DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
Speech balloons are a graphic convention used most in comic books and cartoons to allow words to be understood as representing the speech or thoughts of a given character in the comic. There is a formal distinction between the balloon that indicates thoughts and the one that indicates words spoken aloud: the balloon that conveys thoughts is referred to as a thought bubble. One of the earliest antecedents to the modern speech bubble were the "speech scrolls", wispy lines that connected first-person speech to the mouths of the speakers in Mesoamerican art between 600 and 900 AD. Earlier, depicting stories in subsequent frames, using descriptive text resembling bubbles-text, were used in murals, one such example witten in Greek, dating to the 2nd century, found in Capitolias, today in Jordan. In Western graphic art, labels that reveal what a pictured figure is saying have appeared since at least the 13th century; these were in common European use by the early 16th century. Word balloons began appearing in 18th-century printed broadsides, political cartoons from the American Revolution used them.
They fell out of fashion, but by 1904 had regained their popularity, although they were still considered novel enough to require explanation. With the development of the comics industry in the 20th century, the appearance of speech balloons has become standardized, though the formal conventions that have evolved in different cultures, can be quite distinct. Richard F. Outcault's Yellow Kid is credited as the first American comic strip character, his words appeared on his yellow shirt, but word balloons much like those in use today were added immediately, as early as 1896. By the start of the 20th century, word balloons were ubiquitous. In Europe, where text comics were more common, speech balloons caught on, with well-known examples being Alain Saint-Ogan's Zig et Puce, Hergé's The Adventures of Tintin and Rob-Vel's Spirou; the most common is the speech bubble. It comes in two forms for two circumstances: an off-panel character. An in-panel character uses a bubble with a pointer, directed towards the speaker.
When one character has multiple balloons within a panel only the balloon nearest to the speaker's head has a tail, the others are connected to it in sequence by narrow bands. This style is used in Mad Magazine, due to its "call-and-response" dialogue-based humor. An off-panel character has some of them rather unconventional; the first is a standard speech bubble with a tail pointing toward the speaker's position. The second option, which originated in manga, has the tail pointing into the bubble, instead of out; the third option replaces the tail with a sort of bottleneck that connects with the side of the panel. It can be seen in the works of Marjane Satrapi. In American comics, a bubble without a tail means that the speaker is not outside the reader's field of view but invisible to the viewpoint character as an unspecified member of a crowd. Characters distant from the scene of the panel can still speak, in squared bubbles without a tail. In contrast to captions, the corners of such balloons never coincide with those of the panel.
Thought bubbles come in two forms: the chain thought bubble and the "fuzzy" bubble. The chain thought bubble is the universal symbol for thinking in cartoons, it consists of a large, cloud-like bubble containing the text of the thought, with a chain of smaller circular bubbles leading to the character. Some artists use an elliptical bubble instead of a cloud-shaped one. Animal characters like Snoopy and Garfield "talk" using thought bubbles. Thought bubbles may be used in circumstances when a character is gagged or otherwise unable to speak. Another, less conventional thought bubble has emerged: the "fuzzy" thought bubble. Used in manga, the fuzzy bubble is circular in shape, but the edge of the bubble is not a line but a collection of spikes close to each other, creating the impression of fuzziness. Fuzzy thought bubbles do not use tails, are placed near the character, thinking; this has the advantage of reflecting the TV equivalent effect: something said with an echo. Writers and artists can refuse to use thought bubbles, expressing the action through spoken dialogue and drawing.
