Germinal is the thirteenth novel in Émile Zola's twenty-volume series Les Rougon-Macquart. Considered Zola's masterpiece and one of the most significant novels in the French tradition, the novel – an uncompromisingly harsh and realistic story of a coalminers' strike in northern France in the 1860s – has been published and translated in over one hundred countries and has additionally inspired five film adaptations and two television productions. Germinal was written between April 1884 and January 1885, it was first serialized between November 1884 and February 1885 in the periodical Gil Blas in March 1885 published as a book. The title refers to the name of a month of a spring month. Germen is a Latin word which means "seed"; as the final lines of the novel read: Des hommes poussaient, une armée noire, qui germait lentement dans les sillons, grandissant pour les récoltes du siècle futur, et dont la germination allait faire bientôt éclater la terre. Men were springing forth, a black avenging army, germinating in the furrows, growing towards the harvests of the next century, their germination would soon overturn the earth.
The novel's central character is Étienne Lantier seen in L'Assommoir, to have been the central character in Zola's "murder on the trains" thriller La Bête humaine before the overwhelmingly positive reaction to Germinal persuaded him otherwise. The young migrant worker arrives at the forbidding coal mining town of Montsou in the bleak area of the far north of France to earn a living as a miner. Sacked from his previous job on the railways for assaulting a superior, Étienne befriends the veteran miner Maheu, who finds him somewhere to stay and gets him a job pushing the carts down the pit. Étienne is portrayed as a hard-working idealist but a naïve youth. Zola keeps his theorizing in the background and Étienne's motivations are much more natural as a result, he embraces socialist principles, reading large amounts of working class movement literature and fraternizing with Souvarine, a Russian anarchist and political émigré who has come to Montsou to seek a living in the pits. Étienne's simplistic understanding of socialist politics and their rousing effect on him are reminiscent of the rebel Silvère in the first novel in the cycle, La Fortune des Rougon.
While this is going on, Étienne falls for Maheu's daughter Catherine employed pushing carts in the mines, he is drawn into the relationship between her and her brutish lover Chaval, a prototype for the character of Buteau in Zola's novel La Terre. The complex tangle of the miners' lives is played out against a backdrop of severe poverty and oppression, as their working and living conditions continue to worsen throughout the novel. While the anarchist Souvarine preaches violent action, the miners and their families hold back, their poverty becoming more disastrous, until they are sparked into a ferocious riot, the violence of, described in explicit terms by Zola, as well as providing some of the novelist's best and most evocative crowd scenes; the rioters are confronted by police and the army that repress the revolt in a violent and unforgettable episode. Disillusioned, the miners go blaming Étienne for the failure of the strike; the ensuing drama and the long wait for rescue are among some of Zola's best scenes, the novel draws to a dramatic close.
Étienne is rescued and fired but he goes on to live in Paris with Pluchart. The title, Germinal, is drawn from the springtime seventh month of the French Revolutionary Calendar and is meant to evoke imagery of germination, new growth and fertility. Accordingly, Zola ends the novel on a note of hope and one that has provided inspiration to socialist and reformist causes of all kinds throughout the years since its first publication: Beneath the blazing of the sun, in that morning of new growth, the countryside rang with song, as its belly swelled with a black and avenging army of men, germinating in its furrows, growing upwards in readiness for harvests to come, until one day soon their ripening would burst open the earth itself. By the time of Zola's death, the novel had come to be recognized as his undisputed masterpiece. At his funeral crowds of workers gathered, cheering the cortège with shouts of "Germinal! Germinal!". Since the book has come to symbolize working class causes and to this day retains a special place in French mining-town folklore.
