Early Modern Switzerland
The early modern history of the Old Swiss Confederacy and its constituent Thirteen Cantons encompasses the time of the Thirty Years War until the French invasion of 1798. The early modern period was characterized by an aristocratic and oligarchic ruling class as well as frequent economic or religious revolts. This period came to be referred to as the Ancien Régime retrospectively, the loosely organized Confederation remained generally disorganized and crippled by the religious divisions created by the Swiss Reformation. During this period the Confederation gained formal independence from the Holy Roman Empire with support from France, the early modern period saw the growth of French-Swiss literature, and notable authors of the Age of Enlightenment such as the mathematicians of the Bernoulli family and Leonhard Euler of Basel. The Old Swiss Confederacy between phases of expansion consisted of Eight Cantons during 1352–1481, and of Thirteen Cantons from 1513 until its collapse in 1798, the Thirteen Cantons thus correspond to the sovereign territories of Early Modern Switzerland.
The Reformation in Switzerland left the Old Swiss Confederacy divided between two hostile factions, but still, Switzerland remained a relative oasis of peace and prosperity while Europe was torn by the Thirty Years War. The cities generally lay low and watched the destruction from afar, the cantons had concluded numerous mercenary contracts and defence alliances with partners on all sides. At the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the Swiss Confederacy attained legal independence from the Holy Roman Empire, during the Thirty Years War, the Drei Bünde had been caught in the middle of internal and external conflict. Because the Leagues were very decentralized, conflicts over religion and foreign policy broke out during the war, following the war the League took steps to strengthen itself. The Valtellina, which had broken from the Three Leagues, became a dependency once again after the Treaty, following the Thirty Years War, as France grew into a great power in Europe, the newly independent Confederation turned to France for trade and protection.
In 1663 the Confederation agreed to a new treaty with France which granted Swiss mercenaries certain rights, however, as a consequence of this treaty Switzerland could do nothing when Louis XIV took Alsace, Franche-Comté and Strasbourg. While Louis XIV promoted a number of French pretenders to the title, in a victory for the Protestant half of the Confederation, Frederick I, who claimed his entitlement in a rather complicated fashion through the Houses of Orange and Nassau, was selected. In 1715 the Catholic cantons, to regain prestige following their defeat during the Second Battle of Villmergen, renewed the Confederations treaty with France with several major and unpopular changes. France was placed in the position of the guarantor of their freedom rights of interfering in case of attack from forces within or without the Confederation. France promised to procure restitution for the lands lost by the Catholic cantons to the Protestant cantons and this agreement removed much of the independence that the Confederation had enjoyed.
In 1777 the unpopular clause was dropped from an agreement between the Confederation and France and the independence of Switzerland was explicitly stated. Political power congealed around the 13 cantons of the old confederation, during this era, the patrician families decreased in number but increased in power. Some patrician families were drawn from leadership in the guilds or trading groups within the town, while other families grew from successful mercenary captains, the trend toward increasing authoritarianism conflicted with the history of public expression that grew out of the Swiss Reformation
The town of Schwyz is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. The Federal Charter of 1291 or Bundesbrief, the charter that led to the foundation of Switzerland. The official language of Schwyz is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. The earliest certain record of the dates to 972 as villa Suittes. There are a number of uncertain records dated between 924 and 960, in the form Swites and Switz, the name is recorded as Schwitz in the 13th century, and in the 17th to 18th century often as Schweitz. It was long presented as derived from the name of a founder in Swiss legend, one Suito or Switer. There is currently no consensus on the names derivation, a Germanic etymology was suggested by Gatschet, deriving the name from an Old High German verb suedan to burn. Brandstetter is critical of Gatschets suggestion and prefers derivation from an Alemannic personal name in Svid- as it were presenting a scholarly defense of the Suito of the founding legend, hubschmied himself distanced himself from this opinion in 1961, preferring an unspecified pre-Roman source.
The name Schwyz was extended to the area dominated by Schwyz, eidgenossenschaft and Schwytzerland could be used interchangeably as country names in the 16th century. The Swiss German pronunciation is homophonous for the name of the town, the spelling of y for originates as a ligature ij in 15th-century handwriting. While a few Roman era coins have found in Schwyz. The Alamanni cemetery at the church and the church itself are both from the first half of the 8th century. This first church was followed by a second ottonian church around 1000, in 1121 the third church building, a romanesque building, was consecrated. This was followed in the 15th Century by the much larger church which was destroyed, along with much of the village. The fifth church, a baroque church was replaced because of serious structural defects by the current late baroque church which was dedicated in 1774. Around 1500, to distinguish it from the Canton of Schwyz, Schwyz town was often called Kilchgassen, the fire of 1642, which destroyed 47 buildings in the center of the village, allowed the town to be totally rebuilt. A new, larger square with major roads radiating out was built in front of the new church.
