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Gerrha may refer to Ancient Egyptian city and former bishopric Gera Gerrha was an ancient city of Eastern Arabia, on the west side of the Persian Gulf. Prior to Gerrha, the area belonged to the Dilmun civilization, conquered by the Assyrian Empire in 709 BC. Gerrha was the center of an Arab kingdom from 650 BC to circa 300 AD; the kingdom was under threat of attack by Antiochus III the Great in 205–204 BC, but his forces renounced hostilities once they received a tribute of 500 silver talents from the inhabitants. Strabo described the city as having "fancy tools made out of gold and silver, such as the family gold, right triangles, their drinking glass, let alone their large homes which have their doors, roofs filled with colors, gold and holy stones" To the Ancient Greeks, eastern Arabia was known as Gerrha after its capital city. Gerrha was a Greek alteration of the name of the largest city of ancient Bahrayn. Other English spellings are Hajar Hasa' Hajarah. Hagar is not to be confused with the west Arabian Al-Hijr, the present-day Mada'in Saleh or al-Ula near the Red Sea.

Al-Hamdani says. Another location suggested as Gerrha is Thaj, built in the period of the Greeks, after the conquest of Alexander in 330 B. C; the city of Gerrha was taken by the Qarmatians at the end of the ninth century. It was 2 miles from the Persian Gulf near present-day Hofuf; the researcher Abdulkhaliq Al Janbi argued in his book that Gerrha was most the ancient city of Hajar, located in modern-day Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Al-Janbi's theory is the most accepted one by modern scholars, although there are some difficulties with this argument, given that Al-Ahsa is 60 km inland and thus less to be the starting point for a trader's route, making a location within the archipelago of islands comprising the modern Kingdom of Bahrain the main island of Bahrain itself, another possibility; as Gerrha is located in the Arabian Peninsula, there's no doubt that the city's inhabitants were Arab. Strabo described the inhabitants as "Chaldean migrants from Babylon", who build their houses of salt and repaired them by the application of salt water.

Other sources agree. Petroglyphs were found in Greece and were found to have been sent by a man from Gerrha called Taym Al Lat, undoubtedly an Arab name. Chaldea Eastern Arabia Bibby, Geoffrey. Looking for Dilmun. Collins, London. ISBN 0-00-211475-5. Potts, D. T.. The Arabian Gulf in Antiquity Volume II: From Alexander the Great to the Coming ofIslam. Oxford, Clarendon Press

Richard Arkless

Richard Lambert Thomas Arkless is a Scottish National Party politician, elected as MP for Dumfries and Galloway at the 2015 UK general election. He lost his seat at the following election in 2017. Arkless was born in Stranraer in 1975, he spent an early part of his childhood living in London. He returned to Stranraer, he received a BA in Financial Services from Glasgow Caledonian University and has an LLB from the University of Strathclyde. Arkless began to advocate Scottish independence after the 2007 Scottish Parliament election in which the SNP were elected as a minority government for the first time. After a year, he said the SNP were "doing a pretty good job"; when the SNP won a majority in the 2011 Scottish Parliamentary election, he said in a May 2015 interview with The National, "I began to research the figures – the GDP and tax-take – and I was and utterly astonished. I couldn't believe that Scotland had a higher per capita GDP, much higher per capita tax-take over each of the last thirty-five years.

I was flabbergasted and asked myself why I had believed the opposite all my life without every trying to make it evidence based."Standing for the SNP at the 2015 United Kingdom general election, Arkless received 23,440 votes, 41.4% of those cast, winning with a majority of 6,514 votes. He defeated Labour's Russell Brown, who had held the Dumfries and Galloway seat since its creation ten years prior in 2005, his wife Anne worked as his personal assistant. Arkless lost his seat in the UK 2017 general election to conservative MP Alister Jack, he received 32.4 % of those cast. Arkless left his job as a solicitor to run an online business. Personal webpage Profile on SNP website Richard Arkless on TwitterProfile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou

Aponeurosis of the abdominal external oblique muscle

The aponeurosis of the abdominal external oblique muscle is a thin but strong membranous structure, the fibers of which are directed downward and medially. It is joined with that of the opposite muscle along the middle line, covers the whole of the front of the abdomen. In the middle line, it interlaces with the aponeurosis of the opposite muscle, forming the linea alba, which extends from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis; that portion of the aponeurosis which extends between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle is a thick band, folded inward, continuous below with the fascia lata. The portion, reflected from the inguinal ligament at the pubic tubercle is attached to the pectineal line and is called the lacunar ligament. From the point of attachment of the latter to the pectineal line, a few fibers pass upward and medialward, behind the medial crus of the superficial inguinal ring, to the linea alba. In the aponeurosis of the external oblique above the pubic crest, is a triangular opening, the superficial inguinal ring, formed by a separation of the fibers of the aponeurosis in this situation.

