Captain lieutenant or captain-lieutenant is a military rank, used in a number of navies worldwide and in the British Army. It is equivalent to the Commonwealth or US naval rank of lieutenant, has the NATO rank code of OF-2, though this can vary; the same rank is used in the navies of Finland and Norway. The latest revision of the relevant NATO STANAG standardization agreement makes the longstanding courtesy practice of translating the rank into English as "lieutenant commander" for all German and Norwegian officers of that rank official; the Norwegian Navy goes a step further in ranking the kapteinløytnant as OF-3 when serving afloat, disregarding the Norwegian national tri-service ranking. In the Estonian Navy the sounding rank of kaptenleitnant is an officer rank classified as NATO OF-4, i.e. equal to commander in the Royal Navy and United States Navy. As the commander of the Estonian Navy is a captain, this is the de facto second highest rank in the Estonian Navy; the French Army of the Ancien Régime used a rank of capitaine-lieutenant similar to the British one.
It was encountered in the Royal Guard, where the king was captain of most of the guard companies, but the effective command was in the hands of a captain-lieutenant. D'Artagnan is the most famous captain-lieutenant in French history, as commander of the first mousquetaire company. Kapitänleutnant is an OF2 rank equivalent to the Hauptmann in the German Army and the German Air Force. See In the Royal Netherlands Navy, a kapitein-luitenant ter zee is equivalent to a US Navy or Royal Navy commander. In the Portuguese Navy, a capitão-tenente is the equivalent naval rank to a British or American lieutenant commander; the Brazilian Navy uses the rank of capitão-tenente, in the same manner as the Navy of Portugal, but in contrast to those of other South American countries. It is equivalent to the RN lieutenant. Kapitan-leytenant is a rank in the Russian Navy the Red Fleet/Soviet Navy and Imperial Russian Navy, it is the rank above a senior lieutenant. In Soviet times, it may be achieved as early as an officer's 5th year of service.
In Russian and other East-European navies it is the most senior junior officer rank. The Russian Navy assigns this rank the two-and-a-half stripe insignia used in Britain and the US for lieutenant commanders. On the other hand, the US Navy considers this rank equivalent to lieutenant. In terms of responsibilities, officers of this rank may serve as department heads on larger warships, but may serve as commanding officers of 3rd and 4th rank warships. Unlike the equivalent OF2-rank Kapitänleutnant in the German Navy, submarines are at least nominally not on the list of eligible positions. In the past, when the boats were smaller, captain-lieutenants were eligible for the submarine command. However, in current Soviet/Russian ship ranking no modern submarine is given 3rd rank; this reflects the high status of submarines, as all nuclear submarines are considered 1st rank and large and medium diesels 2nd rank, while smaller 3rd rank submarines aren't built. Rank insignia IRA, Soviet Navy, RF Navy The rank is used by the navies of several ex-Soviet republics and former Eastern bloc countries.
It is used in the navies of Latvia. These are equivalent to lieutenant. Captain-Lieutenant is a rank in the Ukrainian Navy; these are equivalent to lieutenant. The armed forces of Ukraine, formed during the collapse of the USSR, adopted the Soviet model of military ranks, as well as the Soviet marks of distinction. For the distinguishing marks, the captain-lieutenant had three tapes on the sleeve, chains of one lumen on which four small five-pointed stars were placed. On July 5, 2016, the President of Ukraine approves the "Uniform Design and Signs of the Distinction of the Armed Forces of Ukraine"; the draft includes, among other things, military ranks and distinguishing marks for military personnel. The marks of the distinction of servicemen are changing, departing from the Soviet standard. November 20, 2017 issued by the order of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine No. 606, which specifies the rules for wearing and using uniform weapons by military personnel. The distinguishing marks of the captain-lieutenant become three tapes.
The distinguishing marks are placed on the coats. Rank insignia UA Navy Captain-lieutenant was a rank in the British Army. A regiment's field officers - its colonel, lieutenant colonel, major - commanded their own companies, as well as carrying out their regimental command duties. However, from the 17th century onwards, the colonel became a patron and ceremonial head instead of an actual tactical commander, with command in the field devolving to the lieutenant colonel; this left the colonel's company without a captain. The lieutenant of this company thus became its acting captain; this state of affairs was formally recognised with the creation of the rank of captain-lieutenant, with its own entry in the table of prices for the purchase of commissions. In 1772 captain-lieutenants were granted rank in the Army; the rank was abolished sometime in the ea
The Diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel, injected into the combustion chamber, is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to the mechanical compression. Diesel engines work by compressing only the air; this increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that atomised Diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. With the fuel being injected into the air just before combustion, the dispersion of the fuel is uneven; the process of mixing air and fuel happens entirely during combustion, the oxygen diffuses into the flame, which means that the Diesel engine operates with a diffusion flame. The torque a Diesel engine produces is controlled by manipulating the air ratio; the Diesel engine has the highest thermal efficiency of any practical internal or external combustion engine due to its high expansion ratio and inherent lean burn which enables heat dissipation by the excess air.
