American Indian Wars
These conflicts occurred in the current boundaries of the United States from the time of earliest colonial settlements until 1924. In many cases, wars resulted from competition for resources and land ownership as Europeans and raiding took place as a result of conflicts between European governments and the United States. These governments enlisted Native Americans tribes to help them conduct warfare against each others settlements, after 1776, many conflicts were local, involving disputes over land use, and some entailed cycles of reprisal. In the 1800s, conflicts were spurred by ideologies such as Manifest Destiny, in the years leading up to the Indian Removal Act of 1830 there were many armed conflicts between settlers and Native Americans. Prior to the Act of 1830, some conflicts were resolved through sale or exchange of territory through treaties between the government and specific tribes. The 1830 act authorized the removal of indigenous peoples who lived East of the Mississippi River to the West.
As United States citizens continued to settle areas towards the Pacific, the policy of removal was refined to move some indigenous peoples to very specific reservations. The 2010 census found 2,932,248 Americans who identified themselves as being Native American, no consensus exists on how many native people lived in the Americas before the arrival of Columbus, but extensive research has been and continues to be conducted. Estimates on the population of pre-Colombus North America range from a low of 2.1 million to 7 million people to 18 million, scholars believe that the overwhelming main causes were new infectious diseases carried by European explorers and traders. Native Americans had no acquired immunity to diseases, which had been chronic in Eurasian populations for over five centuries. For instance, some estimates indicate case fatality rates of 80–98% in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men and children, including those killed in individual combats, the actual number of killed and wounded Indians must be very much higher than the number given.
Fifty percent additional would be a safe estimate, from about 1600 onwards, the process of European colonization of North America by the English, Spanish and Swedish was contested by various indigenous tribes. Similarly, in the American Revolution and the War of 1812, the British planned to set up an Indian nation in what is now the Ohio-Wisconsin area to block further American expansion. The U. S. protested and finally, in 1812, most Indian tribes, especially those allied with Tecumseh, supported the British and were ultimately defeated by General William Henry Harrison. The latter were defeated by General Andrew Jackson and after such warfare, many refugees from defeated tribes went over the border to Canada, those in the South went to Florida while it was under Spanish control. During the early 19th century, the government was under pressure by settlers in many regions to expel Native Americans from their areas. Some resisted fiercely, most notably the Seminoles in a series of wars in Florida and they were never finally defeated, although some Seminole did remove to Indian Territory
The German American ethnic group consists of Americans who have full or partial German ancestry. With an estimated size of approximately 46 million in 2014, German Americans are the largest of the groups reported by the US Census Bureau in its American Community Survey. The group accounts for about 1⁄3 of the total ethnic German population in the world, none of the German states had American colonies. In the 1670s the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the British colonies, settling primarily in New York, immigration continued in very large numbers during the 19th century, with eight million arrivals from Germany. Between 1820 and 1870 over seven and a half million German immigrants came to the United States — more than doubling the population of the country. By 2010, their population grew to 49.8 million immigrants, there is a German belt that extends all the way across the United States, from eastern Pennsylvania to the Oregon coast. The state of Pennsylvania has 3.5 million people of German ancestry and they were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, and pushed out of Europe by shortages of land and religious or political oppression.
Many arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, the arrivals before 1850 were mostly farmers who sought out the most productive land, where their intensive farming techniques would pay off. After 1840, many came to cities, where Germania—German-speaking districts—soon emerged, German Americans established the first kindergartens in the United States, introduced the Christmas tree tradition, and introduced popular foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers to America. The great majority of people with some German ancestry have become Americanized and hardly can be distinguished, traditional Oktoberfest celebrations and the German-American Day are popular festivities. There are major events in cities with German heritage including Chicago, Milwaukee, San Antonio. The Germans included many quite distinct subgroups with differing religious and cultural values and they generally opposed womens suffrage but this was used as argument in favor of suffrage when German Americans became pariahs during World War I.
