Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 348,580 and an area of 103,000 km2, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country being home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is geologically active; the interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields and glaciers, many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle, its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate. According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them thralls of Gaelic origin.
The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the world's oldest functioning legislative assemblies. Following a period of civil strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century; the establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden. Iceland thus followed Norway's integration into that union, coming under Danish rule after Sweden's secession from the union in 1523. Although the Danish kingdom introduced Lutheranism forcefully in 1550, Iceland remained a distant semi-colonial territory in which Danish institutions and infrastructures were conspicuous by their absence. In the wake of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland's struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918 and the founding of a republic in 1944; until the 20th century, Iceland relied on subsistence fishing and agriculture. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity and Iceland became one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the world.
In 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance and manufacturing. Iceland has a market economy with low taxes, compared to other OECD countries, it maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. Iceland ranks high in economic, social stability, equality ranking first in the world by median wealth per adult. In 2018, it was ranked as the sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index, it ranks first on the Global Peace Index. Iceland runs completely on renewable energy. Hit hard by the worldwide financial crisis, the nation's entire banking system systemically failed in October 2008, leading to a severe depression, substantial political unrest, the Icesave dispute, the institution of capital controls; some bankers were jailed. Since the economy has made a significant recovery, in large part due to a surge in tourism.
A law that took effect in 2018 makes it illegal in Iceland for women to be paid less than men. Icelandic culture is founded upon the nation's Scandinavian heritage. Most Icelanders are descendants of Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old West Norse and is related to Faroese and West Norwegian dialects; the country's cultural heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine, Icelandic literature, medieval sagas. Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a armed coast guard; the Sagas of Icelanders say that a Norwegian named Naddodd was the first Norseman to reach Iceland, in the 9th century he named it Snæland or "snow land" because it was snowing. Following Naddodd, the Swede Garðar Svavarsson arrived, so the island was called Garðarshólmur which means "Garðar's Isle". Came a Viking named Flóki Vilgerðarson; the sagas say that the rather despondent Flóki climbed a mountain and saw a fjord full of icebergs, which led him to give the island its new and present name.
The notion that Iceland's Viking settlers chose that name to discourage oversettlement of their verdant isle is a myth. According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before Scandinavian settlers arrived members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission. Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula. Carbon dating indicates that it was abandoned sometime between 770 and 880. In 2016, archeologists uncovered a longhouse in Stöðvarfjörður, dated to as early as 800. Swedish Viking explorer Garðar Svavarsson was the first to circumnavigate Iceland in 870 and establish that it was an island, he built a house in Húsavík. Garðar departed the following summer but one of his men, Náttfari, decided to stay behind with two slaves. Náttfari settled in what is now known as Náttfaravík and he and his slaves became the first permanent residents of Iceland; the Norwegian-Norse chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson built his homestead in present-day Reykjavík in 874.
Ingólfr was followed by many other emigrant settlers Scandinavians and their thralls, many of whom were Irish or Scottish. By 930, most arable land on the island had been claimed. Lack of arable land al
A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine. This gives each intake cycle of the engine more oxygen, letting it burn more fuel and do more work, thus increasing power. Power for the supercharger can be provided mechanically by means of a belt, shaft, or chain connected to the engine's crankshaft. Common usage restricts the term supercharger to mechanically driven units. In 1848 or 1849, G. Jones of Birmingham, England brought out a Roots-style compressor. In 1860, brothers Philander and Francis Marion Roots, founders of Roots Blower Company of Connersville, patented the design for an air mover for use in blast furnaces and other industrial applications; the world's first functional tested engine supercharger was made by Dugald Clerk, who used it for the first two-stroke engine in 1878. Gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for supercharging an internal combustion engine in 1885. Louis Renault patented a centrifugal supercharger in France in 1902.