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 410 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy "Anatomy diagram: 25466.086-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01. Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-2—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Anatomy photo:35:07-0102 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior Abdominal Wall: The External Abdominal Oblique Muscle" Anatomy image:7028 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center

Buckley v. Haddock

Buckley v. Haddock, 292 F. App'x 791, was a case involving excessive force used upon Jesse Buckley by Deputy Sheriff Jonathan Rackard. Deputy Rackard used an electronic control device, or Taser, three times on Buckley because he was resisting arrest; the case was brought against the Sheriff of Washington County, Hon. Bobby Haddock, in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida; the District Court ruled in favor of Buckley, but the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit reversed, ruling in favor of Deputy Rackard. Buckley was stopped by Deputy Rackard on the night of March 2004 for speeding on the highway. After being pulled over, Buckley was issued a traffic citation that he refused to sign, stating that he was homeless and could not afford the ticket. In accordance with Florida state law, Buckley was required to sign the citation. Deputy Rackard warned Buckley that he would be arrested if he did not comply. Buckley still was handcuffed and removed from his vehicle.

Once in handcuffs, Buckley refused to stand. Deputy Rackard was unable to move him. Rackard proceeded to warn Buckley. After having his commands ignored two more times, Deputy Rackard discharged his Taser into Buckley, two separate times at five second intervals. Rackard, still unable to get Buckley off of the ground, called for backup. Upon returning from calling for backup, Rackard again asked Buckley to get off the ground, tased him for a third and final time when his request was ignored. After Rackard's backup arrived, Buckley agreed to be taken into custody. Buckley pleaded no contest to refusing to sign the speeding ticket and one count of resisting arrest without violence, he brought a lawsuit claiming both physical and emotional injury due to excessive force used in his arrest. The following can be found in the Washington County Sheriff's Office Policy and Procedures Manual regarding the use of Tasers against subjects who are placed under arrest, stating that Tasers May be used to control a dangerous or violent subject when deadly physical force does not appear to be justified and/or necessary.

Buckley brought his case to the United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida in September 2008. He alleged that deputy Rackard used excessive force against him in his arrest, resulting in sixteen burn marks he suffered from the three Taser attacks; the case was presided over by Judge Richard Smoak. The court ruled in favor of Buckley; the court judged that Buckley, having been handcuffed, showed no danger of flight or to Rackard, that the use of the Taser three times was wholly unnecessary. Smoak stated that a precedent for Buckley's case was made in Lee v. Feraro 2002, where the plaintiff was pulled from her vehicle for a minor traffic violation and injured when the arresting officer slammed her head onto the trunk of her car. Lee v. Ferraro established factors that needed to be considered in deciding whether the law enforcement official's use of force is constitutional: The need for the force The relation between the need and amount of force used The extent of the injury inflictedSmoak stated that "it may be arguable that one application of the Taser was appropriate.

Haddock's office appealed the case to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit in September 2008. The appellate panel consisted of the Hon. J. L. Edmonson, Hon. Beverly Martin, Hon. Joel F. Dubina; the court overturned the District Court's ruling in a 2–1 vote, saying that Rackard was within his rights to subdue Buckley. The court stated that, despite being handcuffed, Buckley could have still posed a potential risk of flight or attack since his legs were not restrained, that keeping both him and the officer on the side of a highway posed the danger of both of them being injured by traffic, they stated that Buckley's passive resistance caused Rackard and the assisting officers to be unavailable for more serious situations, should one have arisen that required their immediate dispatch. Judge Edmonson was the most vehement in his defense of Deputy Rackard, stating that: It was night-time, on the side of a highway, with considerable passing traffic Buckley was "resisting" The Taser was used only after repeated warnings to BuckleyIn addition, Judge Edmonson asserted that because of Buckley's unique response, he had created a situation without precedent, meaning that the officer had no previous cases with which to judge if "his actions were improper".

