Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
French colonization of the Americas
The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere. France founded colonies in much of eastern North America, on a number of Caribbean islands, in South America. Most colonies were developed to export products such as fish, rice and furs; as they colonized the New World, the French established forts and settlements that would become such cities as Quebec and Montreal in Canada. The French first came to the New World as explorers, seeking a route to wealth. Major French exploration of North America began under the rule of King of France. In 1524, Francis sent Italian-born Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the region between Florida and Newfoundland for a route to the Pacific Ocean. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain and English Newfoundland, thus promoting French interests. In 1534, Francis I of France sent Jacques Cartier on the first of three voyages to explore the coast of Newfoundland and the St. Lawrence River.
He founded New France by planting a cross on the shore of the Gaspé Peninsula. The French subsequently tried to establish several colonies throughout North America that failed, due to weather, disease, or conflict with other European powers. Cartier attempted to create the first permanent European settlement in North America at Cap-Rouge in 1541 with 400 settlers but the settlement was abandoned the next year after bad weather and attacks from Native Americans in the area. A small group of French troops were left on Parris Island, South Carolina in 1562 to build Charlesfort, but left after a year when they were not resupplied by France. Fort Caroline established in present-day Jacksonville, Florida, in 1564, lasted only a year before being destroyed by the Spanish from St. Augustine. An attempt to settle convicts on Sable Island off Nova Scotia in 1598 failed after a short time. In 1599, a sixteen-person trading post was established in Tadoussac, of which only five men survived the first winter.
In 1604 Pierre Du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain founded a short-lived French colony, the first in Acadia, on Saint Croix Island, presently part of the state of Maine, much plagued by illness scurvy. The following year the settlement was moved to Port Royal, located in present-day Nova Scotia. Samuel de Champlain explored the Great Lakes. In 1634, Jean Nicolet founded La Baye des Puants, one of the oldest permanent European settlements in America. In 1634, Sieur de Laviolette founded Trois-Rivières. In 1642, Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve, founded Fort Ville-Marie, now known as Montreal. Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette founded Sault Sainte Marie and Saint Ignace and explored the Mississippi River. At the end of the 17th century, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle established a network of forts going from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. Fort Saint Louis was established in Texas in 1685, but was gone by 1688. Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit in 1701 and Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville founded La Nouvelle Orléans in 1718.
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville founded Baton Rouge in 1719.. The French were eager to explore North America but New France remained unpopulated. Due to the lack of women, intermarriages between French and Indians were frequent, giving rise to the Métis people. Relations between the French and Indians were peaceful; as the 19th-century historian Francis Parkman stated: "Spanish civilization crushed the Indian. Louis XIV tried to increase the population by sending 800 young women nicknamed the "King's Daughters". However, the low density of population in New France remained a persistent problem. At the beginning of the French and Indian War, the British population in North America outnumbered the French 20 to 1. France fought a total of six colonial wars in North America. In 1562, Charles IX, under the leadership of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny sent Jean Ribault and a group of Huguenot settlers in an attempt to colonize the Atlantic coast and found a colony on a territory which will take the name of the French Florida.
They discovered the probe and Port Royal Island, which will be called by Parris Island in South Carolina, on which he built a fort named Charlesfort. The group, led by René Goulaine de Laudonnière, moved to the south where they founded the Fort Caroline on the Saint John's river in Florida on June 22, 1564; this irritated the Spanish who claimed Florida and
Klein-Venedig was the most significant territory of the German colonization of the Americas, from 1528 to 1546, in which the Welser banking family of the Free Imperial City of Augsburg obtained colonial rights in the Province of Venezuela in return for debts owed by Emperor Charles V, King of Spain. The primary motivation was the search for the legendary golden city of El Dorado; the venture was led at first by Ambrosius Ehinger, who founded Maracaibo in 1529. After the deaths of Ehinger and his successor Georg von Speyer, Philipp von Hutten continued exploration in the interior, in his absence from the capital of the province the crown of Spain claimed the right to appoint the governor. On Hutten's return to the capital, Santa Ana de Coro, in 1546, the Spanish governor Juan de Carvajal had von Hutten and Bartholomeus VI. Welser executed. King Charles I revoked Welser's charter. Welser transported to the colony German miners, 4,000 African slaves as labor to work sugar cane plantations. Many of the German colonists died from tropical diseases, to which they had no immunity, or hostile native attacks during frequent journeys deep into native territory in search of gold.
