The SoHo Playhouse is an Off-Broadway theatre at 15 Vandam Street in the Hudson Square area of Manhattan. The theatre opened in 1962 as the Village South Theatre with the original production of Jean Erdman's musical play The Coach with the Six Insides, based upon James Joyce's last novel Finnegans Wake; the following year Edward Albee used profits from Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? to establish the Playwrights’ Unit at the Village South Theatre. The theatre closed in 1970, with its last production being Michael Preston Barr and Dion McGregor's musical Who's Happy Now?. It did still house plays for various off-Broadway productions under the simple name of 15 Van Dam, it reopened in as the SoHo Playhouse in 1994 with a production of the play Grandma Sylvia's Funeral, which ran for four years. It has since served as an Off-Broadway receiving house
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
Beatnik was a media stereotype prevalent throughout the 1950s to mid-1960s that displayed the more superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s. Elements of the beatnik trope included pseudo-intellectualism, drug use, a cartoonish depiction of real-life people along with the spiritual quest of Jack Kerouac's autobiographical fiction. In 1948, Kerouac introduced the phrase "Beat Generation", generalizing from his social circle to characterize the underground, anticonformist youth gathering in New York at that time; the name came up in conversation with John Clellon Holmes, who published an early Beat Generation novel titled Go, along with the manifesto This Is the Beat Generation in The New York Times Magazine. In 1954, Nolan Miller published his third novel Why I Am So Beat, detailing the weekend parties of four students; the adjective "beat" was introduced to the group by Herbert Huncke, though Kerouac expanded the meaning of the term. "Beat" came from underworld slang—the world of hustlers, drug addicts and petty thieves, where Allen Ginsberg and Kerouac sought inspiration.
"Beat" was slang for "beaten down" or downtrodden, but to Kerouac and Ginsberg, it had a spiritual connotation as in "beatitude." Other adjectives discussed by Holmes and Kerouac were "found" and "furtive." Kerouac felt. In "Aftermath: The Philosophy of the Beat Generation," Kerouac criticized what he saw as a distortion of his visionary, spiritual ideas: The Beat Generation, a vision that we had, John Clellon Holmes and I, Allen Ginsberg in an wilder way, in the late Forties, of a generation of crazy, illuminated hipsters rising and roaming America, serious and hitchhiking everywhere, beatific, beautiful in an ugly graceful new way—a vision gleaned from the way we had heard the word "beat" spoken on street corners on Times Square and in the Village, in other cities in the downtown city night of postwar America—beat, meaning down and out but full of intense conviction. We'd heard old 1910 Daddy Hipsters of the streets speak the word that way, with a melancholy sneer, it never meant juvenile delinquents, it meant characters of a special spirituality who didn't gang up but were solitary Bartlebies staring out the dead wall window of our civilization...
Kerouac explained what he meant by "beat" at a Brandeis Forum, "Is There A Beat Generation?", on November 8, 1958 at New York's Hunter College Playhouse. The seminar's panelists were Kerouac, James A. Wechsler, Princeton anthropologist Ashley Montagu and author Kingsley Amis. Wechsler and Amis wore suits, while Kerouac was clad in black jeans, ankle boots and a checkered shirt. Reading from a prepared text, Kerouac reflected on his beat beginnings: It is because I am Beat, that is, I believe in beatitude and that God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten son to it... Who knows, but that the universe is not one vast sea of compassion the veritable holy honey, beneath all this show of personality and cruelty? Kerouac's statement was published as "The Origins of the Beat Generation". In that article, Kerouac noted how his original beatific philosophy had been ignored amid maneuvers by several pundits, among them San Francisco newspaper columnist Herb Caen, to alter Kerouac's concept with jokes and jargon: I went one afternoon to the church of my childhood and had a vision of what I must have meant with "Beat"... the vision of the word Beat as being to mean beatific...