A small efficiency loss is avoided compared with two-stroke non-direct-injection gasoline engines since unburned fuel is not present at valve overlap and therefore no fuel goes directly from the intake/injection to the exhaust. Low-speed Diesel engines can reach effective efficiencies of up to 55%. Diesel engines may be designed as either four-stroke cycles, they were used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have been used in ships. Use in locomotives, heavy equipment and electricity generation plants followed later. In the 1930s, they began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of Diesel engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the US has increased. According to Konrad Reif, the EU average for Diesel cars accounts for 50% of the total newly registered; the world's largest Diesel engines put in service are 14-cylinder, two-stroke watercraft Diesel engines. In 1878, Rudolf Diesel, a student at the "Polytechnikum" in Munich, attended the lectures of Carl von Linde.
Linde explained that steam engines are capable of converting just 6-10 % of the heat energy into work, but that the Carnot cycle allows conversion of all the heat energy into work by means of isothermal change in condition. According to Diesel, this ignited the idea of creating a machine that could work on the Carnot cycle. After several years of working on his ideas, Diesel published them in 1893 in the essay Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Motor. Diesel was criticised for his essay, but only few found the mistake that he made. Diesel's idea was to compress the air so that the temperature of the air would exceed that of combustion. However, such an engine could never perform any usable work. In his 1892 US patent #542846 Diesel describes the compression required for his cycle: "pure atmospheric air is compressed, according to curve 1 2, to such a degree that, before ignition or combustion takes place, the highest pressure of the diagram and the highest temperature are obtained-that is to say, the temperature at which the subsequent combustion has to take place, not the burning or igniting point.
To make this more clear, let it be assumed that the subsequent combustion shall take place at a temperature of 700°. In that case the initial pressure must be sixty-four atmospheres, or for 800° centigrade the pressure must be ninety atmospheres, so on. Into the air thus compressed is gradually introduced from the exterior finely divided fuel, which ignites on introduction, since the air is at a temperature far above the igniting-point of the fuel; the characteristic features of the cycle according to my present invention are therefore, increase of pressure and temperature up to the maximum, not by combustion, but prior to combustion by mechanical compression of air, there upon the subsequent performance of work without increase of pressure and temperature by gradual combustion during a prescribed part of the stroke determined by the cut-oil". By June 1893, Diesel had realised his original cycle would not work and he adopted the constant pressure cycle. Diesel describes the cycle in his 1895 patent application.
Notice that there is no longer a mention of compression temperatures exceeding the temperature of combustion. Now it is stated that the compression must be sufficient to trigger ignition. "1. In an internal-combustion engine, the combination of a cylinder and piston constructed and arranged to compress air to a degree producing a temperature above the igniting-point of the fuel, a supply for compressed air or gas. See US patent # 608845 filed 1895 / granted 1898In 1892, Diesel received patents in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States for "Method of and Apparatus for Converting Heat into Work". In 1894 and 1895, he filed patents and addenda in various
Siemens-Schuckert was a German electrical engineering company headquartered in Berlin and Nuremberg, incorporated into the Siemens AG in 1966. Siemens Schuckert was founded in 1903 when Halske acquired Schuckertwerke. Subsequently, Siemens & Halske specialized in communications engineering and Siemens-Schuckert in power engineering and pneumatic instrumentation. During World War I Siemens-Schuckert produced aircraft, it took over manufacturing of the renowned Protos vehicles in 1908. In World War II, the company had a factory producing aircraft and other parts at Monowitz near Auschwitz. There was a workers camp near the factory known as Bobrek concentration camp; the Siemens Schuckert logo consisted of an S with a smaller S superimposed on the middle with the smaller S rotated left by 45 degrees. The logo was used into the late 1960s, when both companies merged with the Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG to form the present-day Siemens AG. Siemens-Schuckert built a number of designs in inter-war era, they produced aircraft engines under the Siemens-Halske brand, which evolved into their major product line after the end of World War I.