However, they are restricted to the current viewpoint character. An example is Alan Moore and David Lloyd's V for Vendetta, wherein during one chapter, a monologue expressed in captions serves not only to express the thoughts of a character but the mood, st
Franco-Belgian comics are comics that are created for French-Belgian and/or French readership. These countries have a long tradition in comics and comic books, where they are known as BDs, an abbreviation of bandes dessinées in French and stripverhalen or strips in the Dutch-speaking part of Europe, the first non-Francophone territories where the Franco-Belgian comics became a major force on their comic scenes from 1945 onward, brought forth by the bilingual nature of Belgium. Among the most popular Franco-Belgian comics that have achieved international fame are The Adventures of Tintin, Gaston Lagaffe, Lucky Luke and The Smurfs in the humoristically drawn genres, whereas such bande dessinées as Blueberry, Thorgal, XIII, as well as the various creations of Hermann have done well internationally in the realistically drawn genres – albeit not all of them in the English-speaking world. In Europe, the French language is spoken natively not only in France and the city state of Monaco, but by about 40% of the population of Belgium, 16% of the population of Luxembourg, about 20% of the population of Switzerland.
The shared language creates an artistic and commercial market where national identity is blurred, one of the main rationales for the conception of the "Franco-Belgian comics" expression itself. The potential appeal of the French-language comics extends beyond Francophone Europe, as France in particular has strong historical and cultural ties with several Francophone overseas territories, some of which, like French Polynesia or French Guiana, still being Overseas France. Of these territories it is Quebec, where Franco-Belgian comics are doing best, due – aside from the obvious fact that it has the largest comic reading Francophone population outside Europe – to that province's close historical and cultural ties with the motherland and where French-Belgian comic publishers like Le Lombard and Dargaud maintain a strong presence, in the process influencing its own native Quebec comics scene from 1960 onwards; this is in stark contrast to the English-speaking part of the country, culturally US comics oriented.
While Flemish Belgian comic books are influenced by Francophone comics in the early years, they did evolve into a distinctly different style, both in art as well as in spirit, why they are nowadays sometimes categorized as Flemish comics, as their evolution started to take a different path from the late-1940s onward, due to cultural differences stemming from the increasing cultural self-awareness of the Flemish people. And while French language publications are habitually translated into Dutch/Flemish, Dutch/Flemish publications are less translated into French, for cultural reasons. Despite the shared language, Flemish comics are not doing that well in the Netherlands and vice versa, save for some notable exceptions, such as the Willy Vandersteen creation Suske en Wiske, popular across the border. Concurrently, the socio-cultural idiosyncrasies contained within many Dutch/Flemish comics means that these comics have seen far less translations into other languages than their French-language counterparts have due to their more universal appeal, the French language's cultural status..
Belgium is and a tri-lingual country as there is a small, yet sizable recognized German-speaking minority, though Belgian comic home market first print releases, be it in Dutch or in French, are translated into that language with German-speaking Belgians having to wait for internationally released editions for reading in their native tongue those from licensed publishers stemming from neighboring Germany. Though Dutch and German are Germanic-language cousins, German-Belgium is encapsulated by French-Belgium, resulting in that French is the most utilized language in that territory and has caused the handful of comic artist originating from there, such as Hermann and Didier Comès, to create their comics in French. Born Dieter Hermann Comès, Comès has "frenchified" his given name to this end, whereas Hermann has dispensed with his family name "Huppen" for his comics credits, though he maintained the Germanic spelling for his first name. Due to its relative modesty, both in size and in scope, despite the close historical and cultural ties, no German-Belgian artists are as of 2018 known to have created comics for the German comics world, when discounting commercial translations of their original Francophone creations.
Something similar applies to France, where there exist several regional languages, of which Breton and Occitan are two of the more substantial ones. But while these languages are culturally recognized as regional languages, they are, contrary to Belgium in regard to German, not recognized as official national languages, with similar consequences as in Belgium for comics and their artists. On rare occasions though, independent local and regional publishers obtain licenses from the main comic publisher to release comic books, or rather comic albums, of the more popular comi
A British comic is a periodical published in the United Kingdom that contains comic strips. It is referred to as a comic or a comic magazine, as a comic paper. British comics are comics anthologies which are aimed at children, are published weekly, although some are published on a fortnightly or monthly schedule; the two most popular British comics, The Beano and The Dandy, were released by DC Thomson in the 1930s. By 1950 the weekly circulation of both reached two million. Explaining the enormous popularity of comics in British popular culture during this period, Anita O’Brien, director curator at London’s Cartoon Museum, states: “When comics like the Beano and Dandy were invented back in the 1930s – and through to the 1950s and 60s – these comics were the only entertainment available to children."In 1954, Tiger comics introduced Roy of the Rovers, the hugely popular football based strip recounting the life of Roy Race and the team he played for, Melchester Rovers. The stock media phrase "real'Roy of the Rovers' stuff" is used by football writers and fans when describing displays of great skill, or surprising results that go against the odds, in reference to the dramatic storylines that were the strip's trademark.