Bartholomeus V. Welser was the head of the banking firm of Welser Brothers, who claimed descent from the Byzantine general Belisarius, they possessed great riches, Bartholomeus was created a prince of the empire and made privy councillor to the emperor Charles V, to whom he lent large sums. For the repayment of these debts the Emperor granted, in 1527, the newly discovered Province of Venezuela; the Welser were obligated to conquer the country at their own expenses, enlist only Spanish and Flemish troops, fit out two expeditions of four vessels, build two cities and three forts within two years after taking possession. As Venezuela was reputed to contain gold mines, he obtained permission to send out 150 German miners. Heinrich Ehinger and Hieronymus Sailer, either independently or as agents of the Welsers, negotiated the rights. In accordance with his contract, Welser armed a fleet, which sailed from Sanlúcar de Barrameda early in 1528, under the command of Ambrosius Ehinger, whom he appointed captain general.
The Welsers set up a colonization scheme and sent Ehinger as governor to Santa Ana de Coro, the capital of the Province of Venezuela. Ehinger left Seville on 7 October 1528 with 281 settlers. At Santo Domingo, de Lerma with 50 companions left for Santa Marta, to reestablish Spanish control following the murder of the governor there. Ehinger and the remainder headed for the Venezuelan coast and landed on 24 February 1529 at Santa Ana de Coro. Ehinger replaced his Welser-appointed Spanish deputy González de Leyva with Nicolaus Federmann. From Coro, he explored the interior in search of the legendary golden city of El Dorado. In August 1529 Ehinger made his first expedition to Lake Maracaibo, bitterly opposed by the indigenous people, the Coquivacoa. After winning a series of bloody battles, he founded the settlement at Maracaibo on 8 September 1529. Ehinger named the city New Nuremberg and the lake after the valiant chieftain Mara of the Coquivacoa, who had died in the fighting; the city was renamed Maracaibo.
Ehinger came down with malaria and decided to recuperate in the civilized comforts of Hispaniola, so he handed temporary authority over to Federmann on July 30, 1530. Upon his return, with 40 horses and 130 foot soldiers and an uncounted number of allied Indians, set off from Coro on September 1, 1531 on his second expedition to the alleged gold country to the west, they crossed the Oca and Valledupar mountains of the Serranía del Perijá, moved along the Cesar River, to the Zapatosa marsh. There the expedition rested about three months it continued south, where they met fierce resistance from the indigenous tribes, so they turned east, along the Lebrija River. During this expedition they were forced to eat their horses and dogs, lost most of their Indian allies, many dying from the cold as they crossed the mountains; as they made their way home, they were attacked by the Chitareros on May 27, 1533. Ehinger and Captain Estéban Martín fled into a low-lying ravine, where they were pinned down by Indians shooting arrows.
Ehinger received a poisoned arrow in the neck. Despite the attentions of Augustine father Vicente de Requejada, Ehinger died on May 31, 1533, was buried under a tree; the expedition returned without him to Coro. Returning to Europe after Ehinger's death, Georg von Speyer was among the young fortune seekers solicited by the Welsers to colonize New Granada in 1534. Speyer obtained from Charles V the appointment of governor of Venezuela, despite the claims of Nikolaus Federmann, Ehinger's lieutenant, he armed a new expedition in Spain and the Canary Islands, on 22 February 1534, landed at Coro. Between 1535 and 1538, he searched in southwestern Venezuela and northern Colombia for "El Dorado", in the company of Nikolaus Federmann and with Philipp von Hutten. Against advice, Speyer had appointed Federmann his lieutenant. Accompanied by 450 regular troops and 1,500 friendly Indians, they set out on a journey of exploration to the interior. Leaving from the town of Rio de Hacha, they followed the eastern flank of the cordillera following the existing salt trade route where it crossed the Andes and entered the lands of the Chibcha.