The company reorganized as Brandenburgische Motorenwerke, or Bramo, in 1936, were purchased in 1939 by BMW to become BMW Flugmotorenbau. Siemens-Schuckert designed a number of heavy bombers early in World War I, building a run of seven Riesenflugzeug. Intended to be used in the strategic role in long duration flights, the SSW R-series had three 150 h.p Benz Bz. III engines in the cabin driving two propellers connected to a common gear-box through a combination leather-cone and centrifugal-key clutch in SSW R. I to the SSW R. VII models. In the case of engine failure, common at the time, the bomber could continue flying on two engines while the third was repaired by the in-flight mechanic. Two transmission shafts transferred the power from the gear-box to propeller gear-boxes mounted on the wing struts. Although there were some problems with the clutch system, the gear-box proved to be reliable when properly maintained; the SSW R.1 through the SSW R. VII designs were noted for their distinctive forked fuselage.
Several of these aircraft fought on the Eastern Front. Although interesting in concept, the cost of these and the R-types from other companies was so great that the air force abandoned the concept until more practical designs arrived in the war; the first fighter designed at the works was the Siemens-Schuckert E. I which appeared in mid 1915, was the first aircraft to be powered by the Siemens-Halske Sh. I, a new rotary, developed by Siemens-Schuckert, in which the cylinders and the propeller rotated in opposite directions. A small number of production machines were supplied to various Feldflieger Abteilung to supplement supplies of the Fokker and Pfalz monoplane fighters used at the time for escort work; the prototype SSW E. II, powered by the inline Argus AsII, crashed in June 1916, killing Franz Steffen, one of the designers of the SSW R types. By early 1916 the first generation of German monoplane fighters were outclassed by the Nieuport 11 and the Nieuport 17 which quickly followed it; the resulting SSW D.
I was powered by the Siemens-Halske Sh. I, but was otherwise a literal copy of the Nieuport 17; this aircraft was the first Siemens-Schuckert fighter to be ordered in quantity, but by the time it became available in numbers it was outclassed by contemporary Albatros fighters. Development of the Sh. I 160 hp Sh. III one of the most advanced rotary engine designs of the war; the D. I fighter formed the basis for a series of original designs, which by the end of 1917 had reached a peak in the Siemens-Schuckert D. III, which went into limited production in early 1918, found use in home defense units as an interceptor, due to its outstanding rate of climb. Further modifications improved its handling and performance to produce the Siemens-Schuckert D. IV. Several offshoots of the design included triplanes and a parasol monoplane. With the end of the war production of the D. IV continued for sales to Switzerland who flew them into the late 1920s. With the signing of the Treaty of Versailles the next year all aircraft production in Germany was shut down.
Siemens-Schuckert disappeared, but Siemens-Halske continued sales of the Sh. III and started development of smaller engines for the civilian market. By the mid-1920s their rotary engines were no longer in vogue, but "non-turning" versions of the same basic mechanicals led to a series of 7-cylinder radial engines, the Sh.10 through Sh.14A, delivering up to 150 hp in the 14A. The Sh.14A became a best-seller in the trainer market, over 15,000 of all the versions were built. Siemens-Halske no longer had any competitive engines for the larger end of the market, to address this they negotiated a license in 1929 to produce the 9-cylinder Bristol Jupiter IV. Minor changes for the German market led to the Sh.20 and Sh.21. Following the evolution of their smaller Sh.14's, the engine was bored out to produce the 900 hp design, the Sh.22. In 1933 new engine naming was introduced by the RLM, this design became the Sh.322, when Siemens was given the 300-block of numbers. The Sh.322 design never became popular.
The company reorganized as Bramo in 1936, continued development of what was now their own large engine. Modifying the Sh.322 with the addition of fuel injection and a new supercharger led to the Bramo 323 Fafnir, which entered production in 1937. Although ra
Caterpillar Energy Solutions
Caterpillar Energy Solutions GmbH MWM GmbH and Deutz Power Systems, is a mechanical engineering company based in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. For many years it was known as Motoren-Werke Mannheim. In 2009 the company was the third-largest producer by revenue of diesel engines; the main focus of production is gensets for the generation of electrical energy from 400 to 4,300 kWel per unit. It provides consulting and engineering, construction and commissioning of plants as well as global aftersales service; the company has its own training center. In 1922 the department for the construction of stationary engines was outsourced and had its name changed from Benz & Cie. Rheinische Gasmotorenfabrik in Mannheim to Motorenwerke Mannheim; the renowned German engineer Prosper L'Orange, a pioneer of diesel engine technology, was the technical manager then. Before that he worked for Benz & Cie; the construction of diesel engines in particular used to be the core business of MWM, amongst others for utility vehicles and agricultural machines.