An early supercharged race car was built by Lee Chadwick of Pottstown, Pennsylvania in 1908 which reached a speed of 100 mph. The world's first series-produced cars with superchargers were Mercedes 6/25/40 hp and Mercedes 10/40/65 hp. Both models had Roots superchargers, they were distinguished as "Kompressor" models, the origin of the Mercedes-Benz badging which continues today. On March 24, 1878 Heinrich Krigar of Germany obtained patent #4121, patenting the first screw-type compressor; that same year on August 16 he obtained patent #7116 after modifying and improving his original designs. His designs show a two-lobe rotor assembly with each rotor having the same shape as the other. Although the design resembled the Roots style compressor, the "screws" were shown with 180 degrees of twist along their length; the technology of the time was not sufficient to produce such a unit, Heinrich made no further progress with the screw compressor. Nearly half a century in 1935, Alf Lysholm, working for Ljungströms Ångturbin AB, patented a design with five female and four male rotors.
He patented the method for machining the compressor rotors. There are two main types of superchargers defined according to the method of gas transfer: positive displacement and dynamic compressors. Positive displacement blowers and compressors deliver an constant level of pressure increase at all engine speeds. Dynamic compressors do not deliver pressure at low speeds. Positive-displacement pumps deliver a nearly fixed volume of air per revolution at all speeds. Major types of positive-displacement pumps include: Roots Lysholm twin-screw Sliding vane Scroll-type supercharger known as the G-Lader Positive-displacement pumps are further divided into internal and external compression types. Roots superchargers, including high helix roots superchargers, produce compression externally. External compression refers to pumps that transfer air at ambient pressure. If an engine equipped with a supercharger that compresses externally is running under boost conditions, the pressure inside the supercharger remains at ambient pressure.
Roots superchargers tend to be mechanically efficient at moving air at low pressure differentials, whereas at high pressure rations, internal compression superchargers tend to be more mechanically efficient. All the other types have some degree of internal compression. Internal compression refers to the compression of air within the supercharger itself, which at or close to boost level, can be delivered smoothly to the engine with little or no back flow. Internal compression devices use a fixed internal compression ratio; when the boost pressure is equal to the compression pressure of the supercharger, the back flow is zero. If the boost pressure exceeds that compression pressure, back flow can still occur as in a roots blower; the internal compression ratio of this type of supercharger can be matched to the expected boost pressure in order to optimize mechanical efficiency. Positive-displacement superchargers are rated by their capacity per revolution. In the case of the Roots blower, the GMC rating pattern is typical.
The GMC types are rated according to how many two-stroke cylinders, the size of those cylinders, it is designed to scavenge. GMC has made 2–71, 3–71, 4–71, the famed 6–71 blowers. For example, a 6–71 blower is designed to scavenge six cylinders of 71 cubic inches each and would be used on a two-stroke diesel of 426 cubic inches, designated a 6–71. However, because 6–71 is the engine's designation, the actual displacement is less than the simple multiplication would suggest. A 6–71 pumps 339 cubic inches per revolution. Aftermarket derivatives continue the trend with 8–71 to current 16–71 blowers used in different motor sports. From this, one can see that a 6–71 is twice the size of a 3–71. GMC made 53 cu in series in 2–, 3–, 4–, 6–, 8–53 sizes, as well as a "V71" series for use on engines using a V configuration. Dynamic compressors rely on accelerating the air to high speed and t
Wolfpack (naval tactic)
The wolfpack was a mass-attack tactic against convoys used by German U-boats of the Kriegsmarine during the Battle of the Atlantic. Karl Dönitz called his strategy of submarine warfare Rudeltaktik, which translates as "tactics of a pack" of animals, it has become known in English as an accurate metaphor, but not a literal translation. U-boat movements were controlled by the Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote much more than American submarines, which were given tremendous independence once on patrol. Accordingly, U-boats patrolled separately strung out in co-ordinated lines across convoy routes, only being ordered to congregate after one located a convoy and alerted the BdU, so a Rudel consisted of as many U-boats as could reach the scene of the attack. With the exception of the orders given by the BdU, U-Boat commanders could attack; the U-Boat commanders were given a probable number of U-Boats that would show up, when they were in contact with the convoy, make call signs to see how many had arrived.
