Germanic Wars

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The Germanic Wars is a name given to a series of wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 596 AD. The nature of these wars varied through time between Roman conquest, Germanic uprisings and later Germanic invasions in the Roman Empire that started in the late 2nd century BC, the series of conflicts, which began in the 5th century under the Western Roman Emperor Honorius, led (along with internal strife) to the ultimate downfall of the Western Roman Empire.

Chronology[edit]

2nd century BC[edit]

The Defeat of the Cimbri by Alexandre Gabriel Décamps

1st century BC[edit]

Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar by Lionel Noel Royer, 1899

1st century[edit]

The Varus battle by Otto Albert Koch, 1909
Campaigns of Tiberius and Germanicus in the years 10/11-13 CE. In pink the anti-roman Germanic coalition led by Arminius; in dark green, territories still directly held by the Romans, in yellow the Roman client states

2nd century[edit]

3rd century[edit]

The area (Agri Decumates) between Main and Rhine was evacuated in 259 AD, dozens of Roman camps were abandoned.

4th century[edit]

Empire of the Huns, pushing the Germanic tribes over the Limes into the Roman Empire.

5th century[edit]

For the timeline of events in Britannia after its abandonment by Emperor Valentinian III, see Timeline of conflict in Anglo-Saxon Britain.

Kingdom of the Vandals (yellow) and their allies the Sarmatian Alans before the Invasion of Roman Africa, c. 418
Kingdom of the Vandals in North Africa, c. 429.
Europe in the late 5th century (476-486).

6th century[edit]