The houses were rebuilt as urban townhouses and ring of about 30 large patrician farm houses grew up surrounding the village center, besides the town of Schwyz, the municipality includes the settlements of Ibach and Rickenbach
Canton of Zug
The canton of Zug is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland. It is located in central Switzerland and its capital is Zug, at 239 km2 the canton is one of the smallest of the cantons in terms of area. It is not subdivided into districts, but eleven municipalities, the earlier history of the canton is practically identical with that of its capital Zug. From 1728 to 1738 it was distracted by violent disputes about the distribution of the French pensions, in 1798 its inhabitants opposed the French. The canton formed part of the Tellgau and was a district of the canton of the Waldstätten in the Helvetic Republic. The canton of Waldstätten included what are today the cantons of Schwyz, Unterwalden, in 1803, under the Act of Mediation, the canton of Zug regained its independence as a separate canton. The constitution of 1814 abolished public assemblies, which had existed in the canton since 1376, in 1845 the canton of Zug became a member of the Sonderbund and participated in the war of 1847 which was lost to the Swiss confederation.
In 1848 the remaining functions of the Landsgemeinde were abolished, both in 1848 and in 1874 the canton voted against the federal constitutions. The constitution of 1876 was amended in 1881, and replaced by a new one in 1894, near the southern shore of the lake of Ägeri is the site of the Battle of Morgarten, won by the Swiss in 1315. In this battle the powerful Habsburgs were defeated, the hamlet of Morgarten borders the Canton of Schwyz and is home to the Morgarten Battle Monument. The actual battle ground is just across the border in the hamlet of Schornen in the Canton of Schwyz, the canton of Zug is located in central Switzerland and covers an area of 239 square kilometres. The cantons of Lucerne and Aargau lie to its west, to the north, the canton is bounded by the canton of Zurich, whereas to the east and south lies the canton of Schwyz. Most of the land is considered productive, the Lake of Zug and Lake Ägeri make up a considerable part of the cantons area. Lake Ägeri is wholly within the canton, whereas the Zugersee is shared with the cantons of Lucerne, the canton is located on a hilly plateau.
The Höhronen is the highest elevation in the east of the canton, the Zugerberg in the south is another notable elevation. It connects in the south with the Rossberg massif which rises to the Wildspitz east of the Zugersee and this massif separates the Zugersee from the basin and Ägerisee. It separates the district of Menzingen from the Zugersee. The river Lorze is the drainage in the canton
Samnaun is a high Alpine village and a valley at the eastern end of Switzerland and a municipality in the Engiadina Bassa/Val Müstair Region in the Swiss canton of Graubünden. The valley was first used as a mountain pasture for the villages of Tschlin. By 1220 the first permanent farm houses are mentioned and these farm houses and fields were given as a gift to the Marienberg Abbey by the counts of Tarasp in the 12th century. As of 2006 Samnaun has an area of 56.2 km2, of this area,46. 1% is used for agricultural purposes, while 11. 7% is forested. Of the rest of the land,0. 9% is settled, until 2017 it was part of the Ramosch sub-district, of the Inn district, after 2017 it was part of the Engiadina Bassa/Val Müstair Region. It is located in a side valley of the Engadin valley, at an elevation of 1. It consists of five sections, Laret, Ravaisch. In the 19th century, Samnaun could only be reached by road from Spiss in Austria, thus Samnaun was excluded from the Swiss customs territory. It retains a privileged status, albeit not without controversy.
The exception was maintained even after a road was built in 1905 linking Samnaun to Martina, montague shares a ski resort with the municipality of Ischgl in Tyrol, Austria. The Silvretta Arena Samnaun / Ischgl ski area has about 238 km of slopes, the ski resort has 44 ski lifts and cable cars as well as the worlds first double-decker train with a capacity of 180 people. Samnaun has a population of 773, as of 2008,19. 2% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 1%, as of 2000, the gender distribution of the population was 49. 1% male and 50. 9% female. The age distribution, as of 2000, in Samnaun is,267 children or 8. 7% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old,155 teenagers or 5. 1% are 10 to 14, and 281 teenagers or 9. 2% are 15 to 19. Of the adult population,460 people or 15. 0% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 541 people or 17. 6% are 30 to 39,462 people or 15. 1% are 40 to 49, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the CVP which received 45. 7% of the vote.