People began to call themselves beatniks, jazzniks, bugniks, I was called the "avatar" of all this. In light of what he considered beat to mean and what beatnik had come to mean, Kerouac once observed to a reporter, "I'm not a beatnik, I'm a Catholic", showing the reporter a painting of Pope Paul VI and saying, "You know who painted that? Me." In her memoir, Minor Characters, Joyce Johnson described how the stereotype was absorbed into American culture: "Beat Generation" sold books, sold black turtleneck sweaters and bongos and dark glasses, sold a way of life that seemed like dangerous fun—thus to be either condemned or imitated. Suburban couples could have beatnik parties on Saturday nights and drink too much and fondle each other's wives. Kerouac biographer Ann Charters noted that the term "Beat" was appropriated to become a Madison Avenue marketing tool: The term caught on because it could mean anything, it could be exploited in the affluent wake of the decade's extraordinary technological inventions.
For example, advertisements by "hip" record companies in New York used the idea of the Beat Generation to sell their new long playing vinyl records. Lee Streiff, an acquaintance of many members of the movement who went on to become one of its chroniclers, believed that the news media saddled the movement for the long term with a set of false images: Reporters are not well versed in artistic movements, or the history of literature or art, and most are certain that their readers, or viewers, are of limited intellectual ability and must have things explained in any case. Thus, the reporters in the media tried to relate something, new to preexisting frameworks and images that were only vaguely appropriate in their efforts to explain and simplify. With a variety of oversimplified and conventional formulas at their disposal, they fell back on the nearest stereotypical approximation of what the phenomenon resembled, as they saw it, and worse, they did not see it and at that. They got a quotation here and a photograph there — and it was their job to wrap it up in a comprehensible package — and if it seemed to violate the prevailin
The Public Theater
The Public Theater is a New York City arts organization founded as the Shakespeare Workshop in 1954 by Joseph Papp, with the intention of showcasing the works of up-and-coming playwrights and performers. It is led by Executive Director Patrick Willingham; the venue opened in 1967, mounting the world-premiere production of the musical Hair as its first show. The Public is headquartered at 425 Lafayette Street in the former Astor Library in Lower Manhattan; the building holds five theater spaces and Joe's Pub, a cabaret-style venue used for new work, musical performances, spoken-word artists and soloists. The Public operates the Delacorte Theater in Central Park, where it presents Shakespeare in the Park, one of New York City's most beloved summer traditions. New York natives and visitors alike have been enjoying free Shakespeare in Central Park since performances began in 1954; the Public is dedicated to embracing the complexities of contemporary society and nurturing both artists and audiences, as it continues Joseph Papp's legacy of creating a place of inclusion and a forum for ideas.
Notable productions in recent years include: The Merchant of Venice, featuring Al Pacino as Shylock. In addition to each season of full-scale theatrical productions, The Public produces a number of different series and programs each year. In 2008, The Public presented its inaugural Public LAB series, an annual series of new plays presented in collaboration with LAByrinth Theater Company. Public LAB lets New Yorkers see more of the work they love from The Public in scaled-down productions, allows The Public to support more artists, as well as gives audiences immediate access to new plays in development at affordable prices. With each Public LAB show, corresponding speaker series are presented as after-show talkbacks to discuss prominent themes and topics in the plays. A number of plays that have appeared in the Public LAB series have gone onto full-scale productions, including Tracey Scott Wilson’s The Good Negro, which ran at The Public in 2009, Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson, which had a sold-out, thrice-extended off-Broadway run at The Public in the spring of 2010 and transferred to Broadway that fall.