Zola was always proud of Germinal and was always keen to defend its accuracy against accusations of hyperbole and exaggeration or of slander against the working classes. His research had been thorough the parts involving lengthy observational visits to northern French mining towns in 1884, such as witnessing the after-effects of a crippling miners' strike first-hand at Anzin or going down a working coal pit at Denain; the mine scenes are vivid and haunting as a result. A sensation upon original publication, it is now by far the best-selling of Zola's novels, both in
Ann Bancroft is an American author, teacher and public speaker. She was the first woman to finish a number of arduous expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1995. Ann Bancroft was born in Mendota Heights and grew up in St. Paul, Minnesota. Bancroft spent two years in Kenya in sixth grades. Bancroft began leading wilderness expeditions when she was 8-years-old when she convinced her cousins to join her on backyard expeditions, she described her family as one of risk takers. Bancroft struggled with dyslexia from an early age, but she graduated High School and was accepted at the University of Oregon where she graduated with a Physical Education Degree in 1981. Bancroft was a camper and staff member at YMCA Camp Widjiwagan in Ely, MN. Bancroft taught Physical Education and Special Education in St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Bancroft became a gym teacher in Minneapolis and St. Paul. Ann Bancroft founded the Ann Bancroft Foundation in 1991.
The Ann Bancroft foundation supports the Wilderness Inquiry group and Bancroft teaches at Wilderness Inquiry. The Wilderness Inquiry group allows individuals and families to go on outdoor adventures, the adventures are open to people of all ability levels. Bancroft co-owns an exploration company, Bancroft Arnesen Explore, with Liv Arnesen. Bancroft has been on expeditions on the Ganges River in India, crossed Greenland, traveled to the North Pole, crossed the South Pole. Bancroft gave up her physical education and special education teaching posts in 1986 in order to participate with the "Will Steger International North Pole Expedition", she arrived at the North Pole together with five other team members after 56 days using dogsleds. This made Bancroft the first woman to reach the North Pole by sled, she was the first woman to cross both polar ice caps to reach the North and South Poles. In 1992–1993, Bancroft led a four-woman expedition to the South Pole on skis. In 2001, Ann and Norwegian adventurer Liv Arnesen became the first women to ski across Antarctica.
In March 2007, Bancroft and Liv Arnesen took part in a trek across the Arctic Ocean to draw attention to the problem of global warming. The two explorers were followed be millions of school children. However, according to The Washington Post, the expedition was called off "after Liv Arnesen suffered frostbite in three of her toes, extreme cold temperatures drained the batteries in some of their electronic equipment."In 2017, Bancroft led an expedition on the Ganges River as part of the "Access Water Initiative Series." The Ganges River expedition's purpose was to raise awareness of the importance of clean water and that waste will travel downstream. This expedition was a 60-day trip on 1,500 miles of waterway. Bancroft plans to boat down the Mississippi river in 2018 with other female explorers. Future expeditions will be conducted on every continent; this initiative aims to encourage children to protect their waterways, a vital resource. In 2018, Bancroft will paddle down the 2,320 mile Mississippi River.
Future trips include Africa in 2019, Oceania in 2021, South America in 2023, Europe in 2025, Antarctica in 2027. Bancroft is bisexual and in 2006, she publicly campaigned against a proposed amendment to the Minnesota Constitution to prohibit any legal recognition of marriages or civil unions between members of the same sex. Bancroft supports awareness of Access Water, Winter Warm-Up challenges, global warming. First woman to reach the North Pole in 1986. Named Woman of the Year by Ms. Magazine in 1987. Leader of the first east-west crossing of Greenland in 1992. Became the first woman to reach both poles in 1992. Leader of the first all-female expedition to the South Pole in 1992–1993. Included in Remarkable Women of the Twentieth Century in 1998. One of the first two women to cross Antarctica on foot in 2001. Named Woman of the Year by Glamour Magazine in 2001. Induction into the National Women's Hall of Fame for the United States in 2005. Attempted another expedition to the North Pole with Liv Arnesen, but frostbite stopped their trek in 2007 Named one of history's greatest polar explorers in 2011.