Other comics such as Eagle, Warrior, Viz and 2000 AD flourished. Some comics, such as Judge Dredd and other 2000 AD titles, have been published in a tabloid form. Underground comics and "small press" titles have appeared in the UK, notably Oz and Escape Magazine. While the best selling comics in the UK have been British, American comic books and Japanese manga are popular in the UK; the description comics derived from the names of popular titles such as Comic Cuts, from the fact that in the beginning all the titles presented only comic content. British comics differ from the American comic book. Although they shared the same format size, based on a sheet of imperial paper folded in half, British comics have moved away from this size, adopting a standard magazine size; until that point, the British comic was usually printed on newsprint, with black or a dark red used as the dark colour and the four colour process used on the cover. The Beano and The Dandy both switched to an all-colour format in 1993.
Aimed at the semi-literate working class, the comic came to be seen as childish, hence was marketed towards children. Strips were of one or two pages in length, with a single issue of a comic containing upwards of a dozen separate strips, featuring different characters, although strips now last longer and tend to continue over a number of issues and period of time. Whilst some comics contained only strips, other publications such as Jackie have had a different focus, providing readers with articles about, photographs of, pop stars and television/film actors, plus more general articles about teenage life, whilst throwing in a few comic strips for good measure. In British comics history, there are some long-running publications such as The Beano and The Dandy published by D. C. Thomson & Co. a newspaper company based in Dundee, Scotland. The Dandy began in 1937 and The Beano in 1938; the Beano is still going today while The Dandy ceased print publication in 2012. The Boys' Own Paper lasted from 1879 to 1967.
There has been a continuous tradition of black and white comics, published in a smaller page size format, many of them war titles like Air Ace inspiring youngsters with tales of the exploits of the army and Royal Air Force in the two world wars some romance titles and some westerns in this format. On March 19, 2012, the British postal service, the Royal Mail, released a set of stamps depicting characters and series from British comics; the collection featured The Beano, The Dandy, The Topper, Roy of the Rovers, Buster, Twinkle and 2000 AD. In the 19th century, story papers, known as "penny dreadfuls" from their cover price, served as entertainment for British children. Full of close-printed text with few illustrations, they were no different from a book, except that they were somewhat shorter and that the story was serialised over many weekly issues in order to maintain sales; these serial stories could run to hundreds of instalments. And to pad out a successful series, writers would insert quite extraneous material such as the geography of the country in which the action was occurring, so that the story would extend into more issues.