The next three most popular parties were the SVP, the FDP and the SPS, in Samnaun about 53. 6% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Samnaun has an unemployment rate of 1. 01%, as of 2005, there were 46 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 26 businesses involved in this sector
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
Canton of Schaffhausen
The Canton of Schaffhausen is a canton of Switzerland. The principal city and capital of the canton is Schaffhausen, Schaffhausen was a city-state in the Middle Ages, it is documented that it struck its own coins starting in 1045. It was documented as Villa Scafhusun, around 1049 Count Eberhard von Nellenburg founded a Benedictine monastery which led to the development of a community. This community achieved independence in 1190, in 1330 the town lost not only all its lands but its independence to the Habsburgs. In 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, as a result of the ban and Fredericks need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454, Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederation in 1501. The first railroad came to Schaffhausen in 1857, in 1944 Schaffhausen suffered from a bombing raid by United States Army Air Forces planes that accidentally strayed from Germany into neutral Switzerland.
The cantonal constitution was written in 1876 and revised in 1895, the distinctive coat of arms bears the Schaffhauser Bock. Schaffhausen is the northernmost canton of Switzerland and lies almost entirely on the bank of the Rhine. It lies west of Lake Constance and has an area of 298 km2, much of the canton is productive agricultural land, with 134.4 km2 of the canton used for agriculture while an additional 128.7 km2 is wooded. Most of the rest of the canton,31.8 km2, is developed, the cantons territory is divided into three non-contiguous segments where German territory reaches the Rhine. The large central part, which includes the capital Schaffhausen, in turn separates the German exclave of Büsingen am Hochrhein from the rest of Germany, the small exclave of Rüdlingen-Buchberg lies to the southwest, and the third part contains Ramsen and Stein am Rhein to the east. With the exception of Vor der Brugg, part of Stein am Rhein, the canton of Schaffhausen is bordered by the Swiss cantons of Zurich and Thurgau, as well as the German districts of Waldshut, Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis and Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg.
Most of the lies on a plateau dominated by the Hoher Randen. The summit of mountain is at 912 m. The slopes of the mountain are gentle towards the south where it reaches the Rhine valley and narrow valleys intersect these gentle slopes. The Klettgau is one such valley, the Rhine Falls are the largest waterfalls in Europe and lie on the border of the cantons of Schaffhausen and Zürich. There are 27 municipalities in the canton as of January 2009, the population of the canton is 79,836
Canton of Bern
The canton of Bern is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population. Located in west-central Switzerland, it borders the canton of Jura, to the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and Vaud. To the south lies the canton of Valais, east of the canton of Bern lie the cantons of Uri, Obwalden and Aargau. The canton of Bern is bilingual and has a population of 1,017,483, as of 2007, the population included 119,930 foreigners. The cantonal capital, the capital of Switzerland, is Bern. Bern joined the Swiss Confederation in 1353 and was between 1803 and 1814 one of the six directorial cantons of the Napoleonic Swiss Confederation and these caves were used at various times during the last ice age. The first open-air settlement in the area is an upper paleolithic settlement at Moosbühl in Moosseedorf, during the warmer climate of the mesolithic period, increasing forest cover restricted the movement of hunters and gatherers. Their temporary settlements were built along lake and marsh edges, which remained free of trees due to fluctuations in water level, important mesolithic sites in the Canton are at Pieterlenmoos and Burgäschisee lake along with alpine valleys at Diemtig and Simmental.
During the neolithic period, there were a number of settlements on the shores of Lake Biel, several of these sites are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. One of the best explored neolithic sites is at Twann, in the Twannbach delta there were about 25 Cortaillod culture and Horgen culture villages that existed between 3800 and 2950 BC. One of the oldest examples of bread from Switzerland, a sourdough from 3560–3530 BC, simple copper objects were already in use in the 4th millennium BC, including a copper pin from Lattrigen from 3170 BC and a knife blade from Twann. Shortly before 2000 BC bronze production entered the area and brought about a surge in development, settlements began to spread into the pre-Alpine and Alpine areas. The area between Lake Thun and the Niedersimmental were densely settled, Late Bronze Age settlements along Lake Biel have yielded up a wealth of items. During the early Iron Age changes in climate forced them to settlements along many waterways and in the valley floors and move to the plateaus.
With increased trade contacts across the Alps, the influence of the Mediterranean grew in the area. Evidence of this include a hydria which was discovered in Grächwil. Burial rituals and social classes became more developed during this time, the so-called princely graves became more common, many of the burial mounds were over 30 m in diameter and 4 m high and richly outfitted with grave goods. In a grave mound in Bützberg the first burial in the mound was followed by burials