The first English settlers arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 and he was followed in 1608 by five glassmakers and three carpenters or house builders. The first permanent German settlement in what became the United States was Germantown, large numbers of Germans migrated from the 1680s to 1760s, with Pennsylvania the favored destination. They migrated to America for a variety of reasons, often immigrants paid for their passage by selling their labor for a period of years as indentured servants. Large sections of Pennsylvania and upstate New York attracted Germans, most were Lutheran or German Reformed, many belonged to small religious sects such as the Moravians and Mennonites. German Catholics did not arrive in number until after the War of 1812, in 1709, Protestant Germans from the Pfalz or Palatine region of Germany escaped conditions of hardship, traveling first to Rotterdam and to London. Anne, Queen of Great Britain, helped them get to her colonies in America, the trip was long and difficult to survive because of the poor quality of food and water aboard ships and the infectious disease typhus
St. Louis is an independent city and major U. S. port in the state of Missouri, built along the western bank of the Mississippi River, on the border with Illinois. Prior to European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture. The city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, in 1764, following Frances defeat in the Seven Years War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase, during the 19th century, St. Louis developed as a major port on the Mississippi River. In the 1870 Census, St. Louis was ranked as the 4th-largest city in the United States and it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the Summer Olympics, the economy of metro St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, and tourism.
This city has become known for its growing medical, pharmaceutical. St. Louis has 2 professional sports teams, the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball, the city is commonly identified with the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in Downtown St. Louis. The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture and their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 AD to 1500 AD. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the Mound City and these mounds were mostly demolished during the citys development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years later, La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane. The earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia, migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years War, Pierre Laclède, the early French families built the citys economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe, French colonists used African slaves as domestic servants and workers in the city. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces, mostly Native American allies, the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River, before then, Laclede had been a very successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area
Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ. oʊ/ is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, the states capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, the name originated from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning great river or large creek. Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state on March 1,1803, Ohio is historically known as the Buckeye State after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are known as Buckeyes. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives, Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state, Ohios geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo, Ohio has the nations 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North Americas population and 70% of North Americas manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline, Ohios southern border is defined by the Ohio River, and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohios neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the rivers 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark, the border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with a flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills, in 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region.
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia, the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles, was the largest artificial lake in the world and it should be noted that Ohios canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their emergence to location on canals. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold, precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Wisconsin is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous. The state capital is Madison, and its largest city is Milwaukee, the state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline, Wisconsin is known as Americas Dairyland because it is one of the nations leading dairy producers, particularly famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, especially paper products, information technology, and tourism are major contributors to the states economy. The word Wisconsin originates from the given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673, subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, and over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands.
English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in numbers during the early 19th century. The legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845, the Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure. Interpretations vary, but most implicate the river and the red sandstone that lines its banks, other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning red stone place, where the waters gather, or great rock. Wisconsin has been home to a variety of cultures over the past 12,000 years. The first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation and these early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting, agricultural societies emerged gradually over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE.
Toward the end of period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the Effigy Mound culture. Later, between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact, the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was probably the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien
The Pennsylvania Dutch are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants. The word Dutch does not refer to the Dutch people or their descendants, the early wave of settlers, which would eventually coalesce to form the Pennsylvania Dutch, began in the late 17th century and concluded in the late 18th century. Historically they spoke the dialect of German known as Pennsylvania German or Pennsylvania Dutch, the first major emigration of Germans to America resulted in the founding of the Borough of Germantown, in northwest Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, on October 6,1683. Mass emigration of Palatines began out of Germany in the early 18th century from areas along the Rhine River, the Pennsylvania Dutch maintained numerous religious affiliations, with the greatest number being Lutheran or Reformed, but with many Anabaptists as well. The Anabaptist religions promoted a lifestyle, and their adherents were known as Plain people or Plain Dutch.
This was in contrast to the Fancy Dutch, who tended to more easily into the American mainstream. Over time, the dialects spoken by these immigrants fused into a unique dialect known as Pennsylvania German or Pennsylvania Dutch. At one time, more than one-third of Pennsylvanias population spoke this language, a number of German cultural practices continue to this day, and German Americans remain the largest ancestry group claimed in Pennsylvania by people in the census. Pennsylvania Dutch is most likely a corruption of the endonym Deitsch, the word Dutch and Deutsch share the same origin and similar pronunciation. The pronunciation though for Dutch is with the u like in but, so in the latter it sounds like Doych. During the Middle Ages the use of Dutch in English referred to West Germanic speakers of continental Europe in general, from c.1600 onward it was mainly restricted to the inhabitants of the Low Countries. This has resulted in communities of Pennsylvania Dutch speakers emigrating to Canada.
