A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, it is sometimes used or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first used during World War I, are now used in many navies large and small. Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships, attacking other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, conventional land attack, covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection and maintenance. Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are used in tourism, for undersea archaeology.
Most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the "sail" in American usage and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, various hydrodynamic control fins. Smaller, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water and air in ballast tanks to change buoyancy for submerging and surfacing. Submarines have one of the widest ranges of capabilities of any vessel, they range from small autonomous examples and one- or two-person vessels that operate for a few hours, to vessels that can remain submerged for six months—such as the Russian Typhoon class, the biggest submarines built.
Submarines can work at greater depths than are practical for human divers. Modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. Whereas the principal meaning of "submarine" is an armed, submersible warship, the more general meaning is for any type of submersible craft; the definition as of 1899 was for any type of "submarine boat". By naval tradition, submarines are still referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size. In other navies with a history of large submarine fleets they are "boats". According to a report in Opusculum Taisnieri published in 1562: Two Greeks submerged and surfaced in the river Tagus near the City of Toledo several times in the presence of The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, without getting wet and with the flame they carried in their hands still alight. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle.
A few years the Scottish mathematician and theologian John Napier wrote in his Secret Inventions the following: "These inventions besides devises of sayling under water with divers, other devises and strategems for harming of the enemyes by the Grace of God and worke of expert Craftsmen I hope to perform." It's unclear whether he carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman in the service of James I of England, it was propelled by means of oars. By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England. In 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion, his design used leather bags. A mechanism was used to cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemen's Magazine reported that a similar design had been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. Further design improvement stagnated for over a century, until application of new technologies for propulsion and stability.
The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person. It was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, the first to use screws for propulsion. In 1800, France built a human-powered submarine designed by the Nautilus; the French gave up on the experiment in 1804, as did the British when they considered Fulton's submarine design. In 1864, late in the American Civil War, the Confederate navy's H. L. Hunley became the first military submarine to sink an enemy vessel, the Union sloop-of-war USS Housatonic. In the aftermath of its successful attack against the ship, the Hunley sank because it was too close to its own exploding torpedo. In 1866, the Sub Marine Explorer was the first submarine to dive, cruise underwater, resurface under the control of the crew; the design by German American Julius H. Kroehl incorporated elements that are still used in modern submarines.
In 1866, the Flach was built at the request of the Chilean government, by Karl Flach, a German engineer and immigrant
Ceremonial ship launching
Ceremonial ship launching is the process of transferring a vessel to the water. It is a naval tradition in many cultures, it has been observed as a solemn blessing. Ship launching imposes stresses on the ship not met during normal operation, in addition to the size and weight of the vessel, it represents a considerable engineering challenge as well as a public spectacle; the process involves many traditions intended to invite good luck, such as christening by breaking a sacrificial bottle of champagne over the bow as the ship is named aloud and launched. There are three principal methods of conveying a new ship from building site to water, only two of which are called "launching"; the oldest, most familiar, most used is the end-on launch, in which the vessel slides down an inclined slipway stern first. With the side launch, the ship enters the water broadside; this method came into use in the 19th-century on inland waters and lakes, was more adopted during World War II. The third method is float-out, used for ships that are built in basins or dry docks and floated by admitting water into the dock.
If launched in a restrictive waterway drag chains are used to slow the ship speed to prevent it striking the opposite bank. Ways are arranged perpendicular to the shore line and the ship is built with its stern facing the water. Where the launch takes place into a narrow river, the building slips may be at a shallow angle rather than perpendicular though this requires a longer slipway when launching. Modern slipways take the form of a reinforced concrete mat of sufficient strength to support the vessel, with two "barricades" that extend well below the water level taking into account tidal variations; the barricades support the two launch ways. The vessel is built upon temporary cribbing, arranged to give access to the hull's outer bottom and to allow the launchways to be erected under the complete hull; when it is time to prepare for launching, a pair of standing ways is erected under the hull and out onto the barricades. The surface of the ways is greased. A pair of sliding ways is placed on top, under the hull, a launch cradle with bow and stern poppets is erected on these sliding ways.
