Xanten is a town in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the district of Wesel, Xanten is known for the Archaeological Park, one of the largest archaeological open air museums in the world, built at the site of the Roman settlements Colonia Ulpia Traiana. Other attractions include the town centre with Xanten Cathedral, many museums. Xanten is visited by one million tourists a year. Xanten, the only German town whose name begins with X, is made up of three boroughs, Hochbruch and the town centre. Other localities belonging to the town of Xanten include Birten, Lüttingen, Vynen, Obermörmter, Wardt, Mörmter, Beek, parts of a nature reserve called Bislicher Insel are located in the municipality as well. The closest international airport is Airport Weeze, is in Weeze, around 15 BC the Roman castrum or camp de, Vetera was created on the Fürstenberg near modern-day Birten. After the destruction of Vetera a second camp became established at the Bislicher Insel, named Castra Vetera II, the colonia was a completely new town with a town wall and other buildings like an amphitheater.
For this town the old settlement was completely destroyed, the colonia became the second most important commercial post in the province of Germania Inferior, surpassed only by Colonia Agrippinensis. In 122, Vetera II became the camp of Legio XXX Ulpia Victrix, in 275 the colonia was almost destroyed by Germanic tribes. Subsequently, in 310 in the area of the colonia a new town was established, named Tricensimae, at the beginning of the 5th century, assaults by Germanic tribes rapidly increased, with the result that Tricensimae was finally given up. In the 5th century the Franks began to settle in the area of todays Xanten, only graves from this time have been discovered. According to the legend of the Nibelungs, the mythical Siegfried of Xanten was born ze Santen an dem Rhîne, in the second half of the 8th century a church was built on the grounds of an old cemetery of the ancient Roman colony and called Sanctos. The name of place of saints was derived from the grave of the martyr Viktor of Xanten and is the source of todays municipal name of Xanten.
After the establishment of a convent to the south, what became todays town centre grew into existence, in 939 troops under Otto I, King of Germany defeated rebellious Franconian and Lotharingian troops under Eberhard of Franconia in the Battle of Birten near Xanten. Following the Battle of Andernach the same year the Rhineland was reaffirmed to the kingdom of Otto I. While Xanten, with its rich Viktor Convent, was still being besieged by Norsemen in 863, on 15 July 1228, Xanten was given town rights by the Archbishop of Cologne, Heinrich of Molenark. Xanten had a Jewish community in medieval times
The Gallic Empire is the modern name for a breakaway part of the Roman Empire that functioned de facto as a separate state from 260 to 274. It originated during the Crisis of the Third Century and it was established by Postumus in 260 in the wake of barbarian invasions and instability in Rome, and at its height included the territories of Germania, Gaul and Hispania. After Postumus assassination in 268 it lost much of its territory and it was retaken by Roman emperor Aurelian after the Battle of Châlons in 274. This left his son Gallienus in very shaky control, shortly thereafter, the Palmyrene Empire, which came to encompass Egypt, Syria and Arabia Petraea broke away. The governors in Pannonia staged unsuccessful local revolts, the Emperor left for the Danube to attend to their disruption. This left Postumus, who was governor of Germania Superior and Inferior, an exceptional administrator, Postumus had protected the Germania Inferior against an invasion led by the Franks in the summer of 260 very well.
In fact, Postumus defeated the Frankish forces at Empel so decisively and this all would have combined to make Postumus one of the most powerful men in the western reaches of the Roman empire. The imperial heir Saloninus and the praetorian prefect Silvanus remained at Colonia Agrippina, to keep the young out of danger. Before long, Postumus besieged Colonia Agrippina and put the young heir and his guardian to death, Postumus is thought to have established his capital at Cologne or Augusta Treverorum, with Lugdunum becoming an important city in the empire. The Gallic Empire had its own praetorian guard, two elected consuls and probably its own senate. According to the evidence, Postumus himself held the office of consul five times. Postumus successfully fended off an incursion by Gallienus in 263. However, in early 268 he was challenged by Laelianus, probably one of his commanders, Postumus quickly retook Mogontiacum and Laelianus was killed. Postumus himself, was overthrown and killed by his own troops, after the death of Postumus, the Gallic Empire began to decline.