Today, the language is spoken in the Waterloo Region. Many Pennsylvania Dutch are descendants of refugees from the Palatinate of the German Rhine, most of the Pennsylvania Dutch have roots going much further back in the Palatinate. During the War of the Grand Alliance, French troops pillaged the Palatinate, the War of the Palatinate, called the War of the League of Augsburg, began in 1688 as Louis XIV took claim of the Electorate of the Palatinate. French forces devastated all major cities of the region, including Cologne, by 1697 the war came to a close with the Treaty of Ryswick, now Rijswijk in the Netherlands, and the Palatinate remained free of French control. However, by 1702, the War of Spanish Succession began, French expansionism forced many Palatines to flee as refugees. Mass emigration of Palatines began out of Germany in the early 18th century, in the spring of 1709, Queen Anne granted refuge to about 7,000 Palatines who had sailed the Rhine to Rotterdam
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
Edward S. Salomon
Salomon, who was Jewish, was born in the Duchy of Schleswig. He emigrated to Illinois in 1856 and 5 years later, at age 24, was elected an alderman of Chicagos sixth ward in 1861, in July 1861, Salomon was commissioned as a first lieutenant in Colonel Friedrich Heckers 24th Illinois Infantry Regiment. Disagreements arose between Hecker and some of his officers, after which Hecker and his supporters resigned, including Salomon, Salomon became a civilian again from December 1861 to September 1862. In August 1862, Hecker formed a new regiment, the 82nd Illinois Infantry, or the Second Hecker Regiment, composed mainly of German, Swedish, Salomon joined and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel on September 26,1862. Salomon became a hero during the Battle of Gettysburg and he had two horses shot out from under him and assumed command of the regiment when Hecker was wounded. Early in 1864, Hecker resigned, leaving Salomon in permanent command of the regiment, Salomon led the regiment during the Atlanta Campaign and through the capture of Atlanta.
Assigned to deliver messages to Nashville, he missed the famous march to the sea, in December 1864, he rejoined the regiment and finished out the war with them. He received a promotion to brigadier general on March 13,1865. After the war, Salomon returned to Chicago where he was elected clerk of Cook County, on March 4,1870, President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Salomon governor of Washington Territory. He was caught up in the scandals of the Grant administration. The Pacific Tribune newspaper, commenting on his resignation, lauded his honesty and integrity, general Philip Sheridan led a delegation that presented him with a silver table service in recognition of his fine record of service, high qualities as a citizen, and as a friend. Salomon moved to San Francisco, where he practiced law, in 1898 Salomon was appointed assistant district attorney for the city and county. He was elected to the California state assembly in 1888, Salomon died in San Francisco and is buried in Salem Memorial Cemetery, California.
List of American Civil War generals German Americans in the Civil War Eicher, John H. & Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press,2001, governors of Washington and state. Available online through the Washington State Librarys Classics in Washington History collection
Funeral and burial of Abraham Lincoln
The funeral and burial of Abraham Lincoln included a three-week series of events in 1865 held to mourn the Presidents death and memorialize him. The body was accompanied by dignitaries, Lincolns eldest son Robert Todd rode the train to Baltimore and disembarked and returned to the White House. Lincolns wife Mary Todd Lincoln remained at the White House because she was too distraught to make the trip, Robert took a train to Springfield for his fathers final funeral and burial. Several stops were made along the way, in which Lincolns body lay in state, the train retraced the route Lincoln had traveled to Washington as the president-elect on his way to his first inauguration. Millions of Americans viewed the train along the route, and participated in the ceremonies, Lincoln was interred at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield. Mary Todd Lincoln and three of their four sons are buried there. Because of the length of the funeral, historians have called this event The Greatest Funeral in the History of the United States.
After the assassination of Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth, his body was carried by a guard to the White House on Saturday April 15,1865. He lay in state in the East Room of the White House which was open to the public on Tuesday, the body again laid in state on the 20th and on the early morning of the following day a prayer service was held for the Lincoln cabinet. At 7 a. m. on Friday, April 21, Edwin M. Stanton, Gideon Welles, Hugh McCulloch, John Palmer Usher, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, and Montgomery C. Meigs left the escort at the depot, and at 8 A. M. the train departed, at least 10,000 people witnessed the trains departure from Washington. The funeral train consisted of nine cars, including a baggage, the car had been draped in mourning and contained the coffins of Lincoln and his son. Different locomotives were used on different stretches of the trip, the train was preceded by a pilot locomotive with one car to see that the track ahead was unobstructed. No person was allowed to be transported on the cars except those authorized by the War Department, M.