The weight of the hull is transferred from the build cribbing onto the launch cradle. Provision is made to hold the vessel in place and release it at the appropriate moment in the launching ceremony. On launching, the vessel slides backwards down the slipway on the ways; some slipways is launched sideways. This is done where the limitations of the water channel would not allow lengthwise launching, but occupies a much greater length of shore; the Great Eastern designed by Brunel was built this way as were many landing craft during World War II. This method requires many more sets of ways to support the weight of the ship. Sometimes ships are launched using a series of inflated tubes underneath the hull, which deflate to cause a downward slope into the water; this procedure has the advantages of requiring less permanent infrastructure and cost. The airbags provide support to the hull of the ship and aid its launching motion into the water, thus this method is arguably safer than other options such as sideways launching.
These airbags are cylindrical in shape with hemispherical heads at both ends. The Xiao Qinghe shipyard launched a tank barge with marine airbags on January 20, 1981, the first known use of marine airbags. A Babylonian narrative dating from the 3rd millennium BC describes the completion of a ship: Openings to the water I stopped. Egyptians and Romans called on their gods to protect seamen. Favor was evoked from the monarch of the seas—Poseidon in Greek mythology, Neptune in Roman mythology. Ship launching participants in ancient Greece wreathed their heads with olive branches, drank wine to honor the gods, poured water on the new vessel as a symbol of blessing. Shrines were carried on board Greek and Roman ships, this practice extended into the Middle Ages; the shrine was placed at the quarterdeck, an area which continues to have special ceremonial significance. Different peoples and cultures shaped the religious ceremonies surrounding a ship launching. Jews and Christians customarily used wine and water as they called upon God to safeguard them at sea.
Intercession of the saints and the blessing of the church were asked by Christians. Ship launchings in the Ottoman Empire were accompanied by prayers to Allah, the sacrifice of sheep, appropriate feasting. Chaplain Henry Teonge of Britain's Royal Navy left an interesting account of a warship launch, a "briganteen of 23 oars," by the Knights of Malta in 1675: Two friars and an attendant went into the vessel, kneeling down prayed halfe an houre, layd their hands on every mast, other places of the vessel, sprinkled her all over with holy water, they came out and hoysted a pendent to signify she was a man of war. The liturgical aspects of ship christenings, or baptisms, continued in Catholic countries, while the Reformation seems to have put a stop to them for a time in Protestant Europe. By the 17th century, for example, English launchings were secular affairs; the christening party for the launch of the
2 cm Flak 30/38/Flakvierling
The Flak 30 and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II. It was not only the primary German light anti-aircraft gun, but by far the most numerously produced German artillery piece throughout the war, it was produced in a variety of models, notably the Flakvierling 38 which combined four Flak 38 autocannons onto a single carriage. The Germans fielded the unrelated early 2 cm Flak 28 just after World War I, but the Treaty of Versailles outlawed these weapons and they were sold to Switzerland; the original Flak 30 design was developed from the Solothurn ST-5 as a project for the Kriegsmarine, which produced the 20 mm C/30. The gun fired the "Long Solothurn", a 20 × 138 mm belted cartridge, developed for the ST-5 and was one of the most powerful 20 mm rounds in existence; the C/30, featuring a barrel length of 65 calibres, had a rate of about 120 rounds per minute. Disappointingly, it proved to have feeding problems and would jam, offset to some degree by its undersized 20 round-magazine which tended to make reloading a frequent necessity.
The C/30 became the primary shipborne light AA weapon and equipped a large variety of German ships. The MG C/30L variant was used experimentally as an aircraft weapon, notably on the Heinkel He 112, where its high power allowed it to penetrate armored cars and the light tanks of the era during the Spanish Civil War. Rheinmetall started an adaptation of the C/30 for Army use, producing the 2 cm Flak 30. Similar to the C/30, the main areas of development were the mount, compact. Set-up could be accomplished by dropping the gun to the ground off its two-wheeled carriage and levelling with hand cranks; the result was a triangular base. But the main problem with the design remained unsolved; the rate of fire of 120 RPM was not fast for a weapon of this calibre. Rheinmetall responded with the 2 cm Flak 38, otherwise similar but increased the rate of fire to 220 RPM and lowered overall weight to 420 kg; the Flak 38 was accepted as the standard Army gun in 1939, by the Kriegsmarine as the C/38. In order to provide airborne and mountain troops with AA capabilities, Mauser was contracted to produce a lighter version of the Flak 38, which they introduced as the 2 cm Gebirgsflak 38.
