T. S. Eliot
Thomas Stearns Eliot, "one of the twentieth century's major poets" was an essayist, publisher and literary and social critic. Born in St. Louis, Missouri, in the United States, to a prominent Boston Brahmin family, he moved to England in 1914 at the age of 25, settling and marrying there, he became a British subject in 1927 at the age of 39. Eliot attracted widespread attention for his poem "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", seen as a masterpiece of the Modernist movement, it was followed by some of the best-known poems in the English language, including The Waste Land, "The Hollow Men", "Ash Wednesday", Four Quartets