Public LAB was expanded in 2011 to include Public LAB SHAKESPEARE, a vital new platform for The Public's ongoing exploration of the Shakespeare canon that continues the growth of The Public's Shakespeare Initiative and expand the many ways The Public produces American interpretations of Shakespeare. The premiere production of Public LAB SHAKESPEARE was Timon of Athens in March 2011, featuring Richard Thomas in the title role. In 2013, The Public launched the Mobile Shakespeare Unit run by Director of Special Artistic Projects Stephanie Ybarra, which tours free Shakespeare to various locations throughout the five boroughs, including prisons, homeless shelters, community centers, before concluding its run at the Public Theater itself. Past venues include Rikers Island, Borden Avenue's Veteran's Shelter, The Fortune Society; the Public launched its inaugural Public Works production in 2013. Public Works combines diverse groups of people throughout the five boroughs of New York City to watch theatre, participate in theatrical workshops, perform in one full-scale Public Works production alongside professional actors at Shakespeare in the Park.
Past Public Works productions include The Tempest, The Winter's Tale, The Odyssey. The Public Forum, begun in 2010, is an exciting series of lectures and conversations that showcase leading voices in the arts and the media. Curated by Jeremy McCarter, a senior writer at Newsweek, Public Forum events explore issues raised by plays in The Public's season, as well as the political and cultural headlines of today's world. In keeping with the best traditions of The Public, the Forum hosts a wide diversity of views and brings the theater into contact with the society around it. Notable participants in the series include Stephen Sondheim, Tony Kushner, Arianna Huffington, Alec Baldwin and Anne Hathaway; the Public hosts the annual Under the Radar Festival, a festival tracking new theater from around the world. Over the last 12 years, The Public's Under the Radar Festival has presented over 194 companies from 40 countries, it has grown into a landmark of the New York City theater season and is a vital part of The Public's mission, providing a high-visibility platform to support artists from diverse backgrounds who are redefining the act of making theater.
Recognized as a premier launching pad for new and cutting-edge performance from the U. S. and abroad, UTR has presented works by such respected artists as Elevator Repair Service, Gob Squad, Belarus Free Theatre, Young Jean Lee. These artists provide a snapshot of theater today: richly distinct in terms of perspectives and social practice, pointing to the future of the art form; the Public serves as the home of the Emerging Writers Group, which seeks to target playwrights at the earliest stages in their careers. In so doing, The Public hopes to create an artistic home for a diverse and exceptionally talented group of up-and-coming playwrights. Through the Emerging Writers Group, The Public continues its rich legacy of supporting current and future generations of our country's most important writers via The Public Writers Initiative – a long-term initiative that provides key support and resources for writers at every stage of their careers; the Public Writers Initiative creates a fertile community and fosters a web of supportive artistic relationships acros
Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In
"Medley: Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In" is a medley of two songs written for the 1967 musical Hair by James Rado and Gerome Ragni, Galt MacDermot, released as a single by American R&B group The 5th Dimension. The song peaked at number one for six weeks on the US Billboard Hot 100 pop singles chart in the spring of 1969; the single topped the American pop charts and was certified platinum in the US by the RIAA. Instrumental backing was written by Bill Holman and provided by session musicians known as the Wrecking Crew; the actual recording is something of a "rarity". The song listed at number 66 on Billboard's "Greatest Songs of All Time"; the recording was helmed by veteran American producer and engineer Bones Howe, who had worked with the 5th Dimension as well as the Mamas & the Papas and Elvis Presley. As Howe tells it, the recording can be traced to an incident in which 5th Dimension lead singer Billy Davis Jr. left his wallet in a New York City cab. It's the best thing ever.'" Howe was skeptical, but after seeing the show on stage got the idea to create a medley with another musical moment from the show, a few bars from the song "The Flesh Failures" that consist of the repeated words "let the sunshine in."
