The Morning Call
The Morning Call is a daily newspaper based in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The Morning Call serves a nine-county region of eastern Pennsylvania and western New Jersey and is the largest circulation newspaper of the Lehigh Valley, the third most populous region of Pennsylvania, it ranks among the nation's top 100 largest-circulation daily newspapers, with circulation of 80,548 daily readers and 119,216 Sunday readers. The newspaper is owned by Tribune Publishing, whose other publications include the Chicago Tribune, The Baltimore Sun, Orlando Sentinel, Sun-Sentinel, Hartford Courant, Daily Press and The Virginian-Pilot; the Morning Call's history goes back to 1883 when an Allentown newspaper, was founded. The editor and chief reporter of The Critic was Samuel S. Woolever. In what would become a family dynasty that would oversee the company for four decades, in 1894 Muhlenberg College senior David A. Miller went to work for The Critic as its sole reporter, its owners were Charles Weiser and Kirt W. DeBelle, business manager.
A reader contest was involved in the naming of the newspaper when, in late 1894, the company said that a school boy or girl in Lehigh County would receive $5 in gold if he or she could guess the publication's new name. The identity of the lucky winner is lost on Jan.. 1, 1895, Allentown City Treasurer A. L. Reichenbach, who had supervised the contest, read out the new name: "The Morning Call." That same year, David A. Miller and his brother Samuel Miller were able to purchase their first shares of The Morning Call, it was the start of a series of stock buyouts that would leave the newspaper in the hands of the Miller brothers by 1904. In that nine-year period, the Miller brothers worked to gather subscribers. In one case, David A. Miller attended a corn husking party and had every family there signed up by the time he left. By 1920, World War I and the work of the Millers had raised circulation to 20,000. A series of newspaper mergers that year, funded by Gen. Harry Clay Trexler, led to the Millers' sale of The Morning Call to the Trexler interests.
It was only after Trexler's death in 1933, at the urging of David A. Miller's sons, Donald P. and Samuel W. that David A. Miller returned to the newspaper in 1934. In 1935 The Morning Call acquired the sole remaining Allentown newspaper, the Chronicle and News, renamed it the Evening Chronicle. In 1938 the Sunday Call-Chronicle was first published. In 1951, David A. Miller assumed the official title of president of the Call-Chronicle newspapers, he would keep that post until his death in 1958 at the age of 88. That September his sons and Samuel, were named publishers. After Samuel's death in 1967, Donald P. Miller continued to run the newspaper, he did so with his son, Edward D. Miller, until the late 1970s when Edward became executive editor and publisher; the Evening Chronicle went to press for the last time in 1980. In 1981 Edward D. Miller left the newspaper, Donald P. Miller returned as chairman; the publisher and chief executive officer was Bernard C. Stinner, they retained control of the newspaper until 1984, when it was sold to The Times Mirror Company, joining the Los Angeles Times, The Baltimore Sun, the Hartford Courant and Southern Connecticut Newspapers Inc. publishers of the Stamford Advocate and Greenwich Times.
Gary K. Shorts was publisher and chief executive officer from 1987 until succeeded by Guy Gilmore in 2000. Susan Hunt was named publisher in June 2001. In 2000, Times Mirror was acquired by the Tribune Company, merging 11 newspapers, 22 television stations, four radio stations, a cable TV company, Tribune Interactive. In September 1996, The Morning Call launched mcall.com. In February 2006, Timothy R. Kennedy was named publisher. In 2010, Timothy E. Ryan, the publisher and CEO of The Baltimore Sun Media Group became The Morning Call’s publisher and CEO. In August 2014, The Morning Call became part of the company now known as tronc, Inc. as Tribune Co. spun-off its publishing businesses. In January 2016, Richard Daniels, president & CEO of the Hartford Courant Media Group, became publisher & CEO of The Morning Call after serving in that role on an interim basis since September 2015. In March 2016, editor David M. Erdman was elevated to the dual role of Publisher & Editor-in-Chief of The Morning Call.
