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German hip hop

German hip hop refers to hip-hop music produced in Germany. Elements of American hip-hop culture, such as graffiti art and breakdancing, diffused into Western Europe in the early 1980s. Early underground artists included Advanced Chemistry, it was not until the early 1990s that German hip hop entered the mainstream as groups like Die Fantastischen Vier and the Rödelheim Hartreim Projekt gained popularity. German hip hop was influenced by films, leading to a strong emphasis on visual and cultural elements such as graffiti and breakdancing beyond the music itself. In addition to films, such as Wild Style and Beat Street, American soldiers stationed in Germany facilitated the introduction of hip-hop music and culture into German pop culture. GLS United released the first German-language hip-hop song, "Rapper's Deutsch", in 1980. While the group was formed explicitly for the one song, the song was intended as a parody of "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, it was none-the-less the first German hip-hop group and first German-language hip-hop track.

These movies led the people of Germany to realize that hip-hop was much more than just rap music, but was much a cultural movement in and of itself. Though at the time of the release of the movie, it did not have a great overall impact, once reunification began in 1990, the hip-hop scene began to flourish; as one German remembers on a visit to the US in 1986, things were much different. MTV did not exist in Europe at the time, the scene was still much underground. Moreover, there was a lack of European hip-hop clubs. After this initial wave of popularity, hip-hop fans were few and far between. However, the fans that did remain would play a role in the resuscitation of the hip hop culture. "The hardcore hip-hop fans that remained after the breakdance craze faded from the media were central to the further development of hip hop in Germany-they supplied much of the personnel for the important rap groups that began to develop in the late 1980s and early'90s." "Graffiti and breakdancing came out big but it only lasted for one summer.

But hip hop survived in the underground."Originally most German rappers relied on English-language lyrics, a fact which has led some academics and groups of the German public to interpret the emergence of hip hop in German pop culture as'cultural imperialism':, to say, as a movement that emulated the culture of the United States at the expense of their native German cultural traditions. The influence of American hip-hop artists remains strong in the German hip-hop scene: music videos rely on similar symbols of power and affluence, such as cars and jewelry. Many German hip-hop artists are of Turkish-German descent second- and third-generation German citizens who grew up in comparatively poor or "tough" neighborhoods. Identification with their roots in neighborhoods remains an important aspect of the identity of individual rappers and their "crews"; when not rapping in English, many German rappers employ a dialect of German developed in these communities and, therefore associated with immigrants and the German "ghetto".

Using this language in their music, some academics have argued, enables them to levy criticism and protest aspects of society and politics that they perceive as having disadvantaged them and their communities. Die Fantastischen Vier are another important German hip hop group, who began to rap in German around the same time as Advanced Chemistry. Die Fantastischen Vier saw English rap in Germany as meaningless loyalty to “surface elements” of U. S. rap, devoid of any German political or social context. They sought to appropriate hip hop from its foreign framework, use it to bring a voice to historical and contemporary problems in Germany; the shift of rapping from English into German increased hip hop's appeal to the German people, Gastarbeiter included. Growing self-confidence among Germany's immigrant population coincided with the use of the German language in German hip hop, provided them with a vocal outlet in line with the plight of poor African Americans, out of which hip hop had emerged.

The Group Advanced Chemistry originated from Germany. As they were one of the few early hip hop groups to rap in English, they were influential in promoting the hip hop scene in Germany. More however, Advanced Chemistry was a prominent hip hop group because of the ethnic diversity of the members. Torch, the leader of the group for instance is both of German ethnic background. Advanced Chemistry exploded onto the German hip hop scene in November 1992 with their first mixed single entitled "Fremd im eigenen Land"; this song was immensely popular because it directly addressed the issue of immigrants in Germany: "In the video of the song, a band member brandishes a German passport in a symbolic challenge to traditional assumptions about what it means to be German. If the passport is not enough, the video implies what is required? German Blood?". After the reunification of Germany in 1990, many Germans saw a growing wave of racism; because many hip hop artists were children of immigrants, this became a major theme of German hip hop.

