Hans Waldmann (mayor)
Hans Waldmann was mayor of Zurich and Swiss military leader. The son of a peasant in Zug, he married well, Waldmann lead the Confederates in the Burgundian Wars defeating Charles the Bold with an army estimated at 12,000 men. 500 peasants from Knonau are said to have toppled Waldmann as mayor in 1489, Waldmann was beheaded on April 6,1489 following accusations of financial corruption, foreign connections and sodomy. It was the subject of controversy for artistic reasons, deemed by critics as being overly modern for the historical city center
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Einsiedeln is a municipality and district in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland known for its monastery, the Benedictine Einsiedeln Abbey. Einsiedeln is the birthplace of Paracelsus, a Renaissance physician, the town is known as Äinsidle, in the local Highest Alemannic dialect, and in neighboring dialects as Äisele, Näisele, Äisidle, Näisidle, Äisigle. In the Romansh language it is known as Nossadunaun, archaeologists have discovered numerous artifacts from the stone age and the Bronze Age in the Einsiedeln area. However, it appears from these artifacts, some of which are about 12,000 years old, until the Early Middle Ages there were no permanent settlements in the area. St. Meinrad, of the family of the Counts of Hohenzollern and he established his hermitage on the slopes of Mt. Etzel. When he arrived in the area, he had him a wonder-working statue of the Virgin Mary which he had been given by the Abbess Hildegarde of Zurich. Near his hermitage, he established a shrine to house the statue. According to legend he died in 861 at the hands of two robbers and Peter, who coveted the treasures offered at the shrine by pilgrims, the robbers were followed by two ravens into town and drew attention to them with loud squawking.
This is the reason for the two ravens on the village flag, during the next eighty years Saint Meinrads hermitage was never without one or more hermits emulating his example. One of the hermits, named Eberhard, previously Provost of Strasburg, erected a monastery and church there, work on the monastery is said to have begun in 934. Following a miraculous vision by Eberhard, the new church was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, while the town of Einsiedeln is first mentioned in 1073, monastery and the area around were settled earlier. At the time of the foundation of the Abbey, the hunters and small farmers of the forest. The surrounding population was known as Waldleute because of the forests around the Abbey, the Abbey encouraged the Waldleute to settle in surrounding villages and begin farming. The alpine valleys were used to raise cattle, which became more important to the village. By 1250 the major business in the village was breeding and raising cattle, expansion of grazing land into nearby alpine valleys led to a two century conflict with Schwyz.
As early as 1100, the villages of Einsiedeln and Schwyz were in conflict over land near the two Mythen mountains, over the following century, conflicts over the land led to many court battles and actual battles. The Habsburgs were able to quiet the conflict for a few years, until 1291 when Schwyz, Uri, in 1314 the conflict flared up again with an attack by Schwyz into Einsiedeln. This attack triggered a series of raids that, along with other events, in 1315 led to a Habsburg invasion
Einsiedeln Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in the town of Einsiedeln in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland. The abbey is dedicated to Our Lady of the Hermits, the title being derived from the circumstances of its foundation, for the first inhabitant of the region was Saint Meinrad, a hermit. It is an abbey and, not part of a diocese. It has been a resting point on the Way of St. James for centuries. Meinrad was educated at the school on Reichenau Island, in Lake Constance, under his kinsmen, Abbots Hatto and Erlebald. After some years at Reichenau, and at a dependent priory on Lake Zurich, he embraced an eremitical life, one of them, named Eberhard, previously Provost of Strassburg, erected in 934 a monastery and church there, of which he became first abbot. The church was consecrated, so the legend runs, in 948, by Christ himself assisted by the Four Evangelists, St. Peter. In 1274 the abbey, with its dependencies, was created an independent principality by Rudolf I of Germany and it continued independent until 1798, the year of the French invasion.
The abbey is now what is termed an abbey nullius, the abbot having quasi-episcopal authority over the territory where the monastery is built. For the learning and piety of its monks, Einsiedeln has been famous for a thousand years, the study of letters and music have greatly flourished there, and the abbey has contributed largely to the glory of the Benedictine Order. In the 16th century the religious disturbances caused by the spread of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland were a source of trouble for some time. Zwingli himself was at Einsiedeln for a while, and used the opportunity for protesting against the famous pilgrimages, but the storm passed over, pilgrimages constitute one of the features for which the abbey is chiefly celebrated. The pilgrims number around one million, from all parts of Catholic Europe or even further, the statue of Our Lady from the 15th century, enthroned in the little chapel erected by Eberhard, is the object of their devotion. This chapel stands within the abbey church, in much the same way as the Holy House at Loreto, encased in marbles.