Kingdom of the Visigoths (orange), Kingdom of the Suebi (green), Kingdom of the Burgundians, Kingdom of the Franks (purple), Kingdom of the Vandals (yellow), c. 490.
The Byzantine Empire at the End of the Antiquity in 555 AD.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mommsen, Theodor. "History of Rome: Book IV - The Revolution". p. 67. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 
  2. ^ a b c d Theodor Mommsen, Römische Geschichte. Vol. 2. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod.. 3.Ed. Weidmann, Berlin 1861, S. 178. (in German) (Roman History: From the battle of Pydna down to Sulla's death.) Römische Geschichte: Bd. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod
  3. ^ a b c d Mossman, Theodor (1908). History of Rome. New York: Charles Scribner's SOns. p. 71. Retrieved 9 October 2009. 
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  5. ^ Caesar. In: Hans Herzfeld[de] (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 1: A-E. Das Fischer Lexikon[de] 37, Frankfurt 1963, p. 214. "Hauptquellen [betreffend Caesar]: Caesars eigene, wenn auch leicht tendenziöse Darstellungen des Gallischen und des Bürgerkrieges, die Musterbeispiele sachgemäßer Berichterstattung und stilistischer Klarheit sind" ("Main sources [regarding Caesar]: Caesar's own, even though slightly tendentious depictions of the Gallic and the Civil Wars, which are paradigms of pertinent information and stylistic clarity")
  6. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.31-53
  7. ^ Dio Cassius, Roman History 38.34-50; see also Plutarch, Life of Caesar 19
  8. ^ Smith, William (1867). "Ambiorix". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 138–139. 
  9. ^ Florus, III. 10. § 8.
  10. ^ Birkhan, Helmut, 1997, Die Kelten, p. 238. (in German) (The Celts)
  11. ^ Dio LI.20.5; LI.21.6
  12. ^ Suetonius, Augustus, 23, Tiberius, 12; Tacitus, Annals, I.10, III.48; Velleius II.97, 102; Pliny, Nat. Hist. IX.35 (58); Dio, liv.6.
  13. ^ Dio, Roman History, LIV.33.
  14. ^ Cassius Dio 229:365, Roman History, Bk LIV, Ch 32.
  15. ^ Roller, Duane W. (2006). "Roman Exploration". Through the Pillars of Herakles: Greco-Roman Exploration of the Atlantic (Digitized by Google Books online). Taylor and Francis. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-415-37287-9. Retrieved 2008-12-08. 
  16. ^ Interaktive Karte der Römerlager an der Lippe in Ulrike Kusak: Nach Sensationsfund fehlt das Geld für Grabungen, vom 6. Dezember 2014, auf ruhrnachrichten.de
  17. ^ Strabo 7, 1, 3; Velleius 2, 108, 2; 2, 109, 2f.; Tacitus, Annals, II.45
  18. ^ Cassius Dio, liv. 59
  19. ^ Cassius Dio, LV, 6.4-5
  20. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 21
  21. ^ Tacitus, The Annals 1.44
  22. ^ Cassius Dio (1917). Roman History (Thayer Lacus Curtius). Vol VI Book LV. Loeb Classical Library. 
  23. ^ Several examples by Max Ihm, s. v. Cheruski, in: Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE) III.2, Stuttgart 1899, cols. 2270–2272. (in German))
  24. ^ "Chatti in Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. September 2010. 
  25. ^ Velleius, Compendium of Roman History, book 2, 104,2.
  26. ^ Velleius, Hist. Rom. II, 106. Schmidt, 5.
  27. ^ Velleius Paterculus, II.106.
  28. ^ Res Gestae Divi Augusti, 5.26.
  29. ^ "Legio V Alaudae". www.livius.org. September 2010. 
  30. ^ Wells, Peter S. The Battle that stopped Rome. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2003, p. 187 ISBN 0-393-32643-8
  31. ^ "The Ambush That Changed History". Fergus M. Bordewich, Smithsonian Magazine. September 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  32. ^ "Germans under Arminius Revolt Against Rome". Edward Shepherd Creasy, The Great Events by Famous Historians, Vol. 2. 1905. 
  33. ^ Velleius, Hist. Rom. II, 119
  34. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Compendium of Roman History II, 120, 4; Cassius Dio, Roman History LVI, 22, 2a-2b
  35. ^ Tacitus, Annals 2, 44-46
  36. ^ Kevin Sweeney, Scholars look at factors surrounding Hermann’s victory Archived July 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. www.nujournal.com 2010-10.
  37. ^ Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome, p. 269
  38. ^ Tacitus 117:189–190, The Annals, Bk XI, Ch 18–19. Events of AD 47–48.
  39. ^ Tacitus, Annals, XII.27
  40. ^ Tacitus 117:253, The Annals, Bk XIII, Ch 55. Events of AD 54–58.
  41. ^ Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire, p. 53
  42. ^ R.Syme, Guerre e frontiere del periodo dei Flavi, pp.606 ss.
  43. ^ Frontinus, Stratagemata, I, 3, 10.
  44. ^ B.W.Jones, The emperor Domitian, p.129.
  45. ^ C.Scarre, Chronicle of the roman emperors, p.77.
  46. ^ Dean-Jones, Lesley (1992), p. 144
  47. ^ a b Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, p. 18.
  48. ^ Jordanes, The Goths in the Third Century AD in THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, translated by Charles C. Mierow, www.earth-history.com
  49. ^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 1.43
  50. ^ Potter, David S., A Companion to the Roman Empire, p. 270
  51. ^ a b Williams, 50–51.
  52. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 7.
  53. ^ Grane, Thomas (2007), "From Gallienus to Probus - Three decades of turmoil and recovery", The Roman Empire and Southern Scandinavia–a Northern Connection! (PhD thesis), Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, p. 109 
  54. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 29; Elliott, Christianity of Constantine, 41; Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 63; MacMullen, Constantine, 39–40; Odahl, 81–83.
  55. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 34; Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 63–65; Odahl, 89; Pohlsander, Emperor Constantine, 15–16.
  56. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 250.
  57. ^ Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, book 1, chapter 8 & book 2, chapter 34.
  58. ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 83-84.
  59. ^ Origo Constantini 6.32 mention the actions.
  60. ^ Eusebius, The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine, IV.6
  61. ^ Odahl, Charles M., Constantine and the Christian Empire, chapter X.
  62. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 27, chapter 5.
  63. ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 115-116.
  64. ^ a b c Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
  65. ^ a b Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapter 3.
  66. ^ a b c Philostorgius, Ecclesiastical history, book 9, chapter 17.
  67. ^ a b c Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History, book 6, chapter 37.
  68. ^ a b Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 98-104.
  69. ^ a b Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 124-128.
  70. ^ Heather, Peter, 2010, Empires and barbarians, p. 215.
  71. ^ Heather, Peter, 1995, The English Historical Review, The Huns and the end of the Roman Empire in Western Europe
  72. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 5-16.
  73. ^ Socrates Scholasticus, The Ecclesiastical History, book 4, chapters 34-38 & book 5, chapter 1.
  74. ^ Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 130-138.
  75. ^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 130-153.
  76. ^ Hahn, Irene (2007). "The Day of the Barbarians: The Battle That Led to the Fall of the Roman Empire". Book review. Jenson Books Inc. Retrieved 2008-04-19. 
  77. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 12–14.
  78. ^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
  79. ^ Roman Empire – Adrianople roman-empire.net. Illustrated History of the Roman Empire. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
  80. ^ a b Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 205
  81. ^ Jaques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9, p. 345.
  82. ^ a b Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 194
  83. ^ History of the Goths. University of California Press. 13 February 1990. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  84. ^ "World Timeline of Europe AD 400-800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  85. ^ Getica, 303
  86. ^ Haldon, John, 2008, The Byzantine Wars, p. 39.
  87. ^ Amory, Patrick, 2003, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554.
  88. ^ De Bello Gothico IV 32, pp. 241-245

Further reading[edit]