In 1924 MWM manufactured their first tractor, called Motorpferd. In 1931, tractor production was discontinued. For quite a long time, combines by Claas, tractors by the French manufacturer Renault, by the German companies Fendt, Bautz and Ritscher, were equipped with MWM engines. In 1926 Knorr-Bremse AG took over. In 1985 they sold MWM to Deutz AG; the company's site was maintained. The company, along with MAN SE, remained the chief engine manufacturer in the field of commercial diesel engines in Germany. DEUTZ expanded the gas engine division. In August 2007, DEUTZ sold the engine company to the financial investor 3i as Deutz Power Systems for 360 million euros. On 1 October 2008 Deutz Power Systems was renamed MWM GmbH. Today MWM offers gas engines for cogeneration units and biogas plants with an output between 400 and 4,300 kilowatts. To a smaller extent diesel engines are still produced. On 22 October 2010 Caterpillar Inc. announced an agreement with 3i regarding the acquisition of MWM for 580 million euros.
Subject to the consent of prudential authorities MWM will become part of Caterpillar`s Electric Power Division. On 8 October MWM announced that it would change its name to Caterpillar Energy Solutions from 1 November 2013. Official website Documents and clippings about Caterpillar Energy Solutions in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. There are many different types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, about 745.7 watts, the metric horsepower, 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses, it was expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is permitted only as a supplementary unit; the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. In 1702, Thomas Savery wrote in The Miner's Friend: So that an engine which will raise as much water as two horses, working together at one time in such a work, can do, for which there must be kept ten or twelve horses for doing the same.
I say, such an engine may be made large enough to do the work required in employing eight, fifteen, or twenty horses to be maintained and kept for doing such a work… The idea was used by James Watt to help market his improved steam engine. He had agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines; this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined; the wheel was 12 feet in radius. Watt judged. So: P = W t = F d t = 180 l b f × 2.4 × 2 π × 12 f t 1 m i n = 32, 572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft⋅lbf/min, rounded to an 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min. Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony and thus arrived at the 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min figure. Engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute.
John Desaguliers had suggested 44,000 foot-pounds per minute and Tredgold 27,500 foot-pounds per minute. "Watt found by experiment in 1782 that a'brewery horse' could produce 32,400 foot-pounds per minute." James Watt and Matthew Boulton standardized that figure at 33,000 foot-pounds per minute the next year. A common legend states that the unit was created when one of Watt's first customers, a brewer demanded an engine that would match a horse, chose the strongest horse he had and driving it to the limit. Watt, while aware of the trick, accepted the challenge and built a machine, even stronger than the figure achieved by the brewer, it was the output of that machine which became the horsepower. In 1993, R. D. Stevenson and R. J. Wassersug published correspondence in Nature summarizing measurements and calculations of peak and sustained work rates of a horse. Citing measurements made at the 1926 Iowa State Fair, they reported that the peak power over a few seconds has been measured to be as high as 14.9 hp and observed that for sustained activity, a work rate of about 1 hp per horse is consistent with agricultural advice from both the 19th and 20th centuries and consistent with a work rate of about 4 times the basal rate expended by other vertebrates for sustained activity.
When considering human-powered equipment, a healthy human can produce about 1.2 hp and sustain about 0.1 hp indefinitely. The Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt produced a maximum of 3.5 hp 0.89 seconds into his 9.58 second 100-metre dash world record in 2009. When torque T is in pound-foot units, rotational speed is in rpm and power is required in horsepower: P / hp = T / × N / rpm 5252 The constant 5252 is the rounded value of /; when torque T is in inch pounds: P
2 cm Flak 30/38/Flakvierling
The Flak 30 and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II. It was not only the primary German light anti-aircraft gun, but by far the most numerously produced German artillery piece throughout the war, it was produced in a variety of models, notably the Flakvierling 38 which combined four Flak 38 autocannons onto a single carriage. The Germans fielded the unrelated early 2 cm Flak 28 just after World War I, but the Treaty of Versailles outlawed these weapons and they were sold to Switzerland; the original Flak 30 design was developed from the Solothurn ST-5 as a project for the Kriegsmarine, which produced the 20 mm C/30. The gun fired the "Long Solothurn", a 20 × 138 mm belted cartridge, developed for the ST-5 and was one of the most powerful 20 mm rounds in existence; the C/30, featuring a barrel length of 65 calibres, had a rate of about 120 rounds per minute. Disappointingly, it proved to have feeding problems and would jam, offset to some degree by its undersized 20 round-magazine which tended to make reloading a frequent necessity.