It featured a simplified mount using a tripod that raised the entire gun off the ground, which had the side benefit of allowing it to be set up on an uneven surface. These changes reduced the overall weight of the gun to a mere 276.0 kg. Production started in 1941 and entered service in 1942. A wide variety of 20x138B ammunition was manufactured to be used in 2 cm Flak weapons. Other kinds than in existence included a number of different AP types. A high-velocity PzGr 40 round with a tungsten carbide core in an aluminium body existed in 20x138B caliber; as the Flak 30 was entering service, the Luftwaffe and Heer branches of the Wehrmacht had doubts about its effectiveness, given the ever-increasing speeds of low-altitude fighter-bombers and attack aircraft. The Army in particular felt the proper solution was the introduction of the 37 mm caliber weapons they had been developing since the 1920s, which had a rate of fire about the same as the Flak 38, but fired a round with eight times the weight.
This not only made the rounds deadlier on impact, but their higher energy and ballistic coefficient allowed them to travel much longer distances, allowing the gun to engage targets at longer ranges. This meant; the 20 mm weapons had always had weak development perspectives being reconfigured or redesigned just enough to allow the weapons to find use. Indeed, it came as a surprise when Rheinmetall introduced the 2 cm Flakvierling 38, which improved the weapon just enough to make it competitive once again; the term Vierling translates to "quadruplet" and refers to the four 20 mm autocannon constituting the design. The Flakvierling weapon consisted of quad-mounted 2 cm Flak 38 AA guns with collapsing seats, folding handles, ammunition racks; the mount had a triangular base with a jack at each leg for levelling the gun. The tracker elevated the mount manually using two handwheels; when raised, the weapon measured 307 cm high. Each of the four mounted; this meant that a maximum combined rate of fire of 1,400 rounds per minute was reduced to 800 rounds per minute for combat use – which would still require that an emptied magazine be replaced every six seconds, on each of the four guns.
This is the attainable rate of fire. Automatic weapons are limited to 100 rounds per minute per barrel to give time for the heat to dissipate, although this can be exceeded for short periods if the firing window is brief; the gun was fired by a set of two pedals — each of which fired two diametrically opposite barrels — in either semi-automatic or automatic mode. The effective vertical range was 2,200 metres, it was used just as against ground targets as it was against low-flying aircraft. The Flakvierling four-autocannon anti-aircraft ordnance system, when not mounted into any self-propelled mount, was transported on a Sd. Ah. 52 trailer, could be towed behind a variety of half-tracks or trucks, such as the Opel Blitz and the armored Sd. Kfz. 251 and un
A motor–generator is a device for converting electrical power to another form. Motor–generator sets are used to convert frequency, voltage, or phase of power, they may be used to isolate electrical loads from the electrical power supply line. Large motor–generators were used to convert industrial amounts of power while smaller motor–generators were used to convert battery power to higher DC voltages. While a motor–generator set may consist of distinct motor and generator machines coupled together, a single unit dynamotor has the motor coils and the generator coils wound around a single rotor; the motor coils are driven from a commutator on one end of the shaft, while the generator coils provide output to another commutator on the other end of the shaft. The entire rotor and shaft assembly is smaller and cheaper than a pair of machines, does not require exposed drive shafts. Low-powered consumer devices such as vacuum tube vehicle radio receivers did not use expensive and bulky motor–generators.