Subsequently Victorinus came to power, being recognized as Emperor in northern Gaul and Britannia, Victorinus spent most of his reign dealing with insurgencies and attempting to recover the Gaulish territories taken by Claudius Gothicus. He was assassinated in 271, but his mother Victoria took control of his troops, with Victorias support, Tetricus was made Emperor, and was recognized in Britannia and the parts of Gaul still controlled by the Empire. He established the court at Trier, and in 273 he elevated his son, named Tetricus. The following year the younger Tetricus was made co-consul, but the Empire grew weak from internal strife, by that time Aurelian had defeated the Palmyrene Empire and had made plans to re-conquer the west
Luxembourg /ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east and its culture and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. It comprises two regions, the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe, Luxembourg had a population of 524,853 in October 2012, ranking it the 8th least-populous country in Europe. As a representative democracy with a monarch, it is headed by a Grand Duke, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a country, with an advanced economy and the worlds highest GDP per capita. Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political. The city of Luxembourg, which is the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions.
Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors, in the following centuries, Luxembourgs fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands and this arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourgs full independence is reckoned. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union, the King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina and this allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.
In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourgs neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France and this allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence, in 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourgs neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, entirely without justification. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944, and became a member of the United Nations in 1945. Luxembourgs neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, in 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of around 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery, the North Sea was the centre of the Vikings rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus the access to the markets, as Germanys only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geological and geographical features, in the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south it consists primarily of sandy beaches and wide mudflats.
Due to the population, heavy industrialization, and intense use of the sea and area surrounding it. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean, in the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea, the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed.
Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some highly industrialized areas, for the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to a north of Bergen. It is between 20 and 30 kilometres wide and has a depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris and this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms. These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate, the Devils Hole lies 200 miles east of Dundee, Scotland. The feature is a series of trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long,1 and 2 kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Cleaver Bank, Fisher Bank, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows, On the Southwest
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
The Aare or Aar is a tributary of the High Rhine and the longest river that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland. There are more than 40 hydroelectric plants along the course of the Aare River, the rivers name dates to at least the La Tène period, and it is attested as Nantaror Aare valley in the Berne zinc tablet. The name was Latinized as Arula/Arola/Araris, the Aare rises in the great Aargletschers of the Bernese Alps, in the canton of Bern and west of the Grimsel Pass. The Finsteraargletscher and Lauteraargletscher come together to form the Unteraargletscher, which is the source of water for the Grimselsee. The Oberaargletscher feeds the Oberaarsee, which flows into the Grimselsee. Right after Innertkirchen it is joined by its first major tributary, less than 1 kilometre the river carves through a limestone ridge in the Aare Gorge. It is here that the Aare proves itself to be more than just a river, a little past Meiringen, near Brienz, the river expands into Lake Brienz. Near the west end of the lake it receives its first important tributary.
It runs across the plain of the Bödeli between Interlaken and Unterseen before flowing into Lake Thun. Near the west end of Lake Thun, the river receives the waters of the Kander. Lake Thun marks the head of navigation, on flowing out of the lake it passes through Thun, and flows through the city of Bern, passing beneath eighteen bridges and around the steeply-flanked peninsula on which the Old City is located. The river soon changes its flow for a due westerly direction. From the upper end of the lake, at Nidau, the river issues through the Nidau-Büren Channel, called the Aare Canal, and runs east to Büren. A short distance further, below Brugg it receives first the Reuss, its major tributary, and shortly afterwards the Limmat, its second strongest tributary. It now turns to north, and soon becomes itself a tributary of the Rhine, the Rhine, in turn, empties into the North Sea after crossing into the Netherlands. New York, NY, Columbia University Press, the Columbia Gazetteer of the World. New York, NY, Columbia University Press, Germany, Veriag von Gustav Mayer.
Gresswell, R. Kay, Anthony, standard Encyclopedia of the Worlds Rivers and Lakes
Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He is known for building Hadrians Wall, which marked the limit of Britannia. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus, philhellene in most of his tastes, he is considered by some to have been a humanist, and he is regarded as the third of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family, although Italica near Santiponce is often considered his birthplace, his actual place of birth remains uncertain. It is generally accepted that he came from a family with roots in Hispania. His predecessor, was a cousin of Hadrians father. Trajan did not designate an heir officially, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajans wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian travelled to every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and he used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism, and this led to the establishment of one of the most popular cults of ancient times.
