa shogunate, when Germans in Dutch service arrived in Japan to work for the Dutch East India Company; the first well-documented cases are those of the physicians Engelbert Kaempfer and Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold in the 1690s and 1820s, respectively. Both accompanied the director of the Dutch trading post at Dejima on the obligatory voyage to Edo to pay tribute to the shōgun. Siebold became the author of Nippon, Archiv zur Beschreibung von Japan, one of the most valuable sources of information on Japan well into the 20th century. Von Siebold's second visit to Japan became a disaster because he tried to influence Dutch politics in Japan and tried to obtain a permanent post as a diplomat in that country. In 1854 the United States pressured Japan into the Convention of Kanagawa, which ended Japan's isolation, but was considered an "unequal treaty" by the Japanese public, since the US did not reciprocate most of Japan's concessions with similar privileges.
In many cases Japan was forced into a system of extraterritoriality that provided for the subjugation of foreign residents to the laws of their own consular courts instead of the Japanese law system, open up ports for trade, even allow Christian missionaries to enter the country. Shortly after the end of Japan's seclusion, in a period called "Bakumatsu", the first German traders arrived in Japan. In 1860 Count Friedrich Albrecht zu Eulenburg led the Eulenburg Expedition to Japan as ambassador from Prussia, a leading regional state in the German Confederation at that time. After four months of negotiations, another "unequal treaty" dedicated to amity and commerce, was signed in January 1861 between Prussia and Japan. Despite being considered one of the numerous unjust negotiations pressed on Japan during that time, the Eulenburg Expedition, both the short- and long-term consequences of the treaty of amity and commerce, are today honoured as the beginning of official Japanese-German relations.
To commemorate its 150th anniversary, events were held in both Germany and Japan from autumn 2010 through autumn 2011 hoping "to'raise the treasures of common past' in order to build a bridge to the future." In 1863, three years after von Eulenburg's visit in Tokyo, a Shogunal legation arrived at the Prussian court of King Wilhelm I and was greeted with a grandiose ceremony in Berlin. After the treaty was signed, Max von Brandt became diplomatic representative in Japan – first representing Prussia, after 1866 representing the North German Confederation, by 1871 representing the newly established German Empire. In 1868 the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown and the Empire of Japan under Emperor Meiji was established. With the return of power to the Tennō dynasty, Japan demanded a revocation of the "unequal treaties" with the western powers and a civil war ensued. During the conflict, German weapons trader Henry Schnell counselled and supplied weapons to the daimyō of Nagaoka, a land lord loyal to the Shogunate.
One year the war ended with the defeat of the Tokugawa and the renegotiation of the "unequal treaties". With the start of the Meiji period, many Germans came to work in Japan as advisors to the new government as so-called "oyatoi gaikokujin" and contributed to the modernization of Japan in the fields of medicine and military affairs. Meckel had been invited by Japan's government in 1885 as an advisor to the Japanese general staff and as teacher at the Army War College, he spent three years in Japan, working with influential persons including Katsura Tarō and Kawakami Soroku, thereby decisively contributing to the modernization of the Imperia
The Reichsmark was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark. The Reichsmark was subdivided into 100 Reichspfennig; the Mark is an ancient Germanic weight measure, traditionally a half pound used for several coins. The Reichsmark was introduced in 1924 as a permanent replacement for the Papiermark; this was necessary due to the 1920s German inflation which had reached its peak in 1923. The exchange rate between the old Papiermark and the Reichsmark was 1 ℛℳ = 1012 Papiermark. To stabilize the economy and to smooth the transition, the Papiermark was not directly replaced by the Reichsmark, but by the Rentenmark, an interim currency backed by the Deutsche Rentenbank, owning industrial and agricultural real estate assets; the Reichsmark was put on the gold standard at the rate used by the Goldmark, with the U. S. dollar worth 4.2 ℛℳ. A number of companies were created with inadequate capital for their operations and authorized to issue bonds exchangeable at a 1:1 rate for Reichsmarks and sold at a discount.
The Reichsbank rediscounted the bills of these companies creating a monetary expansion without formally renouncing the link to gold. Deutsche Gesellschaft für öffentliche Arbeiten AG, founded 1 August 1930, ended up issuing 1.26 billion Reichsmarks of Öffa bills to finance public construction. It formed the baseline model for further fraudulent issues of bills. MEFO was a dummy company, formed with small amounts of capital, used to finance German rearmament off the books, it issued bills without backing by its own resources but which were guaranteed redeemable at 1:1 for Reichsmarks for five years by the government. The MEFO bills amounts were considered a state secret and were an important element in the impression that Hitlerian economics was a success; this company created a large amount of Reichsmarks off the books, inflating the currency in secret. Payment was about to come due giving Hitler the option of shifting the German economy to export goods to pay the bills or going to war and paying the debts off from looting profits extracted from conquered states.
With the unification of Germany and Austria in 1938, the Reichsmark replaced the Schilling in Austria. During the Second World War, Germany established fixed exchange rates between the Reichsmark and the currencies of the occupied and allied countries set so as to give the Germans economic benefits; the rates were as follows: After the Second World War, the Reichsmark continued to circulate in Germany, but with new banknotes printed in the US and in the Soviet Zone, as well as with coins. In practice, massive inflation dating back to the latter stages of the war had rendered the Reichsmark nearly worthless. For all intents and purposes, it was supplanted by a barter economy; the Reichsmark was replaced in June 1948 by the Deutsche Mark in the Trizone and in the same year by the East German Mark in East Germany. The 1948 currency reform under the direction of Ludwig Erhard is considered the beginning of the West German economic recovery. Three days the new currency replaced the Reichsmark in the three Western sectors of Berlin.
In November 1945, the Reichsmark was superseded by the Allied Military Schilling in Austria. In 1947 a local currency was introduced in the Saar. In 1924, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 Reichspfennig, 1 and 3 mark; the 1 and 2 Reichspfennig were struck in bronze, depicting a wheat sheaf. And the 5, 10, 50 Reichspfennig were struck in aluminium-bronze and depicted wheat stocks crossed into a stylized pattern; the two highest denominations were depicted the German eagle standard. In 1925.500 fine silver 1 and 2 Reichsmark coins were introduced for circulation, along with the first of many commemorative 3 and 5 Reichsmark coins. In 1927, nickel 50 Reichspfennig coins were introduced along with regular-type 5 Reichsmark coins, followed by the 3 Reichsmark coin in 1931. Nazi Germany had a number of mints; each mint location had its own identifiable letter. It is therefore possible to identify which mint produced what coin by noting the mint mark on the coin. Not all mints were authorized to produce coins every year.
The mints were only authorized to produce a set number of coins with some mints allocated a greater production than others. Some of the coins with particular mint marks are therefore scarcer than others. With the silver 2 and 5 Reichsmark coins, the mint mark is found under the date on the left side of the coin. On the smaller denomination Reichspfennig coins, the mint mark is found on the bottom center of the coin. A = Berlin B = Wien D = München E = Muldenhütten F = Stuttgart G = Karlsruhe J = Hamburg Four Reichspfennig coins were issued in 1932 as part of a failed attempt by the Reichskanzler Heinrich Brüning to reduce price