Smith, Brigadier General John Blair Smith Todd, a cousin of Mary Todd Lincoln, and Charles Alexander Smith, the brother of C. M. Smith. Caldwell, Alfred Terry, George D. Ramsey, and Daniel McCallum, Union Navy Rear Admiral Charles Henry Davis and Captain William Rogers Taylor, and Marine Corps Major Thomas H. Field. Four accompanied the train in a capacity, Captain Charles Penrose, as quartermaster and commissary of subsistence, Ward Hill Lamon, Lincolns longtime bodyguard and friend. Marshal for the District of Columbia, and Dr. Charles B. Brown and Frank T. Sands and undertaker, respectively. Governor Oliver P. Morton of Indiana, Governor John Brough of Ohio, Lincolns funeral train was the first national commemoration of a presidents death by rail
New York in the American Civil War
The state of New York during the American Civil War was a major influence in national politics, the Union war effort, and the media coverage of the war. New York provided a key member of the Lincoln Administration, as well as several important voices on Capitol Hill. The press and media of the state, heavily concentrated in New York City, influenced not only state politics and the view on the war. Important periodicals based in New York included The New York Times, New York Tribune, Harpers Weekly, Frank Leslies Illustrated Newspaper, german-born illustrator Thomas Nast was among the early political cartoonists. In the decades after the war ended, numerous memorials and monuments were erected across the Empire State to commemorate specific regiments, several archives and repositories, as well as historical societies, hold archives and collections of relics and artifacts. Upstate New York was among the leaders in the revolutions in transportation, turnpikes and railroads connected eastern cities with western markets.
New Yorks farmland was some of the most productive in the nation, the Genesee country became known as the breadbasket of the nation for its extraordinary grain production. Rapid-flowing rivers offered power for industrial sites. Following these expanding economic opportunities, people poured into upstate New York and they came from several different cultures—New England Yankees and Yorkers from eastern New York and Scots Irish from Pennsylvania, and immigrants from England and Ireland. New York provided 400, 000–460,000 men during the war, nearly 21% of all the men in the state, of the total enlistment, more than 130,000 were foreign-born, including 20,000 from British North American possessions such as Canada. 51,000 were Irish and 37,000 German, the average age of the New York soldiers was 25 years,7 months, although many younger men and boys may have lied about their age in order to enlist. By the time the Civil War ended in 1865, New York had provided the Union Army with 27 regiments of cavalry,15 regiments of artillery,8 of engineers, and 248 of infantry.
Among the more prominent military units from the state of New York was the Excelsior Brigade of controversial former congressman Daniel Sickles. Several early volunteer regiments traced their origins to antebellum New York State Militia regiments, including the 14th Brooklyn, which became known for its bright red chasseur-style pants. The first organized unit to leave the state for the front lines was the 7th New York State Militia, the 11th New York Infantry, a two-years regiment of new recruits, departed ten days later. Among the earliest casualties of the Civil War was Malta, New York, native Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth, who was killed in May 1861 during an armed encounter in Alexandria, Virginia. New York had long played an important role in the U. S. military, macDougall Hospital at Fort Schuyler would become a leading wartime military hospital, and Davids Island was a significant prisoner-of-war camp for captured Confederates. Several wealthy New York industrialists played crucial roles in supporting the war effort through materiel, ammunition, railroad impresario Cornelius Vanderbilt used his growing network of rail systems to effectively move large quantities of troops through the state to staging and training areas
Prince Felix Constantin Alexander Johann Nepomuk of Salm-Salm was a Prussian military officer of princely birth and a soldier of fortune. Salm-Salm served in the Schleswig-Holstein Army, Austrian Army, the Union Army during the American Civil War and he was killed in action during the Franco-Prussian War. He was the third and youngest son of Prince Florentin, the formerly reigning Prince of Salm-Salm, and his wife Flaminia di Rossi, Felix grew up training to be a soldier at a cadet-school in Berlin and became an officer in the Prussian 11th Hussar Regiment in 1846. Early on he participated in the First Schleswig War between northern Germany and Denmark, severely wounded in a skirmish near Aarhus on 18 May 1849, he demonstrated bravery in battle. After the war he joined the Austrian army, serving in the Austro-Sardinian War of 1859, his erratic way of life alienated his family, substantial gambling debts as well as several scandals and duels finally forced him to emigrate. In 1861, he came to the United States and offered his services to the Union Army in the American Civil War and he was given a colonels commission and assigned to the staff of Brigadier General Louis Blenker.