Hadrian spent a deal of time with the military, he usually wore military attire and even dined. He ordered rigorous military training and drilling and made use of reports of attacks to keep the army on alert. On his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajans conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 138 Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on the condition that he adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as his own heirs and they would eventually succeed Antoninus as co-emperors. Hadrian died the year at Baiae. In Hadrians time, there was already an established convention that one could not write a contemporary Roman imperial history for fear of competing with the emperors themselves. Information on the history of Hadrians reign comes mostly from later. A general account of his reign is Book 69 of the early 3rd century Roman History by Cassius Dio and his original Greek text of this book is lost, what survives is a brief, much later, Byzantine-era abridgment by the 11th century monk Xiphilinius.
He selected from Dios account of Hadrians reign based on his religious interests
Voorburg is a Dutch town and former municipality in the western part of the province of South Holland, the Netherlands. Together with Leidschendam and Stompwijk, it makes up the municipality Leidschendam-Voorburg and it has a population of approximately 39,000 people. It is considered to be the oldest city in The Netherlands, in 2002, the cities of Leidschendam and Voorburg were merged under the new municipality named Leidschendam-Voorburg. Situated adjacent to the city of The Hague, it is regarded as one of its suburbs. It was positioned along the Fossa Corbulonis, a canal connecting the Rhine and this waterway is now known as the Rijn-Schie canal and is still a dominant landmark of the present day borough. His son, the astronomer and mathematician Christiaan Huygens, spent several years in his fathers country house in Voorburg. The house, located next to the railway station, now functions as a museum. Philosopher Baruch Spinoza lived in Voorburg from 1663 to 1670, in Voorburg, Spinoza continued work on the Ethics and corresponded with scientists and theologians throughout Europe.
Until 2009 Voorburg hosted the major branch of the statistics institute, the CBS. The latter two are now part of the Randstad Rail network, Voorburg used to be an Intercity station, because there was an eternal agreement with the railways that every passing train should stop there. It lost that status, as the new station is elevated. Voorburg Cricket Club Sportpark Westvliet cricket ground was approved by the ICC as the Netherlands latest ODI venue and it joins the VRA ground in Amstelveen and the Hazelaarweg ground in Rotterdam in gaining ODI status. Bangladesh played one Twenty20 International match each against Scotland and Netherlands there in July 2012. org, Fossa Corbulonis
Tongeren is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg, in the southeastern corner of the Flemish region of Belgium. Tongeren is the oldest town in Belgium, as the only Roman administrative capital within the countrys borders, as a Roman city, it was inhabited by the Tungri, and known as Atuatuca Tungrorum, it was the administrative centre of the Civitas Tungrorum district. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network, before the Roman conquests, this area was inhabited by the group of Belgic tribes known as the Germani cisrhenani. Specifically the Eburones were the largest of these tribes and the one living around Tongeren, Caesar referred to the fort of the Eburones as Aduatuca, and this has led to a widely accepted proposal that this can be equated to Tongeren. There was a tribe in the area known as the Aduatuci. On the other hand, it has the name and function as a local capital. If it is not Tongeren itself, the Aduatuca of the Eburones might be the ancient fortification of Caestert in nearby Riemst, during Julius Caesar’s campaigns in this part of Gaul in the first century BC, the Belgae revolted against the campaign of Caesar, led by the Eburones.
They destroyed a legion that had demanded the right to winter among them in 54 BC, instead of risking Roman lives to pursue them he invited tribes from over the Rhine, such as the Sigambri to come and plunder. This back-fired when Eburones pointed out to the Sigambri that the Romans had all the booty at Aduatuca, the Tungri, not mentioned by Caesar, came to dominate this area in the Roman era, and are the reason for the name of the modern name Tongeren. Tacitus says that Tungri was a new name for the tribes who had previously been called the Germani. But many modern writers believe that the Gallo-Roman population of the area contained a significant amount of more recent Germanic immigrants from across the Rhine and it suffered from a destructive fire during the Batavian siege in 70 AD, which was part of the Batavian revolt. In the second century, it erected a wall, portions of which can still be seen today. Typical Roman buildings were built in town, while villas and mound graves dotted the surrounding area, in 358 the future emperor Julian met, in Tongeren, a delegation of Salian Franks who had recently settled in Toxandria, to the north of Tongeren.