If their number were sufficiently high compared to the expected threat of the escorts, they would attack. Although the wolfpacks proved a serious threat to Allied shipping, the Allies developed countermeasures to turn the U-boat organization against itself. Most notably was the fact that wolfpacks required extensive radio communication to coordinate the attacks; this left the U-boats vulnerable to a device called the High Frequency Direction Finder, which allowed Allied naval forces to determine the location of the enemy boats transmitting and attack them. Effective air cover, both long-range planes with radar, escort carriers and blimps, allowed U-boats to be spotted as they shadowed a convoy. American wolfpacks called coordinated attack groups comprised three boats that patrolled in close company and organized before they left port under the command of the senior captain of the three. "Swede" Momsen devised the tactics and led the first American wolfpack – composed of Cero and Grayback – from Midway on 1 October 1943.
Wolfpacks fell out of use during the Cold War. Instead, the United States Navy deploys its attack submarines on individual patrols, with the exception of one or two attack submarines in each carrier strike group. American ballistic missile submarines have always operated alone, while Soviet ballistic missile submarines operated in well-protected bastions. With the opening shots of the Iraq War in March, 2003, the term "wolfpack" was brought back into use to describe the fleet of American and British nuclear submarines which operated together in the Red Sea, firing Tomahawk missiles at Iraqi targets. USS Providence was the first boat to fire its entire load of missiles and earn the nickname "Big Dog of the Red Sea Wolf Pack." The phrase "wolfpack" has been applied to possible Iranian missile boat tactics in the event of a hypothetical clash with the U. S. Navy; such attacks allow the possibility of effective sacrificial boat deployment. List of wolfpacks of World War II Convoy SC 7 for an account of one of the first Allied convoys to suffer a wolfpack attack Peter Maas, The Terrible Hours: The Man Behind the Greatest Submarine Rescue in History E. B. Potter and Chester W. Nimitz, eds.
Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship. Keel laying is one of the four specially celebrated events in the life of a ship. In earlier times, the event recognized as the keel laying was the initial placement of the central timber making up the backbone of a vessel, called the keel; as steel ships replaced wooden ones, the central timber gave way to a central steel beam. Modern ships are now built in a series of pre-fabricated, complete hull sections rather than being built around a single keel; the event recognized as the keel laying is the first joining of modular components, or the lowering of the first module into place in the building dock. It is now called "keel authentication", is the ceremonial beginning of the ship's life, although some modules may have been started months before that stage of construction. Keel-related traditions from the times of wooden ships are said to bring luck to the ship during construction and to the captain and crew during her life.
They include placing a newly minted coin under the keel and constructing the ship over it, having the youngest apprentice place the coin, when the ship is finished, presenting the owners with the oak block on which the keel is laid. The tradition of the placement of coins derives from the mast stepping custom of placing coins under the mast and is believed to date back to Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome and were intended to "pay the ferryman" to convey the souls of the dead across the River Styx should the ship sink; the first milestone in the history of a ship is the simple ceremony that marks the laying of the keel. Invitations to the ceremony are issued by shipyard officials, the ceremony is conducted by them; the builder may be the president of a private company. The ship's prospective name, without the "USS", is mentioned in the invitation.
Cape Verde or Cabo Verde the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean. It forms part of the Macaronesia ecoregion, along with the Azores, Canary Islands and the Savage Isles. In ancient times these islands were referred to as "the Islands of the Blessed" or the "Fortunate Isles". Located 570 kilometres west of the Cape Verde Peninsula off the coast of Northwest Africa, the islands cover a combined area of over 4,000 square kilometres; the Cape Verde archipelago was uninhabited until the 15th century, when Portuguese explorers discovered and colonized the islands, establishing the first European settlement in the tropics. Ideally located for the Atlantic slave trade, the islands grew prosperous throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, attracting merchants and pirates; the end of slavery in the 19th century led to economic emigration. Cape Verde recovered as an important commercial center and stopover for shipping routes.
Incorporated as an overseas department of Portugal in 1951, the islands continued to campaign for independence, peacefully achieved in 1975. Since the early 1990s, Cape Verde has been a stable representative democracy, remains one of the most developed and democratic countries in Africa. Lacking natural resources, its developing economy is service-oriented, with a growing focus on tourism and foreign investment, its population of around 540,000 is of mixed European, Moorish and African heritage, predominantly Roman Catholic, reflecting the legacy of Portuguese rule. A sizeable diaspora community exists across the world outnumbering inhabitants on the islands; the name "Cape Verde" has been used in English for the archipelago and, since independence in 1975, for the country. In 2013, the Cape Verdean government determined that the Portuguese designation Cabo Verde would henceforth be used for official purposes, such as at the United Nations in English contexts. Cape Verde is a member of the African Union.