The Chibcha were an advanced culture whose realm had been conquered by Jiménez de Quesada out of Santa Marta, now Colombia, under orders from Pedro Fernández de Lugo. After marching together for about 200 miles and Federmann divided into two parties
Danish colonization of the Americas
Denmark and the former political union of Denmark–Norway had a colonial empire from the 17th through the 20th centuries, large portions of which were found in the Americas. Denmark and Norway in one form or another maintained land claims in Greenland since the 13th century. Greenland, settled by the Norsemen in the 980s, submitted to Norwegian rule in 1261. Norway entered the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Sweden in 1397 and its overseas territories including Greenland became subject to the king in Copenhagen. Scandinavian settlement in Greenland declined over the years and the last written record is a marriage recorded in 1408, although the Norwegian claims to the land remained. Following the establishment of an independent Sweden and Denmark were reorganized into a polity now known as Denmark–Norway in 1536/1537 and the nominal Norwegian sovereignty over Greenland was taken up by the new kingdom. Despite the decline of European settlement and the loss of contact, Denmark-Norway continued to maintain its claim to lordship of Greenland.
Between the years 1605-1607, King Christian IV of Denmark commissioned three expeditions to Greenland. These expeditions were conducted in order to locate the lost Norse Eastern Settlement as well as to reassert Danish sovereignty over Greenland; the expeditions were unsuccessful due to its leaders lacking experience with the arctic ice and difficult weather conditions. Additionally expeditions were searching on the east coast of Greenland, inaccessible at the time due to southward-drifting ice. In the 1660s, a polar bear was added to the royal coat of arms. Around this same time Dano-Norwegian ships, joined by ships from various other European countries, began journeying to Greenland to hunt bowhead whales, though no formal recolonization was attempted. In 1721, the Norwegian Lutheran minister Hans Egede and his Bergen Greenland Company received a royal charter from King Frederick IV granting them broad authority over Greenland and commissioning them to seek out the old Norse colony and spread the Reformation among its inhabitants, who were presumed to still be Catholic or to have reverted to paganism.
Egede led three boats to Baal's River and established Hope Colony on Kangeq with his family and a few dozen colonists. Finding no Norse survivors, he started a mission among the Inuit and baptized the first child converts in 1724. Meanwhile, his settlers had been ravaged by scurvy and the Dutch attacked and burnt a whaling station erected on Nipisat; the Bergen company went bankrupt in 1727. King Frederick attempted to replace it with a royal colony by sending Major Claus Paarss and several dozen soldiers and convicts to erect a fortress for the colony in 1728 but this new settlement of Good Hope failed due to mutiny and scurvy and the retinue was recalled in 1730. Three Moravian missionaries led by Matthias Stach arrived in 1733 and began the first of a series of mission stations at Neu-Herrnhut, but a returning Inuit child brought smallpox from Denmark and a large proportion of the native population died over the next few years; the death of Egede's wife prompted his return to Denmark, with his son Paul left in charge of the settlement.
The Danish merchant Jacob Severin was granted authority over the colony from 1734 to 1740, extended until 1749, assisted by royal patronage and Moravian sponsorship of some of Egede's missionary activities. He was succeeded by the General Trade Company. Both were granted armed ships and full monopolies over trade around their settlements, to prevent better-armed, lower-priced, better-quality Dutch goods from bankrupting the enterprise; the ranged nature of their monopolies spurred them to found new settlements: Christianshaab, Frederikshaab, Fiskenæsset and Egedesminde and Sukkertoppen, Umanak, Upernavik and Julianehaab. The GTC folded in 1774 and was replaced by the Royal Greenland Trade Department, which recognized that the island possessed neither fertile farmland nor accessible mineral wealth and that income would be dependent on the whaling and seal-hunting trade with the native Inuit. An early attempt to man a government-run Scandinavian whaling fleet was aborted and instead the KGH's Instruction of 1782 banned further attempts to urbanize the Inuit or alter their traditional way of life through improved employment opportunities or sales of luxury items.
