The National Socialist German Workers' Party referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany, active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party, existed from 1919 to 1920; the Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. The party was created to draw workers away into völkisch nationalism. Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, anti-capitalist rhetoric, although this was downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, in the 1930s the party's main focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes. Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community"; the party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race.
The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the "Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics, broad social welfare programs, a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people. To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally handicapped, they disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution–an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other targeted victims, in what has become known as the Holocaust. Adolf Hitler, the party's leader since 1921, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. Hitler established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich.
Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers, who carried out denazification in the years after the war. Nazi, the informal and derogatory term for a party member, abbreviates the party's name, was coined in analogy with Sozi, an abbreviation of Sozialdemokrat. Members of the party referred to themselves as Nationalsozialisten as Nazis; the term Parteigenosse was used among Nazis, with its corresponding feminine form Parteigenossin. The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant, an awkward and clumsy person, it derived from Ignaz, a shortened version of Ignatius, a common name in the Nazis' home region of Bavaria. Opponents seized on this, the long-existing Sozi, to attach a dismissive nickname to the National Socialists. In 1933, when Adolf Hitler assumed power in the German government, the usage of "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term, the use of "Nazi Germany" and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad.
Thereafter, the term spread into other languages and was brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, the term is not considered slang, has such derivatives as Nazism and denazification; the party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I. In 1918, a league called the Freier Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden was created in Bremen, Germany. On 7 March 1918, Anton Drexler, an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich. Drexler was a local locksmith, a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November 1918 and the revolutionary upheavals that followed. Drexler followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles, having antisemitic, anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race".
However, he accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the political violence and instability in Germany as the result of the Weimar Republic being out-of-touch with the masses the lower classes. Drexler emphasised the need for a synthesis of völkisch nationalism with a form of economic socialism, in order to create a popular nationalist-oriented workers' movement that could challenge the rise of Communism and internationalist politics; these were all well-known themes popular with various Weimar paramilitary groups such as the Freikorps. Drexler's movement received support from some influential figures. Supporter Dietrich Eckart, a well-to-do journalist, brought military figure Felix Graf von Bothmer, a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement. In 1918, Karl Harrer convinced Drexler and several others to form the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel; the members met perio
White is the lightest color and is achromatic. It is the color of fresh snow and milk, is the opposite of black. White objects reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and computer screens is created by a mixture of red and green light. In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of citizenship. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance a white unicorn symbolized chastity, a white lamb sacrifice and purity, it was the royal color of the Kings of France, of the monarchist movement that opposed the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. Greek and Roman temples were faced with white marble, beginning in the 18th century, with the advent of neoclassical architecture, white became the most common color of new churches and other government buildings in the United States, it was widely used in 20th century modern architecture as a symbol of modernity and simplicity. According to surveys in Europe and the United States, white is the color most associated with perfection, the good, cleanliness, the beginning, the new and exactitude.
White is an important color for all world religions. The Pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, has worn white since 1566, as a symbol of purity and sacrifice. In Islam, in the Shinto religion of Japan, it is worn by pilgrims. In Western cultures and in Japan, white is the most common color for wedding dresses, symbolizing purity and virginity. In many Asian cultures, white is the color of mourning; the word white continues Old English hwīt from a Common Germanic *χwītaz reflected in OHG wîz, ON hvítr, Goth. ƕeits. The root is from Proto-Indo-European language *kwid-, surviving in Sanskrit śveta "to be white or bright" and Slavonic světŭ "light"; the Icelandic word for white, hvítur, is directly derived from the Old Norse form of the word hvítr. Common Germanic had the word *blankaz, borrowed into Late Latin as *blancus, which provided the source for Romance words for "white"; the antonym of white is black. Some non-European languages have a wide variety of terms for white; the Inuit language has seven different words for seven different nuances of white.