The millennium of St Meinrad was kept there with great splendour in 1861 as well as that of the Benedictine monastery in 1934, the great church has been many times rebuilt, the last time by Abbot Maurus between the years 1704 and 1719. The last big renovation ended after more than twenty years in 1997, the library contains nearly 250,000 volumes and many priceless manuscripts. The work of the monks is divided chiefly between prayer and study, at pilgrimage times the number of confessions heard is very large. In 2013 the community numbered 60 monks, attached to the abbey are a seminary and a college for about 360 pupils who are partially taught by the monks, who provide spiritual direction for six convents of Religious Sisters
Roll of arms
A roll of arms is a collection of coats of arms, usually consisting of rows of painted pictures of shields, each shield accompanied by the name of the person bearing the arms. The oldest extant armorials date to the mid 13th century, Siebmachers Wappenbuch of 1605 was an early instance of a printed armorial. Medieval armorials usually include a few hundred coats of arms, in the medieval period sometimes up to some 2,000. In the early period, the larger armorials develop into encyclopedic projects, with the Armorial général de France, commissioned by Louis XIV of France. A roll of arms arranged systematically by design, with featuring the same principal elements grouped together as a tool to aid identification, is known as an ordinary of arms. Glovers Roll is an English roll of arms from the 1240s or 1250s, the Matthew Paris Shields, not truly a roll but a set of marginal illustrations accompanying the chroniclers illuminated manuscript works, Chronica Majora and Historia Anglorum. These date from c.
1244–59, during the reign of Henry III, walfords Roll is an English roll dating from c. 1275, containing 185 coats with blazons, the Camden Roll is an English roll dating from c.1280, containing 270 painted coats,185 with blazons. The Dering Roll, dating from the late 13th century, contains 324 coats of arms and it is 8 1⁄4 inches wide by 8 feet 8 inches long. It currently resides in the British Library, the Heralds Roll is an English roll dating from c. St Georges Roll is an English roll dating from c, Charles Roll is an English roll dating from c.1285, containing 486 painted coats. Planché however names as Charless Roll a copy of a mid-13th-century roll containing nearly 700 coats drawn in pen and ink by Nicholas Charles, Lancaster Herald, Charles stated that the original had been lent to him by the Norroy King of Arms. The Lord Marshals Roll is an English roll dating from 1295, collins Roll is a roll dating from 1296, containing 598 painted coats. It currently resides at the College of Arms in London, the Falkirk Roll is an English occasional roll dating from c.
1298, containing 115 coats with blazons, listing the knights with King Edward I at Battle of Falkirk in 1298, the British Museum copy was formerly in the Treasury Chamber in Paris in 1576. The Galloway Roll is an English roll dating from 1300, containing 259 coats with blazons, Roll of Caerlaverock or Poem of Caerlaverock is a roll dating from 1300, containing 110 poetical blazons without images. Two other copies exist, made by Glover from a now-lost different original source, one at the College of Arms in London, the original was made in 1300 by English heralds during Edward Is siege of Caerlaverock Castle, Scotland. Commentary by Nicholas Harris Nicolas, The siege of Carlaverock in the XXVIII Edward I, a. D. Stirling Roll is an English roll from 1304, containing 102 coats
Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. He continued his studies while he served as a pastor in Glarus and in Einsiedeln, in 1519, Zwingli became the pastor of the Grossmünster in Zurich where he began to preach ideas on reform of the Catholic Church. In his first public controversy in 1522, he attacked the custom of fasting during Lent, in his publications, he noted corruption in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, promoted clerical marriage, and attacked the use of images in places of worship. In 1525, Zwingli introduced a new liturgy to replace the Mass. Zwingli clashed with the Anabaptists, which resulted in their persecution, historians have debated whether or not he turned Zurich into a theocracy. The Reformation spread to parts of the Swiss Confederation, but several cantons resisted. Zwingli formed an alliance of Reformed cantons which divided the Confederation along religious lines, in 1529, a war between the two sides was averted at the last moment.
Meanwhile, Zwinglis ideas came to the attention of Martin Luther and other reformers and they met at the Marburg Colloquy and although they agreed on many points of doctrine, they could not reach an accord on the doctrine of the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. In 1531 Zwinglis alliance applied an unsuccessful food blockade on the Catholic cantons, the cantons responded with an attack at a moment when Zurich was ill prepared. Zwingli was killed in battle at the age of 47 and his legacy lives on in the confessions and church orders of the Reformed churches of today. The Swiss Confederation in Huldrych Zwinglis time consisted of thirteen states as well as affiliated areas, unlike the modern state of Switzerland, which operates under a federal government, each of the thirteen cantons was nearly independent, conducting its own domestic and foreign affairs. Each canton formed its own alliances within and without the Confederation and this relative independence served as the basis for conflict during the time of the Reformation when the various cantons divided between different confessional camps.
Military ambitions gained an additional impetus with the competition to new territory and resources. The wider political environment in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries was volatile, for centuries the relationship with the Confederations powerful neighbour, determined the foreign policies of the Swiss. Nominally, the Confederation formed a part of the Holy Roman Empire, through a succession of wars culminating in the Swabian War in 1499, the Confederation had become de facto independent. During this time the mercenary pension system became a subject of disagreement, the religious factions of Zwinglis time debated vociferously the merits of sending young Swiss men to fight in foreign wars mainly for the enrichment of the cantonal authorities. At the same time, Renaissance humanism, with its universal values, within this environment, defined by the confluence of Swiss patriotism and humanism, Zwingli was born in 1484. Huldrych Zwingli was born on 1 January 1484 in Wildhaus, in the Toggenburg valley of Switzerland, to a family of farmers and his father, played a leading role in the administration of the community
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors,2500 historians and 100 translators. The encyclopedia is being edited simultaneously in three languages of Switzerland, German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002, the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in, Biographies Articles on families and it makes accessible, for free, all articles ready for publication in print, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered, lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh. It includes articles not available in the other languages, the first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available