The name of the country stems on the Senegalese coast. In 1444, Portuguese explorers had named that landmark as Cabo Verde, a few years before they discovered the islands. On 24 October 2013, the country's delegation announced at the United Nations that the official name should no longer be translated into other languages. Instead of "Cape Verde", the designation "Republic of Cabo Verde" is to be used. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Cape Verde Islands were uninhabited; the islands of the Cape Verde archipelago were discovered by Genoese and Portuguese navigators around 1456. According to Portuguese official records, the first discoveries were made by Genoa-born António de Noli, afterwards appointed governor of Cape Verde by Portuguese King Afonso V. Other navigators mentioned as contributing to discoveries in the Cape Verde archipelago are Diogo Gomes, Diogo Dias, Diogo Afonso and the Italian Alvise Cadamosto. In 1462, Portuguese settlers arrived at Santiago and founded a settlement they called Ribeira Grande.
Ribeira Grande was the first permanent European settlement in the tropics. In the 16th century, the archipelago prospered from the Atlantic slave trade. Pirates attacked the Portuguese settlements. Francis Drake, an English privateer, twice sacked the capital Ribeira Grande in 1585 when it was a part of the Iberian Union. After a French attack in 1712, the town declined in importance relative to nearby Praia, which became the capital in 1770. Decline in the slave trade in the 19th century resulted in an economic crisis. Cape Verde's early prosperity vanished. However, the islands' position astride mid-Atlantic shipping lanes made Cape Verde an ideal location for re-supplying ships; because of its excellent harbour, the city of Mindelo, located on the island of São Vicente, became an important commercial centre during the 19th century. Diplomat Edmund Roberts visited Cape Verde in 1832. With few natural resources and inadequate sustainable investment from the Portuguese, the citizens grew discontented with the colonial masters, who refused to provide the local authorities with more autonomy.
In 1951, Portugal changed Cape Verde's status from a colony to an overseas province in an attempt to blunt growing nationalism. In 1956, Amílcar Cabral and a group of fellow Cape Verdeans and Guineans organised the clandestine African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, it demanded improvement in economic and political conditions in Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea and formed the basis of the two nations' independence movement. Moving its headquarters to Conakry, Guinea in 1960, the PAIGC began an armed rebellion against Portugal in 1961. Acts of sabotage grew into a war in Portuguese Guinea that pitted 10,000 Soviet Bloc-supported PAIGC soldiers against 35,000 Portuguese and African troops. By 1972, the PAIGC controlled much of Portuguese Guinea despite the presence of the Portuguese troops, but the organization did not attempt to disrupt Portuguese control in Cape Verde. Portuguese Guinea declared independence in 1973 and was granted de jure independence in 1974. A budding independence movement — led by Amílcar Cabral, assassinated in 1973 — passed on to his half-brother Luís Cabral and culminated in independence for the archipelago in
Siemens-Schuckert was a German electrical engineering company headquartered in Berlin and Nuremberg, incorporated into the Siemens AG in 1966. Siemens Schuckert was founded in 1903 when Halske acquired Schuckertwerke. Subsequently, Siemens & Halske specialized in communications engineering and Siemens-Schuckert in power engineering and pneumatic instrumentation. During World War I Siemens-Schuckert produced aircraft, it took over manufacturing of the renowned Protos vehicles in 1908. In World War II, the company had a factory producing aircraft and other parts at Monowitz near Auschwitz. There was a workers camp near the factory known as Bobrek concentration camp; the Siemens Schuckert logo consisted of an S with a smaller S superimposed on the middle with the smaller S rotated left by 45 degrees. The logo was used into the late 1960s, when both companies merged with the Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG to form the present-day Siemens AG. Siemens-Schuckert built a number of designs in inter-war era, they produced aircraft engines under the Siemens-Halske brand, which evolved into their major product line after the end of World War I.