The C/30 became the primary shipborne light AA weapon and equipped a large variety of German ships. The MG C/30L variant was used experimentally as an aircraft weapon, notably on the Heinkel He 112, where its high power allowed it to penetrate armored cars and the light tanks of the era during the Spanish Civil War. Rheinmetall started an adaptation of the C/30 for Army use, producing the 2 cm Flak 30. Similar to the C/30, the main areas of development were the mount, compact. Set-up could be accomplished by dropping the gun to the ground off its two-wheeled carriage and levelling with hand cranks; the result was a triangular base. But the main problem with the design remained unsolved; the rate of fire of 120 RPM was not fast for a weapon of this calibre. Rheinmetall responded with the 2 cm Flak 38, otherwise similar but increased the rate of fire to 220 RPM and lowered overall weight to 420 kg; the Flak 38 was accepted as the standard Army gun in 1939, by the Kriegsmarine as the C/38. In order to provide airborne and mountain troops with AA capabilities, Mauser was contracted to produce a lighter version of the Flak 38, which they introduced as the 2 cm Gebirgsflak 38.
It featured a simplified mount using a tripod that raised the entire gun off the ground, which had the side benefit of allowing it to be set up on an uneven surface. These changes reduced the overall weight of the gun to a mere 276.0 kg. Production started in 1941 and entered service in 1942. A wide variety of 20x138B ammunition was manufactured to be used in 2 cm Flak weapons. Other kinds than in existence included a number of different AP types. A high-velocity PzGr 40 round with a tungsten carbide core in an aluminium body existed in 20x138B caliber; as the Flak 30 was entering service, the Luftwaffe and Heer branches of the Wehrmacht had doubts about its effectiveness, given the ever-increasing speeds of low-altitude fighter-bombers and attack aircraft. The Army in particular felt the proper solution was the introduction of the 37 mm caliber weapons they had been developing since the 1920s, which had a rate of fire about the same as the Flak 38, but fired a round with eight times the weight.
This not only made the rounds deadlier on impact, but their higher energy and ballistic coefficient allowed them to travel much longer distances, allowing the gun to engage targets at longer ranges. This meant; the 20 mm weapons had always had weak development perspectives being reconfigured or redesigned just enough to allow the weapons to find use. Indeed, it came as a surprise when Rheinmetall introduced the 2 cm Flakvierling 38, which improved the weapon just enough to make it competitive once again; the term Vierling translates to "quadruplet" and refers to the four 20 mm autocannon constituting the design. The Flakvierling weapon consisted of quad-mounted 2 cm Flak 38 AA guns with collapsing seats, folding handles, ammunition racks; the mount had a triangular base with a jack at each leg for levelling the gun. The tracker elevated the mount manually using two handwheels; when raised, the weapon measured 307 cm high. Each of the four mounted; this meant that a maximum combined rate of fire of 1,400 rounds per minute was reduced to 800 rounds per minute for combat use – which would still require that an emptied magazine be replaced every six seconds, on each of the four guns.
This is the attainable rate of fire. Automatic weapons are limited to 100 rounds per minute per barrel to give time for the heat to dissipate, although this can be exceeded for short periods if the firing window is brief; the gun was fired by a set of two pedals — each of which fired two diametrically opposite barrels — in either semi-automatic or automatic mode. The effective vertical range was 2,200 metres, it was used just as against ground targets as it was against low-flying aircraft. The Flakvierling four-autocannon anti-aircraft ordnance system, when not mounted into any self-propelled mount, was transported on a Sd. Ah. 52 trailer, could be towed behind a variety of half-tracks or trucks, such as the Opel Blitz and the armored Sd. Kfz. 251 and un
A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust. A pressure difference is produced between the forward and rear surfaces of the airfoil-shaped blade, a fluid is accelerated behind the blade. Propeller dynamics, like those of aircraft wings, can be modelled by Bernoulli's principle and Newton's third law. Most marine propellers are screw propellers with fixed helical blades rotating around a horizontal axis or propeller shaft; the principle employed in using a screw propeller is used in sculling. It is part of the skill of propelling a Venetian gondola but was used in a less refined way in other parts of Europe and elsewhere. For example, propelling a canoe with a single paddle using a "pitch stroke" or side slipping a canoe with a "scull" involves a similar technique. In China, called "lu", was used by the 3rd century AD. In sculling, a single blade is moved through an arc, from side to side taking care to keep presenting the blade to the water at the effective angle.