Instead, they used an inverter circuit consisting of a vibrator and a transformer to produce the higher voltages required for the vacuum tubes from the vehicle's 6 or 12V battery. In the context of electric power generation and large fixed electrical power systems, a motor–generator consists of an electric motor mechanically coupled to an electric generator; the motor runs on the electrical input current while the generator creates the electrical output current, with power flowing between the two machines as a mechanical torque. One use is motor–generator is to eliminate spikes and variations in "dirty power" or to provide phase matching between different electrical systems. Another use is to buffer extreme loads on the power system. For example, tokamak fusion devices impose large peak loads, but low average loads, on the electrical grid; the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics, the Princeton Large Torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the Nimrod synchrotron at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory each used large flywheels on multiple motor–generator rigs to level the load imposed on the electrical system: the motor side accelerated a large flywheel to store energy, consumed during a fusion experiment as the generator side acted as a brake on the flywheel.
The next generation U. S. Navy aircraft carrier Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System will use a flywheel motor–generator rig to supply power instantaneously for aircraft launches at greater than the ship's installed generator capacity. Motor–generators may be used for various conversions including: Alternating current to direct current DC to AC DC at one voltage to DC at another voltage. Creating or balancing a three-wire DC system. AC at one frequency to AC at another harmonically-related frequency AC at a fixed voltage to AC of a variable voltage AC single-phase to AC three-phase Before solid state AC voltage regulation was available or cost effective, motor generator sets were used to provide a variable AC voltage; the DC voltage to the generators armature would be varied manually or electronically to control the output voltage. When used in this fashion, the MG set is equivalent to an isolated variable transformer. An Alexanderson alternator is a motor-driven, high-frequency alternator which provides radio frequency power.
In the early days of radio communication, the high frequency carrier wave had to be produced mechanically using an alternator with many poles driven at high speeds. Alexanderson alternators produced RF up with large units capable of 500 kW power output. While electromechanical converters were used for long wave transmissions in the first three decades of the 20th century, electronic techniques were required at higher frequencies; the Alexanderson alternator was replaced by the vacuum tube oscillator in the 1920s. Motor–generators have been used where the input and output currents are the same. In this case, the mechanical inertia of the M–G set is used to filter out transients in the input power; the output's electric current can be clean and will be able to ride-through brief blackouts and switching transients at the input to the M–G set. This may enable, for example, the flawless cut-over from mains power to AC power provided by a diesel generator set; the motor–generator set may contain a large flywheel to improve its ride-through.
The in-rush current during re-closure will depend on many factors, however. As an example, a 250 kVA motor generator operating at 300 ampere of full load current will require 1550 ampere of in-rush current during a re-closure after 5 seconds; this example used. The motor–generator was a vertical type two-bearing machine with oil-bath bearings. Motors and generators may be coupled by a non-conductive shaft in facilities that need to control electromagnetic radiation, or where high isolation from transient surge voltages is required. Motor–generator sets have been replaced by semiconductor devices for some purposes. In the past, a popular use for MG sets were in elevators. Since accurate speed control of the hoisting machine was required, the impracti
The Kriegsmarine was the navy of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It superseded the Imperial German Navy of the German Empire and the inter-war Reichsmarine of the Weimar Republic; the Kriegsmarine was one of three official branches, along with the Heer and the Luftwaffe of the Wehrmacht, the German armed forces from 1933 to 1945. In violation of the Treaty of Versailles, the Kriegsmarine grew during German naval rearmament in the 1930s; the 1919 treaty had limited the size of the German navy and prohibited the building of submarines. Kriegsmarine ships were deployed to the waters around Spain during the Spanish Civil War under the guise of enforcing non-intervention, but in reality supported the Nationalist side against the Spanish Republicans. In January 1939 Plan Z was ordered, calling for surface naval parity with the British Royal Navy by 1944; when World War II broke out in September 1939, Plan Z was shelved in favour of a crash building program for submarines instead of capital surface warships and land and air forces were given priority of strategic resources.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine was the "Führer" Adolf Hitler, who exercised his authority through the Oberkommando der Marine. The Kriegsmarine's most significant ships were the U-boats, most of which were constructed after Plan Z was abandoned at the beginning of World War II. Wolfpacks were assembled groups of submarines which attacked British convoys during the first half of the Battle of the Atlantic but this tactic was abandoned by May 1943 when U-boat losses mounted. Along with the U-boats, surface commerce raiders were used to disrupt Allied shipping in the early years of the war, the most famous of these being the heavy cruisers Admiral Graf Spee and Admiral Scheer and the battleship Bismarck. However, the adoption of convoy escorts in the Atlantic reduced the effectiveness of surface commerce raiders against convoys. After the Second World War in 1945, the Kriegsmarine's remaining ships were divided up among the Allied powers and were used for various purposes including minesweeping.