Sanskrit has specific words for bright white, the white of teeth, the white of sandalwood, the white of the autumn moon, the white of silver, the white of cow's milk, the white of pearls, the white of a ray of sunlight, the white of stars. Japanese has six different words, depending upon brilliance or dullness, or if the color is inert or dynamic. White was one of the first colors used in art; the Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. Paleolithic artists used calcite or chalk, sometimes as a background, sometimes as a highlight, along with charcoal and red and yellow ochre in their vivid cave paintings. In ancient Egypt, white was connected with the goddess Isis; the priests and priestesses of Isis dressed only in white linen, it was used to wrap mummies. In Greece and other ancient civilizations, white was associated with mother's milk. In Greek mythology, the chief god Zeus was nourished at the breast of the nymph Amalthea.
In the Talmud, milk was one of four sacred substances, along with wine and the rose. The ancient Greeks saw the world in terms of darkness and light, so white was a fundamental color. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History and the other famous painters of ancient Greece used only four colors in their paintings. A plain white toga, known as a toga virilis, was worn for ceremonial occasions by all Roman citizens over the age of 14–18. Magistrates and certain priests wore a toga praetexta, with a broad purple stripe. In the time of the Emperor Augustus, no Roman man was allowed to appear in the Roman forum without a toga; the ancient Romans had two words for white. A man who wanted public office in Rome wore a white toga brightened with chalk, called a toga candida, the origin of the word candidate; the Latin word candere meant to be bright. It was the origin of the words candid. In ancient Rome, the priestesses of the goddess Vesta dressed in white linen robes, a white palla or shawl, a white veil.
They protected the penates of Rome. White symbolized their purity and chastity; the early Christian church adopted the Roman symbolism of white as the color of purity and virtue. It became the color worn by priests during Mass, the color worn by monks of the Cistercian Order, under Pope Pius V, a former monk of the Dominican Order, it became the official color worn by the pope himself. Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict dressed in the white or gray of natural undyed wool, but changed to black, the color of humility and penitence. Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God; the white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was the symbolic color of the transfiguration; the Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow." Artists such as Fra Angelico used their skill
Rudolf Jung was an instrumental figure and agitator in the German Bohemian National Socialist movement, became a member of the Nazi Party. Jung was born in Plasy in Bohemia and went to school in Jihlava, a town fractured by national antagonisms, he was a civil engineer employed by the national railways of Austria-Hungary. In 1909, he became an ardent party agitator; because of his political activism, Jung was fired, but the party put him on its payroll and he devoted himself to theoretical work. Along with Dr. Walter Riehl, Jung drafted the Jihlava party program of 1913 "which contained a more detailed comparison of international Marxism and national socialism and a more pointed attack on Capitalism, alien peoples, Jews. Here, anti-semitism ranked behind anti-Slavism, anti-clericalism and anti-capitalism." In 1919, Jung completed his theoretical work Der Nationale Sozialismus. In his introduction, he expressed the hope that his book would play the same role for National Socialism that Das Kapital had for Marxian socialism.
At the end of World War I, the DAP was renamed the Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei. Jung convinced Hitler to include the term "National Socialist" in the name of the German Workers' Party, the DAP's counterpart in Germany. Hitler wanted to rename the German DAP the "Social Revolutionary Party"; some of the posts Jung held were: President of the State Labour office in Middle Germany, Gauleiter ad Honorem, in 1936, Member of the Reichstag for the district of Westphalia South. In 1943, Jung became the Reich Inspector and Director of the Reich Inspection of Labour Administration, he died by suicide in Prague's Pankrác prison before his trial for Nazi activities. He wrote several books including: Der nationale Sozialismus: seine Grundlagen, sein Werdegang und seine Ziele, Aussig, 1919. 2nd ed..
German nationalism is the nationalist idea that Germans are a nation, promotes the unity of Germans and German-speakers into a nation state, emphasizes and takes pride in the national identity of Germans. The earliest origins of German nationalism began with the birth of romantic nationalism during the Napoleonic Wars when Pan-Germanism started to rise. Advocacy of a German nation-state began to become an important political force in response to the invasion of German territories by France under Napoleon. In the 19th century Germans debated the German Question over whether the German nation state should comprise a "Lesser Germany" that excluded Austria or a "Greater Germany" that included Austria; the faction led by Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck succeeded in forging a Lesser Germany. Aggressive German nationalism and territorial expansion was a key factor leading to both World Wars. Prior to World War I, Germany had established a colonial empire in hopes of rivaling Britain and France.