It was at time that he began to court an American woman named Agnes Leclerc Joy. He had met her at a given by President Abraham Lincoln in Washington. Felix and Agnes would marry morganatically in August 1862, Agnes Salm-Salm would end up joining Felix on the battlefield because she could not bear being without him. That winter he took command of the 8th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment and he was appointed colonel of the 68th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment in June,1864, serving under Brigadier General James B. Steedman in Tennessee and Georgia, he took part in the Battle of Nashville, Salm-Salm was mustered out of the volunteers on November 30,1865. After the American Civil War was over, Salm-Salm offered his services to the Habsburgs Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, Maximilian was actively promoting American soldiers to migrate to Mexico after the war to improve relations with the country. Salm-Salm was in a position because he had fought for the Union while most of the Americans who moved to Mexico after the Civil War had fought for the Confederacy.
By the summer he was appointed colonel and became the Emperors aide-de-camp, together with the Emperor and his generals Tomás Mejía Camacho and Miguel Miramón he was sentenced to death by firing squad, but he was pardoned by Juárez and released from custody in December 1867. Soon after, he returned to Europe and re-entered the Prussian Army as major in the 4th Guards Grenadiers regiment and he was killed at Saint-Privat-la-Montagne during the Battle of Gravelotte in the Franco-Prussian War. His faithful wife Agnes who again had joined him, serving as a nurse on the battlefield, had his remains transferred to the family crypt in Anholt Castle. His memoirs were edited by German author Otto von Corvin, the fate of Prince Salm-Salm was perpetuated in the colportage novels by Karl May. Queretaro, Blätter aus meinem Tagebuch in Mexico, queretaro, Blätter aus meinem Tagebuch in Mexico
Carl Christian Schurz was a German revolutionary, American statesman and reformer, U. S. Minister to Spain, Union Army General in the American Civil War, U. S. Senator and he was an accomplished journalist, newspaper editor and orator, who in 1869 became the first German-born American elected to the United States Senate. Carl Christian Schurz was born on March 2,1829 in Liblar, in Rhenish Prussia, the son of Marianne, a speaker and journalist, and Christian Schurz. He studied at the Jesuit Gymnasium of Cologne, and learned piano under private instructors, financial problems in his family obligated him to leave school a year early, without graduating. Later he graduated from the gymnasium by passing a special examination, at Bonn, he developed a friendship with one of his professors, Gottfried Kinkel. In response to the events of the revolutions of 1848, Schurz and Kinkel founded the Bonner Zeitung. At first Kinkel was the editor and Schurz a regular contributor and these roles were reversed when Kinkel left for Berlin to become a member of the Prussian Constitutional Convention.
When the Frankfurt rump parliament called for people to take up arms in defense of the new German constitution, Kinkel, during the 1849 military campaign in Palatinate and Baden, he joined the revolutionary army, fighting in several battles against the Prussian Army. Schurz was adjunct officer of the commander of the artillery, Fritz Anneke, the Annekes would move to the U. S. where each became Republican Party supporters. Annekes brother, Emil Anneke, was a founder of the Republican party in Michigan, when the revolutionary army was defeated at the fortress of Rastatt in 1849, Schurz was inside. Knowing that the Prussians intended to kill their prisoners, Schurz managed to escape, in 1850, he returned secretly to Prussia, rescued Kinkel from prison at Spandau and helped him to escape to Edinburgh, Scotland. Schurz went to Paris, but the police forced him to leave France on the eve of the coup détat of 1851, remaining there until August 1852, he made his living by teaching the German language.
While in London, Schurz married fellow revolutionary Johannes Ronges sister-in-law, Margarethe Meyer, in July 1852 and then, like many other Forty-Eighters, in Wisconsin, Schurz soon became immersed in the anti-slavery movement and in politics, joining the Republican Party. In 1857, he was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for lieutenant-governor, in 1858, he was admitted to the Wisconsin bar and began to practice law in Milwaukee. In the state campaign of 1859, he made a speech attacking the Fugitive Slave Law, arguing for states rights. In Faneuil Hall, Boston, on April 18,1859, he delivered an oration on True Americanism, Wisconsin Germans unsuccessfully urged his nomination for governor in 1859. During the American Civil War, Schurz served with distinction as a general in the Union Army, persuading Lincoln to grant him a commission in the Union army, Schurz was commissioned brigadier general of Union volunteers in April 1862. In June, he took command of a division, first under John C, frémont, and in Franz Sigels corps, with which he took part in the Second Battle of Bull Run in August 1862