Chief Judge Dubina agreed that while the force was excessive, Deputy Rackard was still entitled to qualified immunity because of the lack of precedent. Judge Martin dissented, arguing that though no precedent existed, the officer should have known his actions were wrong, stating: I conclude that at the time of the incident, Deputy Rackard was on fair notice that his conduct was unconstitutional Because our law establishes such conduct as unconstitutional, I would affirm the district court's denial of qualified immunity and allow this action to proceed. Judge Martin, in her dissent, agreed with the District Court's initial ruling, stating that Buckley was not only unnecessarily harmed, but not given adequate time to comply with Rackard's orders after being tased, she suggested p

Raspberry leaf spot

Raspberry leaf spot is a plant disease caused by Sphaerulina rubi, an ascomycete fungus. Early symptoms of infection are dark green spots on young leaves; as the disease progresses, these spots turn gray in color. Disease management strategies for raspberry leaf spot include the use of genetically resistant raspberry plant varieties and chemical fungicide sprays. Raspberries are an important fruit grown in Washington and California. Although they are grown in the Midwest and northeastern states, the output is not nearly as great due to the colder weathers and shorter growing seasons. S. rubi prefers warmer and wetter conditions, which can make raspberry production difficult in California. A raspberry leaf spot infection causes dark green circular spots on the upper side of young leaves, which will turn tan or gray; these spots are 1–2 mm in diameter, but can get as big as 4–6 mm. More severe infections can cause leaves to drop prematurely in early fall. Due to the loss of leaves, infected raspberries are more susceptible to winter injury.

As a result, raspberry leaf spot may not only reduce yield in season, but cause lasting consequence into the next season. The symptoms of raspberry leaf spot are similar to the symptoms of Raspberry Anthracnose; the best way to differentiate between the two fungal diseases is to inspect the stems of the plant. Stem lesions are indicative of raspberry anthracnose. In 1943, it was discovered; the pathogen had been blamed for leaf spot on blackberry and dewberry. However and Wilcox demonstrated the raspberry pathogen could not cause leaf spots on blackberry or dewberry; the similar pathogens were differentiated as perfect and imperfect, as the blackberry leaf spot pathogen didn't have a known sexual stage. In spring, when conditions are favorable, ascospores are discharged from perithecia that have overwintered in fallen leaves and canes and disseminate to infect young leaves of raspberry plants. Once infected, the raspberry leaf serves as a nutrient source for the fungus to begin producing secondary inoculum, or conidia, within pycnidia, a survival structure that protects the spores.

Conidia can undergo re-infect other nearby plants. When the leaves of the raspberry plant begin to fall, perithecia form in the fallen tissue where asci and ascospores will be produced and protected until the following spring; the perithecia are black. The ascospores are characterized by a cylindrical, curved shape and are pointed at both ends with four septate usually. S. rubi grows optimally in humid conditions. In general, the conidia of S. rubi are disseminated through rain. With these favorable conditions, the fungus can cause secondary infections more thus leading to a more serious outbreak. Furthermore, because the fungus produces pycnidia, a survival structure that contains conidia, it can survive in a range of temperatures, although the fungus grows optimally at 27 °C or 80 °F. Provided that there is adequate moisture, the conidia from the pycnidia will be able to disseminate via wind and rain. Raspberry leaf spot infections will be more severe in parts of the United States that are climatically warmer and more humid.

Genetic resistance is the preferred disease management strategy because it allows farmers to minimize chemical intervention. Less pesticide and fungicide can encourage biological control agents, reduce production costs, minimize the chemical residues in fruit; some genetic varieties of raspberry are better than others for the control of leaf spot. Nova and Jewel Black are both resistant varieties, while Prelude and Honey Queen Golden Raspberry have some resistance, but can be susceptible depending on environmental conditions. Reiville, Canby and Anne are the most susceptible varieties. Cultural practices are important for the management of raspberry leaf spot. Sanitation, which includes the removal of all plant debris and infected canes in the fall, reduces places for the pathogen to overwinter. Pruning the raspberry plants and planting in rows will allow for airflow to dry leaves, creating an uninviting environment for fungi. Furthermore, air flow circulation is important for reducing successful infection.

Lastly, avoid wounding the plants, as this may provide the fungus with an opportunity to infect. Raspberry is the third most popular berry in the United States. In the US, per capita consumption of fresh raspberries was 0.27 pounds in 2008 with frozen raspberry consumption adding 0.36 pounds. Although there is a high demand for raspberries, growers find it difficult to grow them. Not only are they fastidious when it comes to general requirements for survival, but they tend to be susceptible to disease. Raspberry leaf spot can be a debilitating disease if conditions are favorable. If defoliation does occur due to raspberry leaf spot, the outcome can be economically devastating for the farmer. Defoliation would cause the loss of the plant's ability to photosynthesize, thus, the fruit would be lost shortly after. Yield for raspberries can be anywhere from 0 to 6,000 pounds/acre, typical yields being 4,000 to 5,000 pounds/acre. With an input cost of $4,000, raspberries are a risky endeavor. Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database