Finished the first Source to Sea Access Water expedition on the Ganges River with seven other women in 2015, covering 1,500 miles in 60 days. Bancroft, Ann & Nancy Loewen. Four to the Pole! The American Women's Expedition to Antarctica, 1992–1993. Linnet Books. Arnesen, Liv & Ann Bancroft with Cheryl Dahle. No Horizon Is So Far: Their Extraordinary Journey Across Antarctica. De Capo Press. ISBN 0-7382-0794-2. No Horizon Is So Far describes Ann Bancroft's and Lis Arnesen's 1,700 mile trek across Antarctica in 2000–2001; the nonfiction book won an Amelia Bloomer award in 2005. Bancroft, Ann & Liv Arnesen. Ann and Liz Cross Antarctica. De Capo Press. ISBN 0-7382-0934-1. Duncan, Joyce. Ahead of Their Time: a Biographical Dictionary of Risk-Taking Women. Portsmouth: Greenwood Publishing Group. Pp. 38–42. ISBN 9781280908699. "Explorer Ann Bancroft Plays'Not My Job'", NPR, Wait Wait Don't Tell Me, June 26, 2010
Naval Air Station Chase Field is a former naval air station located in Beeville, Texas. It was named for Lieutenant Commander Nathan Brown Chase, Naval Aviator #37, who died in 1925 while developing carrier landing techniques for the U. S. Navy. Seven buildings of the station are individually listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places: NAS Chase Field-Building 1001, NAS Chase Field-Building 1009, NAS Chase Field-Building 1015, NAS Chase Field-Building 1040, NAS Chase Field-Building 1042, NAS Chase Field-Quarters R, NAS Chase Field-Quarters S. Under construction as Beeville Municipal Airport, it was leased in 1943 by the U. S. Navy to satisfy the increasing demand for trained pilots necessitated by World War II. Not intended to be a permanent base, it closed in July 1946. In August 1952, it was purchased by the Navy to again relieve congestion at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in preparation for the Korean War. Jet training began there in 1954, it operated as Chase Field until 1968, when it was redesignated as a full Naval Air Station to meet the demand for pilot training during the Vietnam War.
It was tasked with preparing U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps Student Naval Aviators to be strike pilots in sea-based jet fighter and attack aircraft. Training for selected NATO and Allied student jet aviators was conducted at NAS Chase Field. In the early 1990s the Base Realignment and Closure Commission decided that NAS Chase Field would be shuttered. At the time of its closure in 1993, it was home to Training Air Wing Three, part of Naval Air Training Command, with training squadrons VT-24 Bobcats, VT-25 Cougars, VT-26 Tigers flying the T-2C Buckeye and TA-4J Skyhawk II jet trainers; the wing was disestablished on 31 Aug 1992, prior to the closure of the base. After its closure, the installation was redeveloped into Chase Field Industrial Complex. Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields: Chase Field "National Register of Historic Places, Multiple Property Documentation Form and Architectural Resources of Naval Air Station Chase Field". National Park Service. Retrieved 25 August 2016
Gaythorne is a suburb in the City of Brisbane, Australia. In the 2016 census, Gaythorne had a population of 3,023 people. Gaythorne is located seven kilometres north-west of the Brisbane central business district, it is bounded to the north by Kedron Brook. Gaythorne is situated on the slopes of Enoggera Hill, it shares some streets with the neighbouring suburb of Mitchelton. In the late 1990s it was split from Enoggera, a much larger suburb and they continue to share a postcode, it is a leafy, residential suburb with the dominant architectural style being "Queenslander" architecture. It adjoins the Enoggera Barracks and many of its streets are named after World War I sites. Public transport facilities include Gaythorne railway station on the Ferny Grove - City line; the suburb takes its name from a property in the area owned by Howard Bliss. On Saturday 18 April 1924 auctioneers Isles, Love, & Co offered 170 residential lots in the Bellevue Park Estate in Enoggera Heights, it was described as fronting Samford Bellevue Avenue at the junction with Pickering Street.