During the 1980s Germany first saw a wave of second generation immigrants coming into the country. Immigration became a big issue in hip hop albums at this point; the German synonym for an immigrant is Gastarbeiter which means'guest worker', these ‘guest workers’ were rapped about often. Immigrant teenagers use rap and hip hop as a way to defend themselves in their new countries. "Since honour cannot be gained, but only lost, a permanent readiness to fight is required. Thus social approval is acquired by ac

Baychester Avenue station

Baychester Avenue is a station on the IRT Dyre Avenue Line of the New York City Subway, located at the intersection of Baychester and Tillotson Avenues in the Bronx. It is served by the 5 train at all times. Baychester Avenue opened on May 29, 1912 as a local station of the New York and Boston Railway; this station was closed on December 1937 when the NYW&B went bankrupt. The New York City Board of Transportation bought the NYW&B within the Bronx north of East 180th Street in April 1940 for $1.8 million and rehabilitated the line. On May 15, 1941, a shuttle service was implemented between Dyre Avenue and East 180th Street using IRT gate cars; the Dyre Avenue Line was connected directly to the White Plains Road Line north of East 180th Street for $3 million and through service began on May 6, 1957. On February 27, 1962, the New York City Transit Authority announced a $700,000 modernization plan of the Dyre Avenue Line; the plan included the reconstruction of the Dyre Avenue station, the extension of the platforms of the other four stations on the line, including Baychester Avenue to 525 feet to accommodate ten-car trains.

At the time, the line was served by 9-car trains during the day, 3-car shuttles overnight. Between 1954 and 1961, ridership on the line increased by 100%, owing to the development of the northeast Bronx. On April 18, 1965, IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line trains and IRT Lexington Avenue Line trains swapped their northern routings, with Broadway–Seventh Avenue 2 trains running via the IRT White Plains Road Line to 241st Street, Lexington Avenue 5 trains running via the Dyre Avenue Line to Dyre Avenue; the line is still operated as a shuttle late nights. The northbound platform was closed between September 9, 1991 and June 15, 1992 so that it could be rehabilitated; the platform was supposed to reopen in May. As part of the project, the station received an improved electrical system, new lighting, reinforced concrete platforms, a new canopy, a new drainage system, new graphics on windscreens and new handrails; the station has three tracks with space for a fourth. It is on an embankment with a cut in the embankment for the street to run below.

The station house is on street level below the tracks on their extreme north end. A staircase from each platform goes down to an underpass, where on the Dyre Avenue-bound side, a single exit-only turnstile leads to a set of doors to the streets; the main fare control area is on the Manhattan-bound side. It has a set of doors to the underpass, another to the platform stairs, a turnstile bank, token booth, doors to the streets. Nycsubway.org – IRT White Plains Road Line: Baychester Avenue Station Reporter — 5 Train The Subway Nut — Baychester Avenue Pictures New York and Boston Railway - Baychester Avenue Station Baychester Avenue entrance from Google Maps Street View Platforms from Google Maps Street View

Meanings of minor planet names: 217001–218000

As minor planet discoveries are confirmed, they are given a permanent number by the IAU's Minor Planet Center, the discoverers can submit names for them, following the IAU's naming conventions. The list below concerns those minor planets in the specified number-range that have received names, explains the meanings of those names. Official naming citations of newly named small Solar System bodies are published in MPC's Minor Planet Circulars several times a year. Recent citations can be found on the JPL Small-Body Database; until his death in 2016, German astronomer Lutz D. Schmadel compiled these citations into the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names and updated the collection. Based on Paul Herget's The Names of the Minor Planets, Schmadel researched the unclear origin of numerous asteroids, most of, named prior to World War II; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document: "SBDB". New namings may only be added after official publication as the preannouncement of names is condemned by the Committee on Small Body Nomenclature.

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The Crossing (band)

The Crossing are an American traditional Celtic music band from Chicago, Illinois. Formed in 1984, they have released seven studio albums, Look Both Ways, Rise and Go, Dancing at the Crossroads, Dochas: Hope, The Court of a King: A Celtic Christmas Celebration, Standing Stones, Baile, they released these albums with Grrr Records. The Crossing formed in Illinois, in 1984 by front man Tony Krogh. A bluegrass band, after some member changes in 1985 they switched to traditional Celtic. Tony together wrote most of the music and lyrics. Fiddle player Jennifer Ingerson, flute player Mark Hall, guitarist Mike Baznik rounded out the ensemble, with each member adding creative input and vocal harmonies, they put out their first album Look Both Ways in 1988. In 1989 they asked cellist Hilde Bialach to join, the group would remain unchanged for 10 years. Albums with this lineup include 1990 - Rise and Go, which would be paired as a double album with Look Both Ways in 1998. 1993 - Dancing at the Crossroads. 1996 - Dochas 1998 - In The Court of a King.