Although the two song fragments are in different keys and tempos, Howe resolved to "jam them together like two trains."The instrumental track was set to tape at Wally Heider Recording in Los Angeles by the Wrecking Crew rhythm section of Hal Blaine on drums, Joe Osborn on bass, Larry Knechtel on keyboards, Tommy Tedesco on guitar along with guitarist Dennis Budimir. However, the vocals were recorded separately in Las Vegas, where the 5th Dimension was performing at the time, using only two microphones for the five singers. Davis' solo during "Let the Sunshine In" was improvised during the session, it reached the top of the sales charts in Canada and elsewhere. Billboard ranked it as the No. 2 Hot 100 single for 1969. The recording won both the Grammy Award for Record of the Year and Best Pop Vocal Performance by a Group for the Grammy Awards of 1970, after being published on the album The Age of Aquarius by the 5th Dimension, being released as a seven-inch vinyl single record; the lyrics of this song were based on the astrological belief that the world would soon be entering the "Age of Aquarius", an age of love and humanity, unlike the current "Age of Pisces".
The exact circumstances for the change are "When the moon is in the seventh house, Jupiter aligns with Mars." This change was presumed to occur at the end of the 20th century. Their proposed dates range from 2062 to 2680. Astrologer Neil Spencer denounced the lyrics as "astrological gibberish", noting that Jupiter forms an astrological aspect with Mars several times a year and the moon is in the 7th House for two hours every day; these lines are considered by many to be poetic license, though some people take them literally. The American Film Institute's 100 Years...100 Songs list, published in 2004, ranked "Medley: Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In" as number 33. The crowd at the Woodstock Festival sang the song; the recording is featured on the double album Woodstock Two. Donna Summer Donna Gaines, was cast in the German version of the musical singing the lead in Wassermann, in 1968. Checkmates, Ltd. released a version of the song as part of "The Hair Anthology Suite" on their 1969 album, Love Is All We Have to Give.
Ray Stevens recorded. Cilla Black recorded the song for her 1969 studio album Surround Yourself with Cilla. Engelbert Humperdinck recorded a cover of the song on his 1969 self-titled album. Andy Williams released a version in 1969 on his album. Mercy released a version of the song on their 1969 album, Love Can Make You Happy. Diana Ross recorded a cover on the Supremes' 1969 Let the Sunshine In album but, without The Supremes; the instrumental band the Ventures covered the medley on their 1969 album Hawaii Five-O. "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In" was covered by the Osmonds on the 1970 album, Hello! The Osmond Brothers; the Undisputed Truth recorded a version called "Aquarius" for their 1971 self-titled LP. Charles Earland, a jazz Hammond organ player, recorded a version of this song in his album Black Talk. George Shearing, a piano player, recorded a version of the song in 1974 on the album The Way. Ren Woods sang the song in the opening scene of the 1979 film adaption of the play. A soundtrack album was subsequently released, which featured her version as the first track on the A side.
Pop-gabber Dutch band Party Animals covered "Aquarius" on their debut album Good Vibrations in 1996. The single was certified Plat
Italian Americans are citizens of the United States of America who are of Italian descent. Italian Americans are the fourth largest ethnic group of European Americans behind German Americans, Irish Americans and English Americans. About 5.5 million Italians immigrated to the United States from 1820 to 2004. In 1870, there were fewer than 25,000 Italian immigrants in America, many of them Northern Italian refugees from the wars that accompanied the Risorgimento—the struggle for Italian unification and independence from foreign rule which ended in 1871. Immigration began to increase during the 1870s, when more than twice as many Italians immigrated than during the five previous decades combined; the 1870s were followed by the greatest surge of immigration, which occurred between 1880 and 1914 and brought more than 4 million Italians to the United States, the majority being from Southern Italy and Sicily, with many having agrarian backgrounds. This period of large-scale immigration ended abruptly with the onset of the First World War in 1914 and, except for one year, never resumed.