In the 1930s, the Nazis came to power and sought to create a Greater Germanic Reich, emphasizing ethnic German identity and German greatness to the exclusion of all others leading to the extermination of Jews, Poles and other people deemed Untermenschen in the Holocaust during World War II. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, the country was divided into East and West Germany in the opening acts of the Cold War, each state retained a sense of German identity and held reunification as a goal, albeit in different contexts; the creation of the European Union was in part an effort to harness German identity to a European identity. West Germany underwent its economic miracle following the war, which led to the creation of guest worker program. German reunification was achieved in 1990 following Die Wende. Germany has emerged in the world. Due to post-1945 repudiation of the Nazi regime and its atrocities, German nationalism has been viewed in the country as taboo and people within Germany have struggled to find ways to acknowledge its past but take pride in its past and present accomplishments.
A wave of national pride swept the country. Far-right parties that stress German national identity and pride have existed since the end of World War II but have never governed. Defining a German nation based on internal characteristics presented difficulties. Since the start of the Reformation in the 16th century, the German lands had been divided between Catholics and Lutherans and linguistic diversity was large as well. Today, the Swabian, Bavarian and Cologne dialects in their most pure forms are estimated to be 40% mutually intelligible with more modern Standard German, meaning that in a conversation between a native speaker of any of these dialects and a person who speaks only standard German, the latter will be able to understand less than half of what is being said without any prior knowledge of the dialect, a situation, to have been similar or greater in the 19th century. Nationalism among the Germans first developed not among the general populace but among the intellectual elites of various German states.
The early German nationalist Friedrich Karl von Moser, writing in the mid 18th century, remarked that, compared with "the British, Swiss and Swedes", the Germans lacked a "national way of thinking". However, the cultural elites themselves faced difficulties in defining the German nation resorting to broad and vague concepts: the Germans as a "Sprachnation", a "Kulturnation" or an "Erinnerungsgemeinschaft". Johann Gottlieb Fichte – considered the founding father of German nationalism – devoted the 4th of his Addresses to the German Nation to defining the German nation and did so in a broad manner. In his view, there existed a dichotomy between the people of Germanic descent. There were those who had left their fatherland during the time of the Migration Period and had become either assimilated or influenced by Roman language and customs, those who stayed in their native lands and continued to hold on to their own culture. German nationalists were able to define their nation more especially following the rise of Prussia and formation of the German Empire in 1871 which gave the majority of the German-speakers in Europe a common political and educational framework.
In the late 19th century and early 20th century, some German nationalist added elements of racial ideology culminating in the Nuremberg Laws, sections of which sought to determine by law and genetics, to be considered German. It was not until the concept of nationalism itself was developed by German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder that German nationalism began. German nationalism was Romantic in nature and was based upon the principles of collective self-determination, territorial unification and cultural identity, a political and cultural programme to achieve those ends; the German Romantic nationalism derived from the Enlightenment era philosopher Jean
Gottfried Feder was a German civil engineer, a self-taught economist and one of the early key members of the Nazi Party. He was their economic theoretician, it was one of his lectures, delivered in 1919. Feder was born in Würzburg, Germany on 27 January 1883 as the son of civil servant Hanse Feder and Mathilde Feder. After studying in classical Gymnasiums in Ansbach and Munich, he studied engineering in Berlin and Zürich, he founded a construction company in 1908 that became active in Bulgaria where it built a number of official buildings. From 1917 on, Feder studied financial economics on his own, he developed a hostility towards wealthy bankers during World War I and wrote a "manifesto on breaking the shackles of interest" in 1919. This was soon followed by the founding of a "task force" dedicated to those goals that demanded a nationalisation of all banks and an abolition of interest; that year, together with Anton Drexler, Dietrich Eckart and Karl Harrer, were involved in the founding of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei.