The company reorganized as Brandenburgische Motorenwerke, or Bramo, in 1936, were purchased in 1939 by BMW to become BMW Flugmotorenbau. Siemens-Schuckert designed a number of heavy bombers early in World War I, building a run of seven Riesenflugzeug. Intended to be used in the strategic role in long duration flights, the SSW R-series had three 150 h.p Benz Bz. III engines in the cabin driving two propellers connected to a common gear-box through a combination leather-cone and centrifugal-key clutch in SSW R. I to the SSW R. VII models. In the case of engine failure, common at the time, the bomber could continue flying on two engines while the third was repaired by the in-flight mechanic. Two transmission shafts transferred the power from the gear-box to propeller gear-boxes mounted on the wing struts. Although there were some problems with the clutch system, the gear-box proved to be reliable when properly maintained; the SSW R.1 through the SSW R. VII designs were noted for their distinctive forked fuselage.
Several of these aircraft fought on the Eastern Front. Although interesting in concept, the cost of these and the R-types from other companies was so great that the air force abandoned the concept until more practical designs arrived in the war; the first fighter designed at the works was the Siemens-Schuckert E. I which appeared in mid 1915, was the first aircraft to be powered by the Siemens-Halske Sh. I, a new rotary, developed by Siemens-Schuckert, in which the cylinders and the propeller rotated in opposite directions. A small number of production machines were supplied to various Feldflieger Abteilung to supplement supplies of the Fokker and Pfalz monoplane fighters used at the time for escort work; the prototype SSW E. II, powered by the inline Argus AsII, crashed in June 1916, killing Franz Steffen, one of the designers of the SSW R types. By early 1916 the first generation of German monoplane fighters were outclassed by the Nieuport 11 and the Nieuport 17 which quickly followed it; the resulting SSW D.
I was powered by the Siemens-Halske Sh. I, but was otherwise a literal copy of the Nieuport 17; this aircraft was the first Siemens-Schuckert fighter to be ordered in quantity, but by the time it became available in numbers it was outclassed by contemporary Albatros fighters. Development of the Sh. I 160 hp Sh. III one of the most advanced rotary engine designs of the war; the D. I fighter formed the basis for a series of original designs, which by the end of 1917 had reached a peak in the Siemens-Schuckert D. III, which went into limited production in early 1918, found use in home defense units as an interceptor, due to its outstanding rate of climb. Further modifications improved its handling and performance to produce the Siemens-Schuckert D. IV. Several offshoots of the design included triplanes and a parasol monoplane. With the end of the war production of the D. IV continued for sales to Switzerland who flew them into the late 1920s. With the signing of the Treaty of Versailles the next year all aircraft production in Germany was shut down.
Siemens-Schuckert disappeared, but Siemens-Halske continued sales of the Sh. III and started development of smaller engines for the civilian market. By the mid-1920s their rotary engines were no longer in vogue, but "non-turning" versions of the same basic mechanicals led to a series of 7-cylinder radial engines, the Sh.10 through Sh.14A, delivering up to 150 hp in the 14A. The Sh.14A became a best-seller in the trainer market, over 15,000 of all the versions were built. Siemens-Halske no longer had any competitive engines for the larger end of the market, to address this they negotiated a license in 1929 to produce the 9-cylinder Bristol Jupiter IV. Minor changes for the German market led to the Sh.20 and Sh.21. Following the evolution of their smaller Sh.14's, the engine was bored out to produce the 900 hp design, the Sh.22. In 1933 new engine naming was introduced by the RLM, this design became the Sh.322, when Siemens was given the 300-block of numbers. The Sh.322 design never became popular.
The company reorganized as Bramo in 1936, continued development of what was now their own large engine. Modifying the Sh.322 with the addition of fuel injection and a new supercharger led to the Bramo 323 Fafnir, which entered production in 1937. Although ra
Grumman TBF Avenger
The Grumman TBF Avenger is an American torpedo bomber developed for the United States Navy and Marine Corps, used by several air and naval aviation services around the world. The Avenger entered U. S. service in 1942, first saw action during the Battle of Midway. Despite the loss of five of the six Avengers on its combat debut, it survived in service to become one of the outstanding torpedo bombers of World War II. Modified after the war, it remained in use until the 1960s; the Douglas' TBD Devastator, the U. S. Navy's main torpedo bomber introduced in 1935, was obsolete by 1939. Bids were accepted from several companies, but Grumman's TBF design was selected as the replacement for the TBD and in April 1940 two prototypes were ordered by the Navy. Designed by Leroy Grumman, the first prototype was called the XTBF-1, it was first flown on 7 August 1941. Although one of the first two prototypes crashed near Brentwood, New York, rapid production continued. Grumman's first torpedo bomber was the heaviest single-engined aircraft of World War II, only the USAAF's P-47 Thunderbolt came close to equalling it in maximum loaded weight among all single-engined fighters, being only some 400 lb lighter than the TBF, by the end of World War II.