In May 2016, Erdman retired after a 35-year career with the company. Robert York, a San Diego Union-Tribune executive whose newspaper career includes taking photos, editing and advertising, was named the new Publisher & Editor-in-Chief and started in that role in August 2016. York vacated the role in July 2018 to become Editor-in-Chief of the New York Daily News. In August 2018, Theresa Rang was named interim Editor-in-Chief of "The Morning Call," a role she filled until being named Editor-in-Chief in January 2019. In February 2019, Timothy J. Thomas, an executive with the Baltimore Sun Media Group for two decades, was named interim general manager of The Morning Call Media Group; the Morning Call in store and distribution box prices are: $2.50 Saturday & Sunday. The Morning Call is one of the 9 newspapers. Media in the Lehigh Valley Official website
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Christopher Nicholas Sarantakos, known by the stage name Criss Angel, is an American magician and musician. Angel began his career in New York City, before moving his base of operations to the Las Vegas Valley, he is known for starring in the television and stage show Criss Angel Mindfreak and his previous live performance illusion show Criss Angel Believe in collaboration with Cirque du Soleil at the Luxor casino in Las Vegas. The show generated $150 million in tourist revenue to Las Vegas in 2010, but has since been replaced by Mindfreak LIVE on 11 May 2016, he starred in the television series Criss Angel BeLIEve on Spike TV, the reality-competition television show Phenomenon on NBC, the 2014 stage show Criss Angel Magicjam. Angel has been on primetime television for more hours than any other magician in history, between his television series and various specials on cable and network television, he holds multiple world-records made during his magic performances, was named Magician of the Decade in 2009 and Magician of the Century in 2010 by the International Magicians Society.
In addition to his career as an illusionist, Angel was the lead singer for his industrial band Angeldust, which released five albums between 1998 and 2003. He authored the book Mindfreak: Secret Revelations. Criss Angel was born on December 19, 1967, at Hempstead General Hospital in Hempstead, on Long Island, New York, he is of Greek descent. Angel was raised in Elmont until fourth grade, when his family moved to New York, his father, John Sarantakos, owned a doughnut shop. He developed an interest in magic at age seven and performed his first show at the age of twelve, for which he was paid $10, his main early influence was Harry Houdini. By fourteen, Angel was performing throughout high school at restaurants in East Meadow, including the Wine Gallery. Angel's first major illusion was making his mother float in their family den. Early in his career he was helped by animal breeder and reality-television host Marc Morrone, who helped Angel find and train a set of doves for his act. By the time he graduated from East Meadow High School, he had decided to pursue a career as a professional magician instead of attending college as his parents wanted.
According to Biography Channel, "Angel hit the road and began touring with other traveling performance acts. Between traveling and performing, he attempted to further his education in his own by studying the history of magic in public libraries, he studied the art of mysticism, martial arts and dance." Angel has said that, "I stayed away from magicians when I was younger because I didn't want to think like them and wanted to create my own style." His first television appearance was in 1994, where he performed as a part of a one-hour ABC primetime special entitled Secrets. One of the early supporters of Angel was horror director Clive Barker. In 1995, Barker asked Angel to work with him on his film Lord of Illusions, he later recorded the intro to Angel's album World of Illusion: System One. Barker said of Angel in the mid-1990s that, "Criss Angel is extraordinary, a spectacular mix of visionary magic; this is the future, it can't come enough." During that year, he collaborated with musician Klayton to form Angeldust, a show that combined magic with music.
They released their first album Musical Conjurings from the World of Conjuring in 1998. That year, Angel performed a ten-minute show over the course of the "World of Illusion" conference in Madison Square Garden, performing sixty shows per day. However, by 2000, Klayton's name was removed from Angel's website. Angel starred in the 1997 television movie The Science of Magic and its 2003 sequel The Science of Magic II. Criss Angel Mindfreak, which would become Angel's first television series, was an off-Broadway show by Angel, which in 2001 was picked up by the World Underground Theatre; when not performing the show, Angel worked the streets promoting the show to pedestrians. Criss Angel Mindfreak ran for more than 600 performances between 2001 and 2003 at the World Underground Theater in Times Square, his twenty-four hours in a tank of water set a world record for the longest amount of time for a human to be submerged under water. This performance would become a part of his first television special.
Angel has been known to discourage a belief in mediumship, stating that there is no way for mediums to speak with people beyond the dead. He has said, ``, that's one thing, but if they claim to be communicating with the dead, I don't care if they're from my hometown, I don't care if they're my family members: I'll expose them and tell them what they are." In August 2002, Angel spent 24 hours shackled underwater in a phone booth-sized water torture cell near the WWE entertainment store in New York's Times Square, WWE corporation being the owners of the World Underground Theatre where Angel had been performing his stage show. To prepare for the trick, he practiced in a neighbor's backyard swimming pool next to his mother's house in East Meadow, New York. Prior to the performance he had only managed to spend 12 consecutive hours in the water, he fasted for 24 hours before the performance to make it through the period without need to exit and use the washroom. During the trick he went through 16 oxygen tanks.