Adolf Hitler met him in the summer of 1919 while he was in an anti-Bolshevik training course at Munich university—funded by the army and organized by Major Karl Mayr—and Feder became his mentor in finance and economics. He helped to inspire Hitler's opposition to "Jewish finance capitalism." Delivering political courses alongside Feder was Karl Alexander von Müller who spotted Hitler's oratorical ability and forwarded his name as a political instructor for the army—an important step in Hitler's career. In February 1920, together with Adolf Hitler and Anton Drexler, Feder drafted the so-called "25 points" which summed up the party's views and introduced his own anti-capitalist views into the program; when the paper was announced on 24 February 1920, more than 2,000 people attended the rally. In an attempt to make the party more broadly appealing to larger segments of the population, the DAP was renamed in February 1920 to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, more known as the Nazi Party.
Feder took part in the party's Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923. After Hitler's arrest, he remained one of the leaders of the party and was elected to the Reichstag in 1924, where he stayed until 1936 and demanded the freezing of interest rates and dispossession of Jewish citizens, he remained one of the leaders of the anti-capitalistic wing of the NSDAP, published several papers, including "National and social bases of the German state", "Das Programm der NSDAP und seine weltanschaulichen Grundlagen" and "Was will Adolf Hitler?". Feder dominated the Nazi Party's official views on financial politics, but after he became chairman of the party's economic council in 1931, his anti-capitalist views led to a great decline in financial support from Germany's major industrialists. Following pressure from Walther Funk, Albert Voegler, Gustav Krupp, Friedrich Flick, Fritz Thyssen, Hjalmar Schacht and Emil Kirdorf, Hitler decided to move the party away from Feder's economic views; when Hitler became Reichskanzler in 1933, he appointed Feder as under-secretary at the ministry of economics in July, which appointment disappointed Feder, who had hoped for a much higher position.
Feder continued to write papers, putting out "Kampf gegen die Hochfinanz" and the anti-semitic "Die Juden". In 1939 he wrote Die Neue Stadt; this can be considered an attempt at Garden City building through the use of Nazi architecture. Here he proposed creating agricultural cities of 20,000 people divided into nine autonomous units and surrounded by agricultural areas; each city was to be autonomous and self-sufficient, with detailed plans for daily living and urban amenities provided. Unlike other garden city theorists, he believed that urban areas could be reformed by subdividing the existing built environment into self-sufficient neighborhoods; this idea of creating clusters of self-contained neighbourhoods forming a mid-sized city was popularised by Uzō Nishiyama in Japan. It would be applied in the era of Japanese New Town construction. However, despite its consistency with the blood and soil ideology of the Nazis, his concept of decentralized factories was opposed by both generals and Junkers.
Generals objected because it interfered with rearmament, Junkers because it would prevent their exploiting their estates for the international market. After the Night of the Long Knives in June 1934, where SA leaders like Ernst Röhm and left-leaning party officials like Gregor Strasser were murdered, Feder lost favor with Hitler and began to withdraw from the government becoming Professor for Settlement Policy at the Technische Hochschule Berlin in December 1936, where he stayed until his death in Murnau, Bavaria, on 24 September 1941. Strasserism Das Programm des NSDAP und seine weltanschaulichen Grundgedanken "The Program of the NSDAP and its Ideological Foundations" by Gottfried Feder at archive.org Programme of the Party of Hitler, the NSDAP and its General Conceptions in English Das Manifest zur Brechung der Zinsknechtschaft des Geldes "The Manifesto for Breaking the Chains of Gold" by Gottfried Feder at archive.org Feder's patent for an Apparatus for making concrete piles in the ground on Google PatentsNewspaper clippings about Gottfried Feder in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Politics of Germany
Germany is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic, where federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag and the Bundesrat. The multilateral system has, since 1949, been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany; the judiciary of Germany is independent of the executive and the legislature, while it is common for leading members of the executive to be member of the legislature, as well. The political system is laid out in the 1949 constitution, the Grundgesetz, which remained in effect with minor amendments after German reunification in 1990; the constitution emphasizes the protection of individual liberty in an extensive catalogue of human and civil rights and divides powers both between the federal and state levels and between the legislative and judicial branches. West Germany was a founding member of the European Community in 1958, which became the EU in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area, has been a member of the eurozone since 1999.