To ease carrier storage concerns with the F4F-4 model of its Wildcat carrier fighter, Grumman designed the Avenger to use the new Sto-Wing patented "compound angle" wing-folding mechanism, intended to maximize storage space on an aircraft carrier. The engine used was the powerful, twin-row Wright R-2600-20 Twin Cyclone fourteen-cylinder radial engine, which produced 1,900 hp/1,417 kW. There were three crew members: turret gunner and radioman/bombardier/ventral gunner. A single synchronized 7.62 mm caliber machine gun was mounted in the nose, a.50 caliber gun was mounted right next to the turret gunner's head in a rear-facing electrically powered turret, a single 7.62 mm caliber hand-fired machine gun flexibly-mounted ventrally, used to defend against enemy fighters attacking from below and to the rear. This gun was fired by the radioman/bombardier while standing up and bending over in the belly of the tail section, though he sat on a folding bench facing forward to operate the radio and to sight in bombing runs.
Models of the TBF/TBM omitted the cowl-mount synchronized 7.62 mm -calibre gun. There was only one set of controls on the aircraft, no direct access to the pilot's position existed from the rest of the aircraft's interior; the radio equipment was massive by today's standards, filled the length of the well-framed "greenhouse" canopy to the rear of the pilot. The radios were accessible for repair through a "tunnel" along the right hand side. Any Avengers that are still flying today have an additional rear-mounted seat in place of the radios, allowing for a fourth passenger; the Avenger had a large bomb bay, allowing for one Bliss-Leavitt Mark 13 torpedo, a single 2,000 pound bomb, or up to four 500 pound bombs. The aircraft had overall ruggedness and stability, pilots say it flew like a truck, for better or worse. With its good radio facilities, docile handling, long range, the Grumman Avenger made an ideal command aircraft for Commanders, Air Group. With a 30,000 ft ceiling and a loaded range of 1,000 mi, it was better than any previous American torpedo bomber, better than its Japanese counterpart, the obsolete Nakajima B5N "Kate".
Avenger models carried radar equipment for the ASW and AEW roles. Escort carrier sailors referred to the TBF as the "turkey" because of its size and maneuverability in comparison to the F4F Wildcat fighters in CVE airgroups. On the afternoon of 7 December 1941, Grumman held a ceremony to open a new manufacturing plant and display the new TBF to the public. Coincidentally, on that day, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked Pearl Harbor, as Grumman soon found out. After the ceremony was over, the plant was sealed off to guard against possible sabotage. By early June 1942, a shipment of more than 100 aircraft was sent to the Navy, arriving only a few hours after the three carriers departed from Pearl Harbor, so most of them were too late to participate in the pivotal Battle of Midway. Six TBF-1s were present on Midway Island – as part of VT-8 – while the rest of the squadron flew Devastators from the aircraft carrier Hornet. Both types of torpedo bombers suffered heavy casualties. Out of the six Avengers, five were shot down and the other returned damaged with one of its gunners killed, the other gunner and the pilot injured.
Nonetheless, the US torpedo bombers were credited with drawing away the Japanese combat air patrols so the American dive bombers could hit the Japanese carriers. Author Gordon Prange posited in Miracle at Midway that the outdated Devastators contributed somewhat to the lack of a complete victory at Midway. Others pointed out that the inexperienced American pilots and lack of fighter cover were responsible for poor showing of US torpedo bombers, regardless of type. In the war, with growing American air superiority, better attack coordination and more veteran pilots, Avengers were able to play vital roles in the subsequent battles against Japanese surf