The Imperial German Army was the unified ground and air force of the German Empire. The term Deutsches Heer is used for the modern German Army, the land component of the Bundeswehr; the German Army was formed after the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership in 1871 and dissolved in 1919, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I. The states that made up the German Empire contributed their armies; when operating together, the units were known as the Federal Army. The Federal Army system functioned during various conflicts of the 19th century, such as the First Schleswig War from 1848–50 but by the time of the Second Schleswig War of 1864, tension had grown between the main powers of the confederation, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Confederation was dissolved after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. Prussia formed the North German Confederation and the treaty provided for the maintenance of a Federal Army and a Federal Navy. Further laws on military duty used these terms.
Conventions were entered into between the North German Confederation and its member states, subordinating their armies to the Prussian army in time of war, giving the Prussian Army control over training and equipment. Shortly after the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, the North German Confederation entered into conventions on military matters with states that were not members of the confederation, namely Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden. Through these conventions and the 1871 Constitution of the German Empire, an Army of the Realm was created; the contingents of the Bavarian, Saxon and Württemberg kingdoms remained semi-autonomous, while the Prussian Army assumed total control over the armies of the other states of the Empire. The Constitution of the German Empire, dated April 16, 1871, changed references in the North German Constitution from Federal Army to either Army of the Realm or German Army. After 1871, the peacetime armies of the four kingdoms remained distinct; the term "German Army" was used in various legal documents, such as the Military Penal Code, but otherwise the Prussian, Saxon and Württemberg armies maintained distinct identities.
Each kingdom had its own War Ministry and Saxony published their own rank and seniority lists for their officers and the Württemberg list was a separate chapter of the Prussian army rank lists. Württemberg and Saxon units were numbered according to the Prussian system but Bavarian units maintained their own numbers; the commander of the Imperial German Army, less the Bavarian contingent, was the Kaiser. He was assisted by a Military Cabinet and exercised control through the Prussian Ministry of War and the Great General Staff; the Chief of the General Staff became the Kaiser's main military advisor and the most powerful military figure in the Empire. Bavaria kept its own Ministry of War and General Staff, but coordinated planning with the Prussian Great General Staff. Saxony maintained its own Ministry of War and the Ministry of War of Württemberg continued to exist; the command of the Prussian Army had been reformed in the wake of the defeats suffered by Prussia in the Napoleonic Wars. Rather than rely on the martial skills of the individual members of the German nobility, who dominated the military profession, the Prussian Army instituted changes to ensure excellence in leadership and planning.
The General Staff system, that sought to institutionalize military excellence, was the main result. It sought to identify military talent at the lower levels and develop it through academic training and practical experience on division and higher staffs, up to the Great General Staff, the senior planning body of the army, it provided planning and organizational work during wartime. The Prussian General Staff, proven in battle in the Wars of Unification, became the German General Staff upon formation of the German Empire, given Prussia's leading role in the German Army. In the German Empire, diplomatic relations were the responsibility of the Chancellor and his Foreign Minister; the German Army reported separately to the Emperor, played a major role in shaping foreign policy when military alliances or warfare was at issue. In diplomatic terms, Germany used the Prussian system of military attaches attached to diplomatic locations, with talented young officers assigned to evaluate the strengths and military capabilities of their assigned nations.
They used close observation and paid agents to produce high quality reports that gave a significant advantage to the military planners. The military staff grew powerful, reducing the role of the Minister of war, asserted itself in foreign policy decisions. Otto von Bismarck, the Imperial Chancellor 1871-1890, was annoyed by military interference in foreign policy affairs – in 1887, for example, they tried to convince the Emperor to declare war on Russia. Bismarck never controlled the Army, but he did complain vehemently, the military leaders drew back. In 1905, when the Morocco affair was roiling international politics, chief of the General staff Alfred von Schlieffen and called for a preventive war against France. At a critical po
Cotton MS Cleopatra A.iii is an Anglo-Saxon manuscript once held in the Cotton library, now held in the British Library, contains three glossaries, providing important evidence for Old English vocabulary, as well as for learning and scholarship in Anglo-Saxon England generally. The manuscript was written at St Augustine's, has been dated to the mid-tenth century, though recent work suggests the 930s specifically; the manuscript contains three Latin-Old English glossaries. The First Cleopatra Glossary is alphabeticised by first letter, drawing on a wide range of sources, including a glossary more or less identical to the Third Cleopatra Glossary, material related to the Corpus Glossary, a glossed text of Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae; some of these sources are among the earliest glosses in English, but the Cleopatra reviser revised them. The glossary only gets as far as P: the compilation or copying seems never to have been completed; the Second Cleopatra Glossary contains a shorter glossary, organised by subject.