It is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20 and the OECD. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Germany as a "full democracy" in 2017. After 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany had Christian Democratic chancellors for 20 years until a coalition between the Social Democrats and the Liberals took over. From 1982, Christian Democratic leader Helmut Kohl was chancellor in a coalition with the Liberals for 16 years. In this period fell the reunification of Germany, in 1990: the German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic. In the former GDR's territory, five Länder were reestablished; the two parts of Berlin united as one "Land". The political system of the Federal Republic remained less unchanged. Specific provisions for the former GDR territory were enabled via the unification treaty between the Federal Republic and the GDR prior to the unification day of 3 October 1990. However, Germany saw in the following two distinct party systems: the Green party and the Liberals remained West German parties, while in the East the former socialist state party, now called PDS, flourished along with the Christian Democrats and Social Democrats.
After 16 years of the Christian–Liberal coalition, led by Helmut Kohl, the Social Democratic Party of Germany together with the Greens won the Bundestag elections of 1998. SPD vice chairman Gerhard Schröder positioned himself as a centrist candidate, in contradiction to the leftist SPD chairman Oskar Lafontaine; the Kohl government was hurt at the polls by slower economic growth in the East in the previous two years, high unemployment. The final margin of victory was sufficiently high to permit a "red-green" coalition of the SPD with Alliance 90/The Greens, bringing the Greens into a national government for the first time. Initial problems of the new government, marked by policy disputes between the moderate and traditional left wings of the SPD, resulted in some voter disaffection. Lafontaine left the government in early 1999; the CDU won in some important state elections but was hit in 2000 by a party donation scandal from the Kohl years. As a result of this Christian Democratic Union crisis, Angela Merkel became chair.
The next election for the Bundestag was on 22 September 2002. Gerhard Schröder led the coalition of SPD and Greens to an eleven-seat victory over the Christian Democrat challengers headed by Edmund Stoiber. Three factors are cited that enabled Schröder to win the elections despite poor approval ratings a few months before and a weaker economy: good handling of the 100-year flood, firm opposition to the US 2003 invasion of Iraq, Stoiber's unpopularity in the east, which cost the CDU crucial seats there. In its second term, the red–green coalition lost several important state elections, for example in Lower Saxony where Schröder was the prime minister from 1990 to 1998. On 20 April 2003, chancellor Schröder announced massive labor market reforms, called Agenda 2010, that cut unemployment benefits. Although these reforms sparked massive protests, they are now credited with being in part responsible for the strong economic performance of Germany during the euro-crisis and the decrease in unemployment in Germany in the years 2006-2007.
On 22 May 2005 the SPD received a devastating defeat in its former heartland, North Rhine-Westphalia. Half an hour after the election results, the SPD chairman Franz Müntefering announced that the chancellor would clear the way for new federal elections; this took the republic by surprise because the SPD was below 25% in polls at the time. The CDU announced Angela Merkel as Christian Democrat candidate for chancellor, aspiring to be the first female chancellor in German history. New for the 2005 election was the alliance between the newly formed Electoral Alternative for Labor and Social Justice and the PDS, planning to fuse into a common party. With the former SPD chairman, Oskar Lafontaine for the WASG and Gregor Gysi for the PDS as prominent figures, this alliance soon found interest in the media and in the population. Polls in July saw them as high as 12%. Whereas in May and June 2005 victory of the Christian Democrats seemed likely, with some polls giving them an absolute majority, this picture changed shortly before the election on 18 September 2005.