A Celtic Christmas Celebration In 1999, Pat Peterson left the band amicably to persue other interests. Since Pat was the main player of bodhran and bones, the band had to decide whether or not to find a replacement, opted to have Baznik and Hall learn how to play bodhran. Hall learned bones, they played their last show with Peterson at Cornerstone Festival 1999. They continued as a five-member band for another three years and released Standing Stones in 2002. In February 2002 Baznik announced he was leaving the band but committed to finishing the album, released in July, they played their final show with Baznik at Cornerstone Festival 2002. They asked Eric Clayton to join in Fall 2002. Clayton played guitar and was familiar with percussion, but was unfamiliar with the Celtic style, had to learn bouzouki and bodhran, while learning the lyricsk of the Standing Stones album so they could tour, they released Baile in 2010, are working on their eighth album as of fall 2019. Current members: Tony Krogh - founder, front man and background vocals, Highland Pipes, Uillean pipes, small pipes, bouzouki, whistles, mandolin, didgeridoo Jennifer Ingerson - Fiddle, vocals Mark Hall - Flute, harp, bones, lap dulcimer, vocals.

Hilde Bialach - Cello and background vocals, guitar Eric Clayton - Guitar, bodhran, vocals Past Members Pat Peterson - Whistles, bones, vocals Mike Baznik - Guitar, banjo, vocals The band's first recording, Look Both Ways, was released in 1988, while their second studio album, Rise and Go, was released in 1990, both would be re-released by Grrr Records in a combined package in 1998. Their third album, Dancing at the Crossroads, was released from Grrr Records; the group's fourth studio album, Dochas: Hope, was released with Grrr Records. Their fifth studio album, The Court of a King: A Celtic Christmas Celebration, was released in 1998, by Grrr Records; the sixth album, Standing Stones, was released by Grrr Records in 2002. Their seventh studio album, was released in 2010, from Grrr Records. Studio AlbumsLook Both Ways Rise and Go Dancing at the Crossroads Dochas: Hope The Court Of A King: A Celtic Christmas Celebration Standing Stones Baile' Official website CMnexus profile Facebook profile

Master warrant officer

Master warrant officer is a senior military rank in the Bangladesh Armed Forces,the Canadian Forces, Singapore Armed Forces, the South African National Defence Force and the Israel Defense Forces. Army Master warrant officer is a junior-commissioned officer rank in the Bangladesh Army, falling between Senior warrant officer and Honorary Lieutenant. Air Force Master warrant officer is the highest airman rank in the Bangladesh Air Force above Senior warrant officer. Master warrant officer is an Air Force non-commissioned member rank of the Canadian Forces, it is senior to the rank of warrant officer and its equivalents, junior to chief warrant officer and its equivalents. Its Naval equivalent is chief petty officer 2nd class; the French language form is adjudant-maître. The rank insignia of the MWO is a crown within a wreath of gold laurel, worn on both forearms of the service dress tunic. MWOs are initially addressed as "Master Warrant Officer", or "Sergeant-Major", thereafter as "Sir" or "Ma'am".

MWOs may hold a number of appointments, including the position of sergeant-major, the most senior NCM in a company-sized Army unit or sub-unit. Some of these appointments are listed below: Battery sergeant-major — the senior NCM of an artillery battery Squadron sergeant-major — the senior NCM of a cavalry, combat engineer, or communications squadron Company sergeant-major — the senior NCO of any other company-sized unit Quartermaster sergeant instructor - the senior MWO in a battalion of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Drill sergeant-major - the senior MWO in an infantry battalion other than those of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Regimental quartermaster sergeant - the senior MWO in a battalion sized unit in charge of supply and technical items. Equipment Technical Sergeant Major - the senior RCEME MWO of a Division size formation. In the RCAF the ETSM is a CWO. Equipment Technical Quarter Master Sergeant - the senior RCEME MWO of a Regiment or Battalion. Due to the unified nature of the CF, it is not unheard-of for Air Force MWOs — those of the so-called "purple trades", such as logistics or military police — to find themselves filling the appointment of squadron or company sergeant-major in what are otherwise considered "hard" army units.