Under the terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, Germany was only allowed a minimal navy of 15,000 personnel, six capital ships of no more than 10,000 tons, six cruisers, twelve destroyers, twelve torpedo boats and no submarines or aircraft carriers. Military aircraft were banned, so Germany could have no naval aviation. Under the treaty Germany could only build new ships to replace old ones. All the ships allowed and personnel were taken over from the Kaiserliche Marine, renamed Reichsmarine. From the outset, Germany worked to circumvent the military restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles. Through German-owned front companies, the Germans continued to develop U-boats through a submarine design office in the Netherlands and a torpedo research program in Sweden where the G7e torpedo was developed. Before the Nazi seizure of power on 30 January 1933 the German government decided on 15 November 1932 to launch a prohibited naval re-armament program that included U-boats, airplanes and an aircraft carrier.
The launching of the first pocket battleship, Deutschland in 1931 was a step in the formation of a modern German fleet. The building of the Deutschland caused consternation among the French and the British as they had expected that the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles would limit the replacement of the pre-dreadnought battleships to coastal defence ships, suitable only for defensive warfare. By using innovative construction techniques, the Germans had built a heavy ship suitable for offensive warfare on the high seas while still abiding by the letter of the treaty; when the Nazis came to power in 1933, Adolf Hitler soon began to more brazenly ignore many of the Treaty restrictions and accelerated German naval rearmament. The Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 18 June 1935 allowed Germany to build a navy equivalent to 35% of the British surface ship tonnage and 45% of British submarine tonnage; that same year the Reichsmarine was renamed as the Kriegsmarine. In April 1939, as tensions escalated between the United Kingdom and Germany over Poland, Hitler unilaterally rescinded the restrictions of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement.
The building-up of the German fleet in the time period of 1935–1939 was slowed by problems with marshaling enough manpower and material for ship building. This was because of the simultaneous and rapid build-up of the German army and air force which demanded substantial effort and resources; some projects, like the P-class cruisers, had to be cancelled. The first military action of the Kriegsmarine came during the Spanish Civil War. Following the outbreak of hostilities in July 1936 several large warships of the German fleet were sent to the region; the heavy cruisers Deutschland and Admiral Scheer, the light cruiser Köln were the first to be sent in July 1936. These large ships were accompanied by the 2nd Torpedo-boat Flotilla; the German presence was used to covertly support Franco's Nationalists although the immediate involvement of the Deutschland was humanitarian relief operations and evacuating 9,300 refugees, including 4,550 German citizens. Following the brokering of the International Non-Intervention Patrol to enforce an international arms embargo the Kriegsmarine was allotted the patrol area between Cabo de Gata and Cabo de Oropesa.
Numerous vessels served as part of these duties
Captain lieutenant or captain-lieutenant is a military rank, used in a number of navies worldwide and in the British Army. It is equivalent to the Commonwealth or US naval rank of lieutenant, has the NATO rank code of OF-2, though this can vary; the same rank is used in the navies of Finland and Norway. The latest revision of the relevant NATO STANAG standardization agreement makes the longstanding courtesy practice of translating the rank into English as "lieutenant commander" for all German and Norwegian officers of that rank official; the Norwegian Navy goes a step further in ranking the kapteinløytnant as OF-3 when serving afloat, disregarding the Norwegian national tri-service ranking. In the Estonian Navy the sounding rank of kaptenleitnant is an officer rank classified as NATO OF-4, i.e. equal to commander in the Royal Navy and United States Navy. As the commander of the Estonian Navy is a captain, this is the de facto second highest rank in the Estonian Navy; the French Army of the Ancien Régime used a rank of capitaine-lieutenant similar to the British one.