After the trick he was required to remove his own chains before exiting the water. Within an hour, his skin began to react to the water. At the end of the performance, according to Ted Shaffrey, "Before he emerged from the phone
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Mentalism is a performing art in which its practitioners, known as mentalists, appear to demonstrate developed mental or intuitive abilities. Performances may appear to include hypnosis, clairvoyance, precognition, mediumship, mind control, memory feats and rapid mathematics. Mentalists are sometimes categorized as psychic entertainers, although that category contains non-mentalist performers such as psychic readers and bizzarists. Much of what modern mentalists perform in their acts can be traced back directly to "tests" of supernatural power that were carried out by mediums and psychics in the 19th century. However, the history of mentalism goes back further. Accounts of seers and oracles can be found in works by the ancient Greeks and in the Old Testament of the Bible. Among magicians, the mentalism performance cited as one of the earliest on record was by diplomat and pioneering sleight-of-hand magician Girolamo Scotto in 1572; the performance of mentalism may utilize these principles along with sleights, feints and other skills of street or stage magic.
Styles of presentation can vary greatly. Traditional performers such as Dunninger and Annemann attributed their results to supernatural or psychic skills; some contemporary performers, such as Derren Brown, attribute their results to natural skills, such as the ability to read body language or to manipulate the subject subliminally through psychological suggestion. Others, including Chan Canasta and David Berglas would make no specific claims but leave it up to the audience to decide. Contemporary mentalists take their shows onto the streets and perform tricks to a live, unsuspecting audience, they do this by approaching random members of the public and ask to demonstrate their supernatural powers. Performers such as Derren Brown who adopt this method of performance tell their audience before the trick starts that everything they see is an illusion and that they are not "having their mind read." This has been the cause of a lot of controversy in the sphere of magic as some mentalists want their audience to believe that this type of magic is'real' whilst others think that it is morally wrong to lie to a spectator.
Mentalists do not mix "standard" magic tricks with their mental feats. Doing so associates mentalism too with the theatrical trickery employed by stage magicians. Many mentalists claim not to be magicians at all, arguing that it is a different art form altogether; the argument is that mentalism invokes belief and when presented properly, is offered as being "real" be it a claim of psychic ability, or proof that supports other claims such as a photographic memory, being a "human calculator", the power of suggestion, NLP, etc. Mentalism plays on a spectator's perception of tricks. Magicians ask the audience to suspend their disbelief and allow their imagination to play with the various tricks they present, they admit that they are tricksters and entertainers, know the audience understands it's an illusion and the magician cannot achieve the impossible feats shown, such as sawing a person in half and putting them back together without injury. However, many magicians mix mentally-themed performance with magic illusions.
For example, a mind-reading stunt might involve the magical transposition of two different objects. Such hybrid feats of magic are called mental magic by performers. Magicians who mix magic with mental magic include David Copperfield, David Blaine, The Amazing Kreskin, Dynamo.. Notable mentalists who mix magic with mentalism include The Amazing Kreskin, Richard Osterlind, David Berglas, Derren Brown, Joseph Dunninger. Mentalism techniques have, on occasion, been used outside the entertainment industry to influence the actions of prominent people for personal and/or political gain. Famous examples of accused practitioners include: Erik Jan Hanussen, alleged to have influenced Adolf Hitler Grigori Rasputin, alleged to have influenced Tsarina Alexandra Wolf Messing, alleged to have influenced Joseph Stalin Count Alessandro di Cagliostro, accused of influencing members of the French aristocracy in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace"The Amazing Kreskin" has audience members hide his cheques before the show.
Eric Dittelman, a mind reader, performed on Season 7 of the NBC talent competition America's Got Talent. He made it to the semifinals, was the first mentalist to be featured on the show. Cristian Gog, a mentalist, won the big prize on Romania's Got Talent. Tricks of the Mind: a British TV show starring Derren Brown Pasąmonės Kontrolė: Kobra TV Channel by Nicholas Kin Katherine Mills: Mind Games: a British TV show Spidey Mentalist performed on Penn & Teller: Fool Us on CW and Wizard Wars on SyFy The Mentalist: an American crime procedural television series in which the main character, Patrick Jane, worked as an independent consultant for the California Bureau of Investigation and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, solving serious crimes by using his skills of observation and his frequent use of his abilities as a former professional mentalist. Psych: an American criminal comedy television series in which the main character, Shawn Spencer, works as a consultant to the Santa Barbara Police Department as a "psychic detective."