Plagiarism was rife, with magazines profiting from competitors' successes under a few cosmetic name changes. Apart from action and historical stories, there was a fashion for horror and the supernatural, with epics like Varney the Vampire running for years. Horror, in particular, contributed to the epithet "penny dreadful". Stories featuring criminals such as'Spring-Heeled Jack', pirates and detectives dominated decades of the Victorian and early 20th-century weeklies. Comic strips—stories told in strip cartoon form, rather than as a written narrative with illustrations—emerged only slowly. Ally Sloper's Half Holiday is regarded to be the first comic strip magazine to feature a recurring character; this strip was designed for adults. Ally, the recurring character, was a working class fellow who got up to various forms of mischief and suffered for it. In 1890 two more comic magazines debuted before the British public, Comic Cuts and Illustrated Chips, both published by Amalgamated Press; these magazines notoriously reprinted British and American material published in newspapers and
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
An editorial cartoon known as a political cartoon, is a drawing containing a commentary expressing the artist's opinion. An artist who writes and draws such images is known as an editorial cartoonist, they combine artistic skill and satire in order to question authority and draw attention to corruption, political violence and other social ills. Developed in England in the latter part of the 18th century, James Gillray was a pioneer of the political cartoon. Founded in 1841, the British periodical Punch appropriated the term cartoon to refer to its political cartoons, which led to the term's widespread use; the pictorial satire has been credited as the precursor to the political cartoons in England: John J. Richetti, in The Cambridge history of English literature, 1660–1780, states that "English graphic satire begins with Hogarth's Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme". William Hogarth’s pictures combined social criticism with sequential artistic scenes. A frequent target of his satire was the corruption of early 18thcentury British politics.
An early satirical work was an Emblematical Print on the South Sea Scheme, about the disastrous stock market crash of 1720 known as the South Sea Bubble, in which many English people lost a great deal of money. His art had a strong moralizing element to it, such as in his masterpiece of 1732–33, A Rake's Progress, engraved in 1734, it consisted of eight pictures that depicted the reckless life of Tom Rakewell, the son of a rich merchant, who spends all of his money on luxurious living, services from sex workers, gambling—the character's life ends in Bethlem Royal Hospital. However, his work was only tangentially politicized and was regarded on its artistic merits. George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend produced some of the first overtly political cartoons and caricatures in the 1750s; the medium began to develop in England in the latter part of the 18th century—especially around the time of the French Revolution—under the direction of its great exponents, James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, both from London.
Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and caricature, has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon. Calling the king, prime ministers and generals to account, many of Gillray's satires were directed against George III, depicting him as a pretentious buffoon, while the bulk of his work was dedicated to ridiculing the ambitions of Revolutionary France and Napoleon; the times in which Gillray lived were peculiarly favourable to the growth of a great school of caricature. Party warfare was carried on with not a little bitterness. Gillray's incomparable wit and humour, knowledge of life, fertility of resource, keen sense of the ludicrous, beauty of execution, at once gave him the first place among caricaturists. George Cruikshank became the leading cartoonist in the period following Gillray, his early career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications. He gained notoriety with his political prints that attacked the royal family and leading politicians and was bribed in 1820 "not to caricature His Majesty" "in any immoral situation".
His work included a personification of England named John Bull, developed from about 1790 in conjunction with other British satirical artists such as Gillray and Rowlandson. The art of the editorial cartoon was further developed with the publication of the British periodical Punch in 1841, founded by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells, it was bought by Bradbury and Evans in 1842, who capitalised on newly evolving mass printing technologies to turn the magazine into a preeminent national institution. The term "cartoon" to refer to comic drawings was coined by the magazine in 1843. Punch humorously appropriated the term to refer to its political cartoons, the popularity of the Punch cartoons led to the term's widespread use. Artists who published in Punch during the 1840s and 50s included John Leech, Richard Doyle, John Tenniel and Charles Keene; this group became known as "The Punch Brotherhood", which included Charles Dickens who joined Bradbury and Evans after leaving Chapman and Hall in 1843.