It was encountered in the Royal Guard, where the king was captain of most of the guard companies, but the effective command was in the hands of a captain-lieutenant. D'Artagnan is the most famous captain-lieutenant in French history, as commander of the first mousquetaire company. Kapitänleutnant is an OF2 rank equivalent to the Hauptmann in the German Army and the German Air Force. See In the Royal Netherlands Navy, a kapitein-luitenant ter zee is equivalent to a US Navy or Royal Navy commander. In the Portuguese Navy, a capitão-tenente is the equivalent naval rank to a British or American lieutenant commander; the Brazilian Navy uses the rank of capitão-tenente, in the same manner as the Navy of Portugal, but in contrast to those of other South American countries. It is equivalent to the RN lieutenant. Kapitan-leytenant is a rank in the Russian Navy the Red Fleet/Soviet Navy and Imperial Russian Navy, it is the rank above a senior lieutenant. In Soviet times, it may be achieved as early as an officer's 5th year of service.
In Russian and other East-European navies it is the most senior junior officer rank. The Russian Navy assigns this rank the two-and-a-half stripe insignia used in Britain and the US for lieutenant commanders. On the other hand, the US Navy considers this rank equivalent to lieutenant. In terms of responsibilities, officers of this rank may serve as department heads on larger warships, but may serve as commanding officers of 3rd and 4th rank warships. Unlike the equivalent OF2-rank Kapitänleutnant in the German Navy, submarines are at least nominally not on the list of eligible positions. In the past, when the boats were smaller, captain-lieutenants were eligible for the submarine command. However, in current Soviet/Russian ship ranking no modern submarine is given 3rd rank; this reflects the high status of submarines, as all nuclear submarines are considered 1st rank and large and medium diesels 2nd rank, while smaller 3rd rank submarines aren't built. Rank insignia IRA, Soviet Navy, RF Navy The rank is used by the navies of several ex-Soviet republics and former Eastern bloc countries.
It is used in the navies of Latvia. These are equivalent to lieutenant. Captain-Lieutenant is a rank in the Ukrainian Navy; these are equivalent to lieutenant. The armed forces of Ukraine, formed during the collapse of the USSR, adopted the Soviet model of military ranks, as well as the Soviet marks of distinction. For the distinguishing marks, the captain-lieutenant had three tapes on the sleeve, chains of one lumen on which four small five-pointed stars were placed. On July 5, 2016, the President of Ukraine approves the "Uniform Design and Signs of the Distinction of the Armed Forces of Ukraine"; the draft includes, among other things, military ranks and distinguishing marks for military personnel. The marks of the distinction of servicemen are changing, departing from the Soviet standard. November 20, 2017 issued by the order of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine No. 606, which specifies the rules for wearing and using uniform weapons by military personnel. The distinguishing marks of the captain-lieutenant become three tapes.
The distinguishing marks are placed on the coats. Rank insignia UA Navy Captain-lieutenant was a rank in the British Army. A regiment's field officers - its colonel, lieutenant colonel, major - commanded their own companies, as well as carrying out their regimental command duties. However, from the 17th century onwards, the colonel became a patron and ceremonial head instead of an actual tactical commander, with command in the field devolving to the lieutenant colonel; this left the colonel's company without a captain. The lieutenant of this company thus became its acting captain; this state of affairs was formally recognised with the creation of the rank of captain-lieutenant, with its own entry in the table of prices for the purchase of commissions. In 1772 captain-lieutenants were granted rank in the Army; the rank was abolished sometime in the ea
MAN SE MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group. It is a subsidiary of automaker Volkswagen AG. MAN SE is based in Munich, its primary output is for the automotive industry heavy trucks. Further activities include the production of diesel engines for various applications, like marine propulsion, turbomachinery. MAN supplies trucks, diesel engines and turbomachinery. In 2016, its 53,824 employees generated annual sales of around €13.6 billion. MAN SE is owned in majority by Volkswagen AG, it is a producer of Commercial Vehicles, through its MAN Truck & Bus and MAN Latin America divisions, participation in the manufacturer Sinotruk. MAN traces its origins back to 1758, when the "St. Antony" ironworks commenced operation in Oberhausen, as the first heavy-industry enterprise in the Ruhr region. In 1808, the three ironworks "St. Antony", "Gute Hoffnung", "Neue Essen" merged, to form the Hüttengewerkschaft und Handlung Jacobi, renamed Gute Hoffnungshütte. In 1840, the German engineer Ludwig Sander founded in Augsburg the first predecessing enterprise of MAN in Southern Germany: the "Sander'sche Maschinenfabrik."