A related glossary is found in the first three subject lists of the Brussels Glossary. The Third Cleopatra Glossary contains glosses to Aldhelm's Prosa de virginitate and Carmen de virginitate, with the lemmata in the same order as they appear in the text, it was therefore, based on a copy of Aldhelm's texts which had interlinear glosses. This glossary or one like it was influential, influencing Byrhtferth of Ramsey and at least one Anglo-Saxon medical text. Kittlick's linguistic investigation showed that some, at least, of the glosses in the Third Cleopatra Glossary are in the Anglian dialect of Old English, with overlays from West Saxon and Kentish; the glossary--though not all its entries--must have originated in the eighth century. About two thirds of the material in the Cleopatra Glossaries occurs in the Harley Glossary
Johann Christoph Pez Petz, was a German Baroque musician and composer who worked in the courts of the Electorate of Bavaria and Duchy of Württemberg. Pez was born in Munich. From 1676, he was the tower watchman and the choir director at the Church of Saint Peter in Munich. In 1688, he became a musician at the court of prince Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of Bavaria who offered him the opportunity to pursue his musical studies in Rome with the leading Italian composer Arcangelo Corelli. In 1694, Pez was in the service of Joseph Clemens, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne at his residence in Bonn, working to improve the prince's chapel orchestra. In 1695, he became advisor to the prince. Returning to Munich in 1701, he remained for five years at the court's chapel. In the 1690s, Max Emmanuel sent Pez to study violin in Rome. While in Munich, Pez came to the attention of the Duke of Württemberg, Eberhard Louis in the winter of 1705–06; until Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor released the entire Bavarian Hofkapelle by Imperial fiat in May 1706, Pez had been charged with educating the Wittelsbach children in music, but he was hired asOberkapellmeister of the Württemberg Hofkapelle, a post he would hold until his death in 1716, on 12 November 1706.
The Duke valued Pez's experience and training, so paid him a generous salary of 2000 gulden that included the wages for his daughter, Maria Anne Franziska Pez, his personal copyist, Antonÿ Meister. Under Pez, the size of the Hofkapelle expanded, but in the range of instruments used and the number of musicians who could play more than one instrument and after financial woes and following retrenchments that shrank the Hofkapelle and his salary to 500 gulden, in the Duchy as a result of the War of the Spanish Succession and the ongoing construction of Ludwigsburg Palace, built a skilled orchestra that he was quite proud of. Pez was, however worried about his small number of vocalists, the Catholic members therein sometimes not being present for some church performances. Pez's Catholic faith, which demonstrated the tolerance of Duke Eberhard Louis when he hired him had a repercussion in that he was not required to provide housing for some of the court's choir boys despite being their supervisor, this foreshadowed a decline of their importance to the point where only two of them would be employed in the Hofkapelle by 1715.
Like many of his contemporaries, Pez was influenced by the French style, he was one of many imitators of Jean-Baptiste Lully. Although forgotten today, Pez was mentioned in a lyric poem written by Georg Philipp Telemann in 1730, who placed him beside the names of composers like Händel, as a grand composer of his era, singling out in particular the quality of his sonatas. Ouvertures - Concerti. Les Muffatti & Peter Van Heyghen. Sonata I. MuseScore for Alto-Alto-Bass recorders Owens, Samantha. Music at German Courts, 1715–1760: Changing Artistic Priorities. Foreword by Michael Talbot. Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1-84383-598-1