MWOs mess and billet with other warrant officers and with sergeants, their naval equivalents, chief petty officers and petty officers. Their mess on military bases or installations are named the "Warrant Officers and Sergeants Mess". Master warrant officer is a senior warrant officer rank in the Singapore Armed Forces. Master warrant officers hold senior leadership roles such as school sergeant majors or regimental sergeant majors of brigade-sized units; the school sergeant major of Officer Cadet School is a master warrant officer. He is in charge of the discipline of more than 800 officer cadets, in addition to the specialists and more junior warrant officers there. In 2008 the warrant officer ranks of the South African National Defence Force were expanded and the rank of master warrant officer was created. Non-commissioned member Chief Petty Officer Non-commissioned officer

Earl of Mansfield

Earl of Mansfield, in the County of Nottingham, Earl of Mansfield, in the County of Middlesex, are two titles in the Peerage of Great Britain that have been united under a single holder since 1843. The titles Earl of Mansfield in the County of Nottingham and Earl of Mansfield in the County of Middlesex were created in 1776 and 1792 for the Scottish lawyer and judge William Murray, 1st Baron Mansfield, fourth son of David Murray, 5th Viscount of Stormont, he was Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench from 1756 to 1788. Murray had been created Baron Mansfield, in the County of Nottingham, in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1756, with normal remainder to the heirs male of his body; the two earldoms were created with different remainders. The 1776 earldom was created with remainder to Louisa Murray, Viscountess Stormont, second wife of his nephew David Murray, 7th Viscount of Stormont, while the 1792 earldom, referring to a fictitious Mansfield in Middlesex to differentiate it from the first earldom, was created with remainder to his nephew the Viscount of Stormont.

Lord Mansfield was childless and on his death in 1793 the barony became extinct. He was succeeded in the 1776 earldom according to the special remainder by his nephew's wife Louisa, the second Countess, in the 1792 earldom according to the special remainder by his nephew Lord Stormont, who became the second Earl; the latter was a noted politician in his own right and served as Lord Justice General, Secretary of State for the Northern Department and Lord President of the Council. He was succeeded by the Countess of Mansfield's son, the third Earl, he was Lord Lieutenant of Clackmannanshire. On his death the title passed to the fourth Earl, he was a Tory politician and served as a Lord of the Treasury from 1834 to 1835 in the first administration of Sir Robert Peel. In 1843 he succeeded his grandmother the Countess of Mansfield and became in addition the third Earl of Mansfield of the 1776 creation, he was succeeded by the fifth and fourth Earl. He was the eldest son of Viscount of Stormont, he was succeeded by his younger brother, the sixth and fifth Earl.

His son, the seventh and sixth Earl, represented Perth in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Perthshire. The eighth and seventh Earl of Mansfield held office in the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher as a Minister of State at the Scottish Office from 1979 to 1983 and at the Northern Ireland Office from 1983 to 1984; the titles are presently held by his older son, the ninth Earl of Mansfield of the 1792 creation and the eighth Earl of Mansfield of the 1776 creation. He is the fifteenth Viscount of Stormont, the fifteenth Lord Scone and the thirteenth Lord Balvaird; the family seat is Scone Palace, near Perthshire. The Earl of Mansfield is the Hereditary Keeper of Bruce’s Castle of Lochmaben William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, 1st Earl of Mansfield David Murray, 2nd Earl of Mansfield David William Murray, 3rd Earl of Mansfield William David Murray, 4th Earl of Mansfield, 3rd Earl of Mansfield William David Murray, 5th Earl of Mansfield, 4th Earl of Mansfield Alan David Murray, 6th Earl of Mansfield, 5th Earl of Mansfield Mungo David Malcolm Murray, 7th Earl of Mansfield, 6th Earl of Mansfield William David Mungo James Murray, 8th Earl of Mansfield, 7th Earl of Mansfield Alexander David Mungo Murray, 9th Earl of Mansfield, 8th Earl of Mansfield The heir apparent is the present holder's son William Philip David Mungo Murray, Viscount of Stormont.

William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, 1st Earl of Mansfield Louisa Murray, 2nd Countess of Mansfield William David Murray, 4th Earl of Mansfield, 3rd Earl of Mansfield William David Murray and his heirs are identical with Earls of Mansfield, County of Middlesex. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Murray, William". Dictionary of National Biography. 39. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Let Justice Be Done Mixed Blessings Theatre Group. 2008 play featuring part of the Earl of Mansfield story