It firstly became the "C. Reichenbach'sche Maschinenfabrik", named after the pioneer of printing machines Carl August Reichenbach, on the "Maschinenfabrik Augsburg"; the branch Süddeutsche Brückenbau A. G. was founded when the company in 1859 was awarded the contract for the construction of the railway bridge over the Rhine at Mainz. In 1898, the companies Maschinenbau-AG Nürnberg and Maschinenfabrik Augsburg AG merged to form Vereinigte Maschinenfabrik Augsburg und Maschinenbaugesellschaft Nürnberg A. G. Augsburg. In 1908, the company was renamed Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nürnberg AG, or in short, M·A·N. While the focus remained on ore mining and iron production in the Ruhr region, mechanical engineering became the dominating branch of business in Augsburg and Nuremberg. Under the direction of Heinrich von Buz, Maschinenfabrik Augsburg grew from a medium-sized business of 400 employees into a major enterprise with a workforce of 12,000 by the year 1913. Locomotion and steel building were the big topics of this phase.
The early predecessors of MAN were responsible for numerous technological innovations. The success of the early MAN entrepreneurs and engineers like Heinrich Gottfried Gerber, was based on a great openness towards new technologies, they constructed the Wuppertal monorail and the first spectacular steel bridges like the Großhesseloher Brücke in Munich in 1857 and the Müngsten railway bridge between 1893 and 1897. The invention of the rotary printing press allowed the copious printing of books and newspapers and since 1893, Rudolf Diesel puzzled for four years with future MAN engineers in a laboratory in Augsburg until his first Diesel engine was completed and functional. During 1921, the majority of M. A. N. was taken over by Sterkrade. Through well-directed equities and acquisitions of processing industries, e.g. Deutsche Werft, Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau, MAN advanced to a nationwide operating enterprise, with a workforce of 52,000 by 1921. MAN produced tractors by the name MAN Ackerdiesel between.
The decision for tractors production was made due to increasing demand from eastern Germany. At the same time the GHH's economic situation worsened; the causes for this were, among others, the reparations after World War I, the occupation of the Ruhr region and the world economic crisis. In only two years the number of MAN employees sank from 14,000 in the year 1929/30 to 7,400 in 1931/32. While the civil business was collapsing, the military business increased with the armament under the National Socialist regime. GHH/MAN enterprises supplied diesel engines for submarines, cylinders for projectiles and artillery of every description. MAN produced gun parts, including Mauser Karabiner 98k rifle bolts, their Waffenamt code was WaA53, ordnance code was "coc". The MAN works in Augsburg, which produced diesel engines for U-boats, the MAN works in Nuremberg, which built 40 percent of Germany's Panther tanks, were the target of massive Allied bombing attacks during World War II. After the end of World War II the allies split up the GHH group.
A vertical integration in which mining and steel production are consolidated was not allowed any more. The "Gutehoffnungshütte", together with the MAN firms of Southern Germany, therefore concentrated on engineering, plant construction, commercial vehicles and printing machines; this process has been supported by strategic dispositions. In 1982/83 the "Gutehoffnungshütte" plunged into a deep corporate crisis; the enterprise suffered from the late effects of a bad economic situation. This was displayed by the dramatic downturn of the commercial vehicles sales figures. Besides e