Though he purports to be a psychic, the truth is that his exceptional observational skills, amazing vision, near-photographic memory allow him to portray himself as such. Now You See Me: Merritt McKinney, played by Woody Harrelson, performs as a mentalist. Pretham: John Don Bosco, played by Jayasurya, performs as a mentalist in the Malayalam movie released in August 2016. Raju Gari Gad
Rolex SA is a Swiss luxury watch manufacturer based in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded as Wilsdorf and Davis by Hans Wilsdorf and Alfred Davis in London, England in 1905, the company registered Rolex as the brand name of its watches in 1908 and became Rolex Watch Co. Ltd. in 1915. After World War I, the company moved its base of operations to Geneva, Switzerland in order to avoid heavy taxation from a recovering post-war Britain, in 1920 Hans Wilsdorf registered Montres Rolex SA in Geneva as the new company name which became Rolex SA in years. Since 1960, the company has been owned by a private family trust. Rolex SA and its subsidiary Montres Tudor SA design, manufacture and service wristwatches sold under the Rolex and Tudor brands. In 2018, Forbes ranked Rolex as the world's 71st most valuable brand; as of 2018, among the world's top ten most expensive watches sold at auctions, three are Rolex watches. In particular, Paul Newman's Rolex Daytona holds the title of the most expensive wristwatch and the second most expensive watch sold at auction, fetching 17.75 million US dollars in New York on October 26, 2017.
Alfred Davis and his brother-in-law Hans Wilsdorf founded Wilsdorf and Davis, the company that would become Rolex S. A. in London, England in 1905. Wilsdorf and Davis' main commercial activity at the time involved importing Hermann Aegler's Swiss movements to England and placing them in watch cases made by Dennison and others; these early wristwatches were sold to many jewellers, who put their own names on the dial. The earliest watches from Wilsdorf and Davis were hallmarked "W&D" inside the caseback. In 1908, Wilsdorf registered the trademark "Rolex", which became the brand name of watches from Wilsdorf and Davis, opened an office in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Wilsdorf wanted his watch brand's name to be pronounceable in any language, he thought that the name "Rolex" was onomatopoeic, sounding like a watch being wound. It is pronounceable in many languages and, as all its upper-case letters have the same size and can be written symmetrically, it was short enough to fit on the face of a watch.
In 1914, Kew Observatory awarded a Rolex watch a Class A precision certificate, a distinction granted to marine chronometers. In November 1915, the company changed its name to Rolex Watch Co. Ltd. After World War I, Hans Wilsdorf left England in 1919 due to heavy post-war taxes levied on luxury imports, as well as to the high cost driven by exporting duties on the silver and gold used for the watch cases; as a result, Wilsdorf moved the company to Geneva, where the company's name was changed to Montres Rolex S. A. in 1920, to Rolex S. A in years. Upon the death of his wife in 1944, Wilsdorf established the Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, a private trust, in which he left all of his Rolex shares, making sure that some of the company's income would go to charity. Wilsdorf passed away in 1960, since the trust has owned and run Rolex SA. In December 2008, following the abrupt departure of Chief Executive Patrick Heiniger for "personal reasons", Rolex SA denied that it had lost 1 billion Swiss francs invested with Bernard Madoff, the American asset manager who pleaded guilty to an £30 billion worldwide Ponzi scheme fraud.
The company announced Heiniger's death on March 5, 2013. Rolex SA is owned by the private Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, registered as a charity and does not pay corporate income taxes. In 2011, a spokesman for Rolex declined to provide evidence regarding the amount of charitable donations made by the Wilsdorf Foundation. In Geneva where the company is based, it is said to have gifted, among many things, two housing buildings to social institutions of Geneva. According to the 2017 Brand Z report, the brand value is estimated $8.053 billion. Rolex watches continue to have a reputation as status symbols, it produces more than 800,000 timepieces each year. Rolex SA offers products under the Tudor brands. Montres Tudor has designed and marketed Tudor watches since 6 March 1946. Rolex founder Hans Wilsdorf conceived of the Tudor Watch Company to create a product for authorized Rolex dealers to sell that offered the reliability and dependability of a Rolex, but at a lower price; the number of Rolex watches was limited by the rate that they could produce in-house Rolex movements, thus Tudor watches were equipped with off-the-shelf movements while using similar quality cases and bracelets.
Tudor watches have been manufactured by Montres Tudor SA using movements supplied by ETA SA. Since 2015, Tudor has begun to manufacture watches with in-house movements; the first model introduced with a in-house movement was the Tudor North Flag. Following this, updated versions of the Tudor Pelagos and Tudor Heritage Black Bay have been fitted with an in-house caliber. Tudor watches are marketed and sold in most countries around the world including the United States, Canada, Mexico, South Africa, some countries in Europe including the UK, South Asia, the Middle East and countries in South America Brazil and Venezuela. Montres Tudor SA discontinued sales of Tudor-branded watches in the United States in 2004, but Tudor returned to the United States market in the summer of 2013 and to the UK in 2014. One of Rolex's company slogans is "A Crown for Every Achievement". Rolex produced mechanical watches, but it has participated in the development of the original quartz watch movements. Although Rolex has made few quartz models for its Oyster line, the company's engineers were instrumental in design and implementation