Further immigration was limited by several laws Congress passed in the 1920s. 84% of the Italian immigrants came from Southern Italy and Sicily, still rural and agricultural, where much of the populace had been impoverished by centuries of foreign misrule, an oppressive taxation system imposed after Italian unification in 1861. After unification, the Italian government encouraged emigration to relieve economic pressures in the South. After the American Civil War, which resulted in over a half million killed or wounded, immigrant workers were recruited from Italy and elsewhere to fill the labor shortage caused by the war. In the United States, most Italians began their new lives as manual laborers in eastern cities, mining camps and farms; the descendants of the Italian immigrants rose from a lower economic class in the first generation to a level comparable to the national average by 1970. The Italian community has been characterized by strong ties to family, the Roman Catholic Church, fraternal organizations, political parties.
Italian navigators and explorers played a key role in the exploration and settlement of the Americas by Europeans. Christopher Columbus, the explorer who first reached the Americas in 1492–1504, was Italian. Another notable Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, who explored the east coast of South America between 1499 and 1502, is the source of the name America. England's claims in North America were based on the voyages of the Italian explorer John Cabot and his son Sebastian Cabot in the early 16th century. In 1524 the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to map the Atlantic coast of today's United States, to enter New York Bay. A number of Italian navigators and explorers in the employ of Spain and France were involved in exploring and mapping their territories, in establishing settlements. In 1539, Marco da Nizza, explored the territory that became the states of Arizona and New Mexico; the first Italian to reside in America was Pietro Cesare Alberti, a Venetian seaman who, in 1635, settled in what would become New York City.
A small wave of Protestants, known as Waldensians, who were of French and northern Italian heritage, occurred during the 17th century. The first Waldensians began arriving around 1640, with the majority coming between 1654 and 1663, they spread out across what was called New Netherland, what would become New York, New Jersey and the Lower Delaware River regions. The total American Waldensian population that immigrated to New Netherland is unknown. Henri de Tonti, together with the French explorer LaSalle, explored the Great Lakes region. De Tonti founded the first European settlement in Illinois in 1679, in Arkansas in 1683. With LaSalle, he co-founded New Orleans, was governor of the Louisiana Territory for the next 20 years, his brother Alphonse de Tonty, with French explorer Antoine Cadillac, was the co-founder of Detroit in 1701, was its acting colonial governor for 12 years. Spain and France were Catholic countries and sent many missionaries to convert the native American population. Included among these missionaries were numerous Italians.
In 1519-25, Alessandro Geraldini was the first Catholic bishop in the Americas, at Santo Domingo. Father François-Joseph Bressani labored among the Algonquin and Huron Indians in the early 17th century. Between 1687 and 1711, the southwest and California were explored and mapped by Italian Jesuit priest Eusebio Kino; the Taliaferro family from Venice, was one of the first families to settle in Virginia. Francesco Maria de Reggio, an Italian nobleman who served under the French, came to Louisiana in 1751 where he held the title of Captain General of Louisiana until 1763. Another colonial, merchant Francis Ferrari of Genoa, was naturalized as a citizen of Rhode Island in 1752, he died in 1753 and in his will speaks of Genoa, his ownership of three ships, cargo of wine and his wife Mary, who went on to own one of the oldest coffee houses in America, the Merchant Coffee House of New York on Wall Street at Water St. Her Merchant Coffee House moved across Wall Street in 1772, retaining the same patronage.
Today, the descendants of the Alberti/Burtis, Fonda, Reggio an
Lee Strasberg was a Polish-American actor and theatre practitioner. He co-founded, with directors Harold Clurman and Cheryl Crawford, the Group Theatre in 1931, hailed as "America's first true theatrical collective". In 1951 he became director of the nonprofit Actors Studio in New York City, considered "the nation's most prestigious acting school," and in 1966 he was involved in the creation of Actors Studio West in Los Angeles. Although other regarded teachers developed "the Method," Strasberg is considered the "father of method acting in America," according to author Mel Gussow, from the 1920s until his death in 1982 "he revolutionized the art of acting by having a profound influence on performance in American theater and film." From his base in New York, he trained several generations of theatre and film notables, including Anne Bancroft, Dustin Hoffman, Montgomery Clift, James Dean, Marilyn Monroe, Jane Fonda, Julie Harris, Paul Newman, Ellen Burstyn, Al Pacino, Geraldine Page, Eli Wallach, directors Frank Perry and Elia Kazan.