On Saturday 15 May 1915 there was a stump capping ceremony for a new Presbyterian church at Enoggera. The location was on the corner of Station Avenue. In 1926 the church was extended to create a Sunday school; as part of the merger of many of the Methodist and Congregational churches into the Uniting Church of Australia in 1977, the church became Gaythorne Uniting Church. However, falling congregation numbers led to a consolidation of Uniting churches in the area, leading to the closure of the former Presbyerian church. Since 2012, it has been used as an early education centre. In May 1919, subdivided allotments of Rangeview Estate Enoggera were auctioned by Cameron Bros; this area was within the suburb of Enoggera. The map advertising the auction states that the Estate was within 5 minutes' walk away from the Rifle Range Railway Station, now known as Gaythorne Station. In April 1921, the land unsold was re-offered through auctioneers Cameron Bros as "Gaythorne & Rangeview Estates" made up of 53 allotments.
All Souls' Anglican church was dedicated on 26 March 1961 by Archbishop Halse and consecrated on 9 March 1975 by Archbishop Arnott. Its closure was approved circa 1986. In the 2011 census, Gaythorne recorded a population of 2,655 people. In the 2016 census, Gaythorne had a population of 3023 people. There are no schools in Gaythorne but primary and secondary schools are available in neighbouring suburbs Mitchelton and Enoggera. In the 2011 census, Gaythorne recorded a population of 2,655 people, 48.4 % male. The median age of the Gaythorne population was 31 years of age, 6 years below the Australian median. 80.2% of people living in Gaythorne were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 69.8%. 88.2% of people spoke only English at home. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Gaythorne "Gaythorne". BRISbites. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. "Gaythorne". Our Brisbane. Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008
Botolphs Bridge Halt railway station was a little-used station on the Romney and Dymchurch Railway in Kent, England. Botolphs Bridge or Botolph's Bridge is a hamlet on the Romney Marsh, consisting of a small group of family homes and a public house. Although the railway passes some distance from the settlement, the long road from the hamlet to the coast is called "Botolphs Bridge Road", intersects the railway at a level crossing. Here a small halt was provided when the line opened in 1927, with a single wooden waiting shelter for the convenience of passengers; the halt was closed in 1939 due to low traffic figures. The manner of its closure was somewhat spectacular, well reported locally at the time. Captain Howey, the railway's founder and principal shareholder, declared the station closed, instructed train drivers not to stop there, set fire to the wooden shelter. With no public warning of the impending closure, the flames and smoke prompted an emergency call to the Fire Brigade, who turned out an appliance and crew.
The firemen were surprised to arrive on scene and discover the burning building's owner with a box of matches
José Joaquín Arcega-Whiteside is a Spanish-American professional American football wide receiver for the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League. He played college football at Stanford University. Arcega-Whiteside was born in Zaragoza and moved to South Carolina when he was six, he attended Paul M. Dorman High School in South Carolina. During his career, he had 207 receptions for 38 touchdowns. Arcega-Whiteside committed to Stanford University to play college football. After redshirting his first year at Stanford in 2015, Arcega-Whiteside played in 12 games as a sophomore, recording 24 receptions for 379 yards and five touchdowns; as a junior in 2017, he had 48 receptions for nine touchdowns. As a senior in 2018, he had a season record of 63 receptions for 14 touchdowns. After the season, Arcega-Whiteside declared for the 2019 NFL Draft. Arcega-Whiteside was drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles in the second round in the 2019 NFL Draft. In Week 13, in the 37–31 loss to the Miami Dolphins, Arcega-Whiteside caught one pass for a 15 yards for his first NFL touchdown.
Both of his parents, Joaquín Arcega and Valorie Whiteside, played professional basketball in Spain. Valerie Whiteside played basketball collegiately at Appalachian State and is the all-time scorer in women's basketball for the Southern Conference. Two of Arcega's uncles, Fernando Arcega and José Arcega played basketball professionally in Spain and represented Spain in the Olympics. Arcega-Whiteside has a Christian tattoo on the left side of his chest. Philadelphia Eagles bio Stanford Cardinal bio