The innovation introduced with the screw propeller was the extension of that arc through more than 360° by attaching the blade to a rotating shaft. Propellers can have a single blade, but in practice there are nearly always more than one so as to balance the forces involved; the origin of the screw propeller starts with Archimedes, who used a screw to lift water for irrigation and bailing boats, so famously that it became known as Archimedes' screw. It was an application of spiral movement in space to a hollow segmented water-wheel used for irrigation by Egyptians for centuries. Leonardo da Vinci adopted the principle to drive his theoretical helicopter, sketches of which involved a large canvas screw overhead. In 1661, Toogood and Hays proposed using screws for waterjet propulsion, though not as a propeller. Robert Hooke in 1681 designed a horizontal watermill, remarkably similar to the Kirsten-Boeing vertical axis propeller designed two and a half centuries in 1928. In 1752, the Academie des Sciences in Paris granted Burnelli a prize for a design of a propeller-wheel.
At about the same time, the French mathematician Alexis-Jean-Pierre Paucton, suggested a water propulsion system based on the Archimedean screw. In 1771, steam-engine inventor James Watt in a private letter suggested using "spiral oars" to propel boats, although he did not use them with his steam engines, or implement the idea; the first practical and applied use of a propeller on a submarine dubbed Turtle, designed in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1775 by Yale student and inventor David Bushnell, with the help of the clock maker and brass foundryman Isaac Doolittle, with Bushnell's brother Ezra Bushnell and ship's carpenter and clock maker Phineas Pratt constructing the hull in Saybrook, Connecticut. On the night of September 6, 1776, Sergeant Ezra Lee piloted Turtle in an attack on HMS Eagle in New York Harbor. Turtle has the distinction of being the first submarine used in battle. Bushnell described the propeller in an October 1787 letter to Thomas Jefferson: "An oar formed upon the principle of the screw was fixed in the forepart of the vessel its axis entered the vessel and being turned one way rowed the vessel forward but being turned the other way rowed it backward.
It was made to be turned by the hand or foot." The brass propeller, like all the brass and moving parts on Turtle, was crafted by the "ingenious mechanic" Issac Doolittle of New Haven. In 1785, Joseph Bramah in England proposed a propeller solution of a rod going through the underwater aft of a boat attached to a bladed propeller, though he never built it. In 1802, Edward Shorter proposed using a similar propeller attached to a rod angled down temporarily deployed from the deck above the waterline and thus requiring no water seal, intended only to assist becalmed sailing vessels, he tested it on the transport ship Doncaster in Gibraltar and at Malta, achieving a speed of 1.5 mph. The lawyer and inventor John Stevens in the United States, built a 25-foot boat with a rotary stem engine coupled to a four-bladed propeller, achieving a speed of 4 mph, but he abandoned propellers due to the inherent danger in using the high-pressure steam engines, instead built paddle-wheeled boats. By 1827, Czech-Austrian inventor Josef Ressel had invented a screw propeller which had multiple blades fastened around a conical base.
He had tested his propeller in February 1826 on a small ship, manually driven. He was successful in using his bronze screw propeller on an adapted steamboat, his ship, Civetta of 48 gross register tons, reached a speed of about 6 knots. This was the first ship driven by an Archimedes screw-type propeller. After a new steam engine had an accident his experiments were banned by the Austro-Hungarian police as dangerous. Josef Ressel was at the time a forestry inspector for the Austrian Empire, but before this he received an Austro-Hungarian patent for his propeller. He died in 1857; this new method of propulsion was an improvement over the paddlewheel as it was not so affected by either ship motions or changes in draft as the vessel burned coal. John Patch, a mariner in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia developed a two-bladed, fan-shaped propeller in 1832 and publicly demonstrated it in 1833, propelling a row boat across Yarmouth Harbour and a small coastal schooner at Saint John, New Brunswick, but his patent application in the United States was rejected until 1849 because he was not an American citizen.
His efficient design drew praise in American scientific circles but by