Glenn Grothman

Glenn S. Grothman from Glenbeulah, Wisconsin is the Republican member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Wisconsin's 6th congressional district. Grothman served in the Wisconsin State Assembly, representing the 58th Assembly District from 1993 until 2005, served as the vice chair of the Assembly's Republican caucus from 1999 to 2004, as a member of the Wisconsin Senate from the 20th district from 2005–15, Assistant Majority Leader of the Wisconsin Senate from 2011-15. Grothman graduated from Homestead High School in Mequon in 1973. In 1978, he graduated from the University of Wisconsin-Madison with a bachelor of business administration degree, he received his J. D. degree from the University of Wisconsin Law School in 1983, was admitted to the bar, became an attorney with a firm in West Bend. Grothman was elected to the 58th Assembly District in a special election held in December 1993. From 1999 to 2004, he was the Assembly Majority Caucus Vice Chairperson. In 2004, he challenged State Senate Majority Leader Mary Panzer in the Republican primary.

He ran well to Panzer's right. He won the nomination in a rout, he was unopposed in the general election for this Republican district. The district included the city of West Bend, other parts of Washington County, parts of Fond du Lac, Dodge and Ozaukee counties. From 2007-08, he was the Senate Minority Caucus Chairperson, he has been the assistant Republican leader since 2009, serving as assistant minority leader from 2009–10, as assistant majority leader since 2011. Grothman is a member of the American Legislative Exchange Council. Grothman was a vocal proponent of SB11, a controversial bill proposed by Governor Scott Walker in early 2011, he has said. In a recent press interview, he said that he did not "find it impressive" that over 70,000 protesters marched on the capitol. During the protests, Grothman was cornered by 200 pro-union protesters yelling "Shame! Shame!" Outside the state capitol building. Grothman said he was not concerned about violence at the time, adding that, "They're loud, they'll give you the finger, they yell at you, but I think deep down inside they're just college kids having fun, just like they're having fun sleeping with their girlfriends on air mattresses.

That's the guts of that crowd." He described the protesters as "a different breed of person" and "a bunch of slobs taking up the building."During this time, Grothman advocated the hiring of more business-friendly individuals to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. In doing so, he went out of his way to single out one of the University of Wisconsin campuses as a target: "Maybe you look to hire those people who know what the real world is like, rather than a recent graduate from UW-Stevens Point who doesn't know what the real world is like." This was only days before appearing at UW–Stevens Point with the Joint Finance Committee for a day of hearings on Scott Walker's budget bill. Grothman was subject to a recall effort in the spring of 2011, but the effort failed, collecting only 75% of the required signatures. During the recall, Grothman supporters gathered hundreds of signatures for a giant "Thank You" card for Grothman. On April 3, 2014, Grothman announced he would run in that year's Republican primary for Wisconsin's 6th congressional district against 17-term incumbent Tom Petri.

He positioned himself well to Petri's right. Grothman did not have to give up his state senate seat to run for Congress. Petri announced shortly. Grothman remained in the race. Grothman's longtime home in West Bend was located in the 5th District, represented by fellow Republican Jim Sensenbrenner. However, his state senate district included much of the southeastern portion of the congressional district. In the summer of 2014, Grothman moved to Campellsport, a suburb of Fond du Lac, located in the 6th District. In the general election, Grothman defeated the Democratic nominee, Winnebago County Executive Mark Harris, with 57 percent of the vote. In 2018, Grothman won re-election against a challenge from Democratic nominee Dan Kohl earning 55.5% of votes. Committee on the Budget Committee on Education and the Workforce Subcommittee on Early Childhood and Secondary Education Subcommittee on Health, Employment and Pensions Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government Operations Subcommittee on Transportation and Public Assets Joint Economic Committee Republican Study Committee The Washington Post has described Grothman as "a shambling, strident conservative with a Trumpian tell-it-like-it-is streak who votes with the House GOP leadership".

Grothman believes the kindergarten program for 4-year-olds should be defunded by Governor Scott Walker, making a false claim that any academic benefits disappear by the fourth grade. In reality, the debate is far from settled and there is more evidence supporting pre-K programs' effectiveness than the opposite. An advocate of Second Amendment rights, Grothman is a long-time supporter of concealed carry legislation, but does not advocate allowing concealed weapons in taverns, he believes concealed carry laws would deter criminal behavior, with permits being awarded to law-abiding citizens who pass a gun safety course. Grothman co-introduced 2011 SB 93, signed into