One effect was that construction of new settlements was suspended after Nennortalik for a century until the establishment of Amassalik on the eastern shore in 1894. The 1782 Instructions established separate governing councils for North and South Greenland. Danish intervention on France's behalf during the Napoleonic Wars ended with the severing of Denmark-Norway under the 1814 Treaty of Kiel, which granted mainland Norway to Sweden but retained the former Norwegian colonies under the Danish crown. Repeated inquiries into the Greenlandic trade and the end of absolutism in Denmark did not end the KGH's monopolies. In 1857, the administrators did set up parsissaets, local councils conducted in Kalaallisut with minor control over spending decisions at each station. In 1912, Royal Greenland's independence was ended and its operations were folded into the Ministry of the Interior. Arctic exploration placed claims of Danish sovereignty over the whole of Greenland in doubt: the principle of terra nullius seemed to leave huge tracts of the territory available to new entrants.
Denmark responded by acquiring diplomatic agreements recognizing its sovereignty from the
Portuguese colonization of the Americas
Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. The Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 divided the Earth outside Europe into Castilian and Portuguese global territorial hemispheres for exclusive conquest and colonization. Portugal colonized parts of South America, but made some unsuccessful attempts to colonize North America. Based on the terms defined in the Treaty of Tordesillas, the Portuguese Crown claimed it had territorial rights in the area visited by the Genoese explorer John Cabot in 1497 and 1498 on behalf of the Crown of England. To that end, in 1499 and 1500, the Portuguese mariner João Fernandes Lavrador visited the northeast Atlantic coast and Greenland, which accounts for the appearance of "Labrador" on topographical maps of the period. Subsequently, in 1501 and 1502, the Corte-Real brothers explored and charted Greenland and what is today the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, claiming these lands as part of fortnight the Portuguese Empire.
Fragmentary evidence suggests a previous expedition in 1473 by João Vaz Corte-Real, their father, with other Europeans, to Terra Nova do Bacalhau in North America. The possible voyage of 1473 and several other possible pre-Columbian expeditions to North America in the 15th century from the Azores in the case of the Portuguese, remain matters of great controversy for scholars, their existence is based on brief or fragmentary historical documents that are unclear concerning the destinations of voyages. In 1506, King Manuel I of Portugal created taxes for the cod fisheries in Newfoundland waters. João Álvares Fagundes and Pêro de Barcelos established fishing outposts in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1521; these were abandoned, when Portuguese colonizers began to focus their efforts on South America. Nonetheless, the Portuguese-founded towns of Portugal Cove-St. Philip's, St. Peter's, St. John's, Conception Bay and surrounding areas of east Canada remains important as a cultural region today.
In April 1500, the second Portuguese India Armada, headed by Pedro Álvares Cabral, with a crew of expert captains, including Bartolomeu Dias and Nicolau Coelho, encountered the Brazilian coast as it swung westward in the Atlantic while performing a large "volta do mar" to avoid becalming in the Gulf of Guinea. On 21 April 1500, a mountain was seen, named Monte Pascoal, on 22 April, Cabral landed on the coast, in Porto Seguro. Believing the land to be an island, he named it Ilha de Vera Cruz; the previous expedition of Vasco da Gama to India recorded several signs of land near its western open Atlantic Ocean route, in 1497. It has been suggested that Duarte Pacheco Pereira may have discovered the coasts of Brazil in 1498, possible its northeast, but the exact area of the expedition and the explored regions remain unclear. On the other hand, some historians have suggested that the Portuguese may have encountered the South American bulge earlier while sailing the "volta do mar", hence the insistence of King John II in moving the line west of the line agreed upon in the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494.