The election results of 18 September were surprising because they differed from the polls of the previous weeks. The Christian Democrats lost votes compared to 2002, narrowly reaching the first place with only 35.2%, failed to get a majority for a "black–yellow" government of CDU/CSU and li
Anton Drexler was a German far-right political leader of the 1920s who founded the pan-German and anti-Semitic German Workers' Party, the antecedent of the Nazi Party. Drexler mentored his successor in Adolf Hitler, during his early years in politics. Born in Munich, Drexler was a machine-fitter before becoming a railway toolmaker and locksmith in Berlin, he is believed to have been disappointed with his income, to have played the zither in restaurants to supplement his earnings. Drexler did not serve in the armed forces during World War. During World War I, Drexler joined the German Fatherland Party, a short-lived far-right party active during the last phase of the war, that played a vital role in the emergence of the stab-in-the-back myth and the defamation of certain politicians as the November Criminals. In March 1918, Drexler founded a branch of Free Workers' Committee for a Good Peace league. Karl Harrer, a journalist and member of the Thule Society, convinced Drexler and several others to form the Political Workers' Circle in 1918.
The members met periodically for discussions with themes of antisemitism. Drexler was a member of the völkisch agitators. Together with Harrer, Gottfried Feder and Dietrich Eckart, Drexler founded the German Workers' Party in Munich on 5 January 1919. At a DAP meeting in Munich in September 1919, the main speaker was Gottfried Feder; when Feder's talk concluded, Adolf Hitler got involved in a heated political argument with a visitor, Professor Baumann, who questioned the soundness of Feder's arguments against capitalism and proposed that Bavaria should break away from Prussia and found a new South German nation with Austria. In vehemently attacking the man's arguments, Hitler made an impression on the other party members with his oratory skills, according to him, the professor left the hall acknowledging defeat. Drexler approached Hitler and gave him a copy of his pamphlet My Political Awakening, which contained anti-Semitic, anti-capitalist, anti-Marxist ideas. Hitler claims the literature reflected the ideals he believed in.
Impressed with Hitler, Drexler encouraged him to join the DAP. On the orders of his army superiors, Hitler applied to join the party. Once accepted, Hitler began to make the party more public, he organized their biggest meeting yet of 2,000 people, for 24 February 1920 in the Hofbräuhaus in Munich, it was in this speech that Hitler, for the first time, enunciated the twenty-five points of the German Worker's Party's manifesto that he had authored with Drexler and Feder. Through these points he gave the organisation a much bolder stratagem with a clear foreign policy, including the abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, a Greater Germany, Eastern expansion, exclusion of Jews from citizenship. On the same day the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party; the significance of this particular move in publicity moved Karl Harrer to resign from the party in disagreement. Following an intraparty dispute, Hitler angrily tendered his resignation on 11 July 1921; the committee members realised that the resignation of their leading public figure and speaker would mean the end of the party.
Hitler announced he would rejoin on the condition that he would replace Drexler as party chairman, that the party headquarters would remain in Munich. The committee agreed. Drexler was thereafter moved to the purely symbolic position of honorary president and left the party in 1923. Drexler was a member of a völkisch political club for affluent members of Munich society known as the Thule Society, his membership in the Nazi Party ended when it was temporarily outlawed in 1923 following the Beer Hall Putsch despite Drexler not having taken part in the coup attempt. In 1924 he was elected to the Bavarian state parliament for another party, in which he served as vice president until 1928, he played no role in the Nazi Party's re-founding in 1925 and rejoined only after Hitler ascended to national power in 1933. He founded a splinter group, the Nationalsozialer Volksbund, but this dissolved in 1928, he received the party's Blood Order in 1934 and was still used as a propaganda tool until about 1937, but he was never allowed any legitimate power in the party.
Drexler died of natural causes after a lengthy illness in Munich in February 1942. Evans, Richard J.. The Coming of the Third Reich. New York: Penguin Group. ISBN 978-0-14-303469-8. Hamilton, Charles. Leaders & Personalities of the Third Reich, Vol. 1. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0-912138-27-0. Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-92503-4. Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6. Mitcham, Samuel W.. Why Hitler?: The Genesis of the Nazi Reich. Westport, Conn: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95485-7. Shirer, William L.. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0. Zentner, Christian; the Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: MacMillan Publishing. ISBN 0-02-897500-6. Mein politisches Erwachen.