They wanted peace but spoke as if the ground they had seized were rightfully their own and they became increasingly important after this time. Zosimus reports that Julian used them as part of his forces in fights against other Germanic tribes. In the meantime, the Franks to the north and east were pagan and so many areas had to be reconverted over the course of the following centuries, with several missionaries becoming martyrs. The seat of the Tungrian bishopric however eventually moved to nearby Maastricht, much later, Liège became the seat of what would become the Roman Catholic Diocese of Liège, the church equivalent to the Civitas Tungrorum. This was the place of Saint Lambert of Maastricht, one of the last missionaries in the area
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16
The Moselle is a river flowing through France and Germany. It is a tributary of the Rhine, which it joins at Koblenz. A small part of Belgium is drained by the Moselle through the Sauer, the Moselle twists and turns its way between Trier and Koblenz along one of Germanys most beautiful river valleys. It flows through a region that has influenced by mankind since it was first cultivated by the Romans. Today, its hillsides are covered by terraced vineyards where some of the best Rieslings grow, Traben-Trarbach with its art nouveau architecture and Bernkastel-Kues with its traditional market square are two of the many popular tourist attractions on the Moselle river. The name Moselle is derived from the Celtic name form, via the Latin Mosella, a form of Mosa, the Latin description of the Meuse. So the Mosella was the Little Meuse, the Moselle is first recorded by Tacitus in Book 13 of his Annals and in Book 4 of his Histories. The Roman poet, Decimius Magnus Ausonius, made it a theme as early as the 4th century.
In his poem dated A. D. Ausonius describes flourishing and rich landscapes along the river and in the valley of the Moselle, the river subsequently gave its name to two French republican départements and Meurthe-et-Moselle. The source of the Moselle is at 715 metres above sea level on the Col de Bussang on the slopes of the Ballon dAlsace in the Vosges. After 544 kilometres it discharges into the Rhine at the Deutsches Eck in Koblenz at a height of 59 metres above NHN. The length of the river in France is 314 kilometres, for 39 kilometres it forms the border between Germany and Luxembourg, and 208 kilometres are solely within Germany, the Moselle flows through the Lorraine region, west of the Vosges. Further downstream, in Germany, the Moselle valley forms the division between the Eifel and Hunsrück mountain regions. The average flow rate of the Moselle at its mouth is 328 m³/s, making it the second largest tributary of the Rhine by volume after the Aare and bigger than the Main and Neckar. The section of the Moselle from the Franco-German-Luxembourg tripoint to its confluence with the Saar near Konz shortly before Trier is in Germany known as the Upper Moselle.
The section from Trier to Pünderich is the Middle Moselle, the section between Pünderich and its mouth in Koblenz as the Lower Moselle or Terraced Moselle. Characteristic of the Middle and Lower Moselle are its wide meanders cut deeply into the highlands of the Rhenish Massif, typical are its vineyard terraces. From the tripoint the Moselle marks the entire Saarland-Luxembourg, the catchment area of the Moselle is 28,286 km² in area
Legio XXX Ulpia Victrix
Legio trigesima Ulpia victrix was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was founded in AD100 by the emperor Trajan for service in the Dacian Wars, the legion was active until disbandment of the Rhine frontier in the beginning of the 5th century. Their emblems were the gods Neptune and Jupiter and the Capricorn, Ulpia is Trajans own gens, while the cognomen Victrix means victorious, and was awarded after the valliant behaviour in the Dacian wars. The legions first base camp was in the province of Dacia in the Danube fronier, in 122 they were moved to Colonia Ulpia Traiana in Germania Inferior, where they remained for the following centuries. Their main tasks were public construction and police affairs, in the civil war of 193, XXX Ulpia Victrix supported Septimius Severus, who granted them the title of Pia Fidelis. The legion was used by Emperor Alexander Severus in his 235 campaign against the Sassanids and it was almost certainly involved in Gallienuss wars against the Franks in the 250s. L.
Petronius Taurus Volusianus who became Praetorian Prefect in 260 and it supported the Gallic Empire of Postumus and no doubt suffered great losses when Aurelian overthrew Tetricus I in a bloody battle at the Catalaunian Fields in 274. With the re-organization of the Roman Army, the legions guarding the border lost their importance to the comitatus, the collapse of the Rhine frontier after 408-410 marked the end of the legion history. List of Roman legions and Roman legion Ulpia livius. org account