From the east coast, the fleet turned eastward to resume the journey to the southern tip of Africa and India. Landing in the New World and reaching Asia, the expedition connected four continents for the first time in history. In 1501–1502, an expedition led by Gonçalo Coelho, sailed south along the coast of South America to the bay of present-day Rio de Janeiro. Among his crew was the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci. According to Vespucci, the expedition reached the latitude "South Pole elevation 52° S" in the "cold" latitudes of what is now Patagonia, near the Strait of Magellan, before turning back. Vespucci wrote that they headed toward the southwest-south, following "a long, unbending coastline"; this seems controversial, since he changed part of his description in the subsequent letter, however, that they reached a similar 50° S latitude. Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer in four Portuguese exploratory voyages; the expeditions became known in Europe after two accounts attributed to him, published between 1502 and 1504.
His last two voyages to the east and southern east coasts of South America, by Portugal the expedition of 1501-1502 to Brazil and beyond, its meeting with Cabral`s ships and men on the African coast, at Bezeguiche, listening the accounts of its sailors, were the most decisive for his "New World" hypothesis. Vespucci suggested that the newly discovered lands were not the Indies but a "New World", the Mundus novus, Latin title of a contemporary document based on Vespucci letters to Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici, which had become popular in Europe. Around 1508 or 1511-1512, Portuguese captains reached and explored the River Plate estuary in the present-day Uruguay and Argentina, went as far south as the present-day Gulf of San Matias at 42°S; some historians have attributed this voyage to Coelho and Vespucci years before, but a good part of historians and researchers, through the sparse and comparative documentation, identify the captains and the experienced pilot of the India run ("the best Pilot of P
Norse colonization of North America
The Norse colonization of North America began in the late 10th century AD when Norsemen explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic including the northeastern fringes of North America. Remains of Norse buildings were found at L’Anse aux Meadows near the northern tip of Newfoundland in 1960; this discovery aided the reignition of archaeological exploration for the Norse in the North Atlantic. The Norse settlements in the North American island of Greenland lasted for 500 years. L’Anse aux Meadows, the only confirmed Norse site on the North American mainland, was small and did not last as long. While voyages, for example to collect timber, are to have occurred for some time, there is no evidence of any lasting Norse settlements on mainland North America. According to the Sagas of Icelanders, Norsemen from Iceland first settled Greenland in the 980s. There is no special reason to doubt the authority of the information that the sagas supply regarding the beginning of the settlement, but they cannot be treated as primary evidence for the history of Norse Greenland because they embody the literary preoccupations of writers and audiences in medieval Iceland that are not always reliable.
Erik the Red, having been banished from Iceland for manslaughter, explored the uninhabited southwestern coast of Greenland during the three years of his banishment. He made plans to entice settlers to the area, naming it Greenland on the assumption that "people would be more eager to go there because the land had a good name"; the inner reaches of one long fjord, named Eiriksfjord after him, was where he established his estate Brattahlid. He issued tracts of land to his followers. Norse Greenland consisted of two settlements; the Eastern was at the southwestern tip of Greenland, while the Western Settlement was about 500 km up the west coast, inland from present-day Nuuk. A smaller settlement near the Eastern Settlement is sometimes considered the Middle Settlement; the combined population was around 2,000–3,000. At least 400 farms have been identified by archaeologists. Norse Greenland had a bishopric and exported walrus ivory, rope, whale or seal blubber, live animals such as polar bears, supposed "unicorn horns", cattle hides.