By 1970 Strasberg had become less involved with the Actors Studio and, with his third wife, opened the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute with branches in New York City and in Hollywood, to continue teaching the'system' of Konstantin Stanislavski, which he had interpreted and developed in light of the ideas of Yevgeny Vakhtangov, for contemporary actors. The institute's primary stated goal was "to reach a larger audience of eager and emerging talent" than was served by the Actors Studio's notoriously selective admission process, as teachers of the method began to deploy their own personal interpretations of the discipline, "to dispel growing confusion and misrepresentation of the method, preserving what had by now become fundamental discoveries in actor training." The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute has its own rigorous sets of entrance criteria required for admission into their program. Former student Elia Kazan directed James Dean in East of Eden, for which Kazan and Dean were nominated for Academy Awards.
As a student, Dean wrote that Actors Studio was "the greatest school of the theater the best thing that can happen to an actor." Playwright Tennessee Williams, writer of A Streetcar Named Desire, said of Strasberg's actors, "They act from the inside out. They communicate emotions they feel, they give you a sense of life." Directors such as Sidney Lumet, a former student, have intentionally used actors skilled in Strasberg's "method."Kazan, in his autobiography, wrote, "He carried with him the aura of a prophet, a magician, a witch doctor, a psychoanalyst, a feared father of a Jewish home.... was the force that held the thirty-odd members of the theatre together, made them'permanent.'" Today, Ellen Burstyn, Al Pacino, Harvey Keitel lead this nonprofit studio dedicated to the development of actors and directors. As an actor, Strasberg is best known for his supporting role as gangster Hyman Roth alongside his former student Pacino in The Godfather Part II, a role he took at Pacino's suggestion after Kazan turned down the role, which earned him a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.
He appeared in... And Justice for All. Strasberg's personal papers, including photos, are archived at the Library of Congress. Lee Strasberg was born Israel Strassberg in Budzanów in Austrian Poland, to Jewish parents, Baruch Meyer Strassberg and his wife, Ida, née Diner, was the youngest of three sons, his father emigrated to New York while his family remained in their home village with an uncle, a rabbinical teacher. His father, who worked as a presser in the garment industry, sent first for his eldest son and his daughter. Enough money was saved to bring over his wife and his two remaining sons. In 1909 the family was reunited on Manhattan's Lower East Side, where they lived until the early'20s. Young Strasberg took refuge in voracious reading and the companionship of his older brother, whose death in the 1918 influenza epidemic was so traumatic for the young Strasberg that, despite being a straight-A student, he dropped out of high school. A relative introduced him to the theatre by giving him a small part in a Yiddish-language production being performed by the Progressive Drama Club.
He joined the Chrystie Street Settlement House's drama club. Philip Loeb, casting director of the Theater Guild, sensed that Strasberg could act, although he was not yet thinking of a full-time acting career, was still working as a shipping clerk and bookkeeper for a wig company; when he was 23 years old, he enrolled in the Clare Tree Major School of the Theater. He became a naturalized United States citizen on January 16, 1939, in New York City at the New York Southern District Court. Kazan biographer Richard Schickel described Strasberg's first experiences with the art of acting: He dropped out of high school, worked in a shop that made hairpieces, drifted into the theater via a settlement house company and... had his life-shaping revelation when Stanislavski brought his Moscow Art Theatre to the United States in 1923. He had seen good acting before, of course, but never an ensemble like this with actors surrendering their egos to the work.... E observed, first of all, that all the actors, whether they were playing leads or small parts, worked with the same commitment and intensity.
No actors idled about preening. More important, every actor seemed to project some sort of unspoken, yet palpable, inner life for his or her character; this was acting of a sort that on