Punch authors and artists contributed to another Bradbury and Evans literary magazine called Once A Week, created in response to Dickens' departure from Household Words. The most prolific and influential cartoonist of the 1850s and 60s was John Tenniel, chief cartoon artist for Punch, who perfected the art of physical caricature and representation to a point that has changed little up to the present day. For over five decades he was a steadfast social witness to the sweeping national changes that occurred during this period alongside his fellow cartoonist John Leech; the magazine loyally captured the general public mood. By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many countries featured cartoons designed to express the publisher's opinion on the politics of the day. One of the most successful was Thomas Nast in New York City, who imported realistic German drawing techniques to major political issues in the era of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Nast was most famous for his 160
German-speaking Community of Belgium
The German-speaking Community of Belgium or Eastern Belgium is one of the three federal communities of Belgium. Covering an area of 854 km2 within the province of Liège in Wallonia, it includes nine of the eleven municipalities of East Cantons. Traditionally speakers of Low Dietsch and Moselle Franconian varieties, the local population numbers over 75,000—about 0.70% of the national total. Bordering the Netherlands and Luxembourg, the area has its own parliament and government at Eupen. Although in the Belgian province of Luxembourg many of the inhabitants in the border region next to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg speak Luxembourgish, a West Central German language, they are not considered part of the German-speaking Community; the German-speaking Community of Belgium is composed of the German-speaking parts of the lands that were annexed in 1920 from Germany. In addition, in contemporary Belgium there are some other areas where German is or has been spoken that belonged to Belgium before 1920, but they are not officially considered part of the German-speaking Community of Belgium: Bleiberg-Welkenraedt-Baelen in northeastern province of Liège and Arelerland.
However, in these localities, the German language is declining due to the expansion of French. The area known today as the East Cantons consists of the German-speaking Community and the municipalities of Malmedy and Waimes, which belong to the French Community of Belgium; the East Cantons were part of the Rhine Province of Prussia in Germany until 1920, but were annexed by Belgium following Germany's defeat in World War I and the subsequent Treaty of Versailles. Thus they became known as the cantons rédimés, "redeemed cantons"; the peace treaty of Versailles demanded the "questioning" of the local population. People who were unwilling to become Belgians and wanted the region to remain a part of Germany were required to register themselves along with their full name and address with the Belgian military administration, headed by Herman Baltia, many feared reprisals or expulsion for doing so. In the mid-1920s, there were secret negotiations between Germany and the kingdom of Belgium that seemed to be inclined to sell the region back to Germany as a way to improve Belgium's finances.
A price of 200 million gold marks has been mentioned. At this point, the French government, fearing for the complete postwar order, intervened at Brussels and the Belgian-German talks were called off; the new cantons had been part of Belgium for just 20 years when, in 1940, they were retaken by Germany in World War II. The majority of people of the east cantons welcomed this. Following the defeat of Germany in 1945, the cantons were once again annexed by Belgium, as a result of alleged collaboration with Nazi Germany an attempt was made to de-Germanize the local population by the Belgian and Walloon authorities. In the early 1960s, Belgium was divided into four linguistic areas, the Dutch-speaking Flemish area, the French-speaking area, the bilingual capital of Brussels, the German-speaking area of the east cantons. In 1973, three communities and three regions were granted internal autonomy; the legislative Parliament of the German-speaking Community, Rat der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft, was set up.
Today the German-speaking Community has a fair degree of autonomy in language and cultural matters, but it still remains part of the region of predominantly French-speaking Wallonia. There has been much argument in the past few years that the German-speaking Community should become its own region, an ongoing process with the permanent transfer with the previous accord of some competences concerning social policy, conservation of sites and monuments, environment protection policy, the financing of municipalities, among other things from the Walloon Region. One of the proponents of full regional autonomy for the German-speaking Community is Karl-Heinz Lambertz, the minister-president from 1999 to 2014. Regional autonomy for spatial planning, city building and housing should be considered, according to the government of the German-speaking Community; the German-speaking Community has its own government, appointed for five years by its own parliament. The Government is headed by a Minister-President, who acts as the "prime minister" of the Community, is assisted by the Ministry of the German-speaking Community.
The 2014–2019 government is formed by four Ministers: Oliver Paasch, Minister-President and Minister for Local Government Isabelle Weykmans, Vice-Minister-President and Minister for Culture and Tourism Harald Mollers, Minister for Education Antonios Antoniadis, Minister for Social Affairs The German-speaking Community consists of the following nine municipalities:. The population figures are those on 1 January 2017. In 1989, there was a call for arms of the Community. In the end the coat of arms of the Community was designed by merging the arms of the Duchy