In 1126, the population requested a Bishop, in 1261, they accepted the overlordship of the Norwegian King. They continued to have their own law and became completely independent after 1349, the time of the Black Death. In 1380, the Norwegian Kingdom entered into a personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark. There is evidence of Norse trade with the natives; the Norse would have encountered the ancestors of the Inuit. The Dorset had withdrawn from Greenland before the Norse settlement of the island. Items such as comb fragments, pieces of iron cooking utensils and chisels, chess pieces, ship rivets, carpenter's planes, oaken ship fragments used in Inuit boats have been found far beyond the traditional range of Norse colonization. A small ivory statue that appears to represent a European has been found among the ruins of an Inuit community house; the settlement began to decline in the 14th century. The Western Settlement was abandoned around 1350, the last bishop at Garðar died in 1377. After a marriage was recorded in 1408, no written records mention the settlers.
It is probable. The most recent radiocarbon date found in Norse settlements as of 2002 was 1430. Several theories have been advanced to explain the decline; the Little Ice Age of this period would have made travel between Greenland and Europe, as well as farming, more difficult. In addition, Greenlandic ivory may have been supplanted in European markets by cheaper ivory from Africa. Despite the loss of contact with the Greenlanders, the Norwegian-Danish crown continued to consider Greenland a possession. Not knowing whether the old Norse civilization remained in Greenland or not—and worried that if it did, it would still be Catholic 200 years after the Scandinavian homelands had experienced the Reformation—a joint merchant-clerical expedition led by the Dano-Norwegian missionary Hans Egede was sent to Greenland in 1721. Though this expedition found no surviving Europeans, it marked the beginning of Denmark's re-assertion of sovereignty over the island. Norse Greenlanders were limited to scattered fjords on the island that provided a spot for their animals to be kept and farms to be established.
In these fjords, the farms depended upon byres to host their livestock in the winter, culled their herds in order to survive the season. The coming warmer seasons meant that livestocks were taken from their byres to pasture, the most fertile being controlled by the most powerful farms and the church. What was produced by livestock and farming was supplemented with subsistence hunting of seal and caribou as well as walrus for trade; the Norse relied on the Nordrsetur hunt, a communal hunt of migratory harp seals that would take place during spring. Trade was important to the Greenland Norse and they relied on imports of lumber due to the barrenness of Greenland. In turn they exported goods such as walrus ivory and hide, live polar bears, narwhal tusks; these setups were vulnerable as they relied on migratory patterns created by climate as well as the well-being of the few fjords on t
The Venezuela Province was a province of the Spanish Empire, of Gran Colombia and of Venezuela, apart from an interlude when it was contracted as a concession by the King of Spain to the German Welser banking family, as Klein-Venedig. It has its origins with the 1527 foundation of Santa Ana de Coro by Juan de Ampíes, the province's first governor. Coro was the province's capital followed by El Tocuyo; the capital was moved to Caracas in 1577 by Juan de Pimentel. At one time Calabozo was its capital. Early on, the province was defined in relation to the Venezuelan coastline. New Andalusia Province soon provided an eastern boundary, excepting a brief period when the short-lived New Catalonia Province existed between the Venezuela and New Andalusia provinces. Guayana Province formed a southern boundary. Matters in the west were more complex and fluid, but the Maracaibo Province formed the largest part until the Barinas Province was split from it in 1786. For most of its existence the province was subject to the legal and administrative supervision of the Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo.
Administrative supervision was transferred to the Viceroyalty of New Granada when this was created in 1717, in 1777 to the new Captaincy General of Venezuela. Legal supervision by Santo Domingo ended in 1786 when the Royal Audience of Caracas became functional within the new Captaincy-General; the province was one of the 7. Towards the end of the Venezuelan War of Independence it was incorporated into Gran Colombia dissolved within the Venezuela Department which represented the entire Captaincy General. In 1824 it was recreated as a reduced Caracas Province within a much smaller Venezuela Department. With the independence of Venezuela in 1830, the province was one of 11, becoming one of 13 by 1840. In 1848 Aragua Province and Guárico Province were split from Caracas. Following the Federal War, the States of Venezuela were created in 1864, the province ceased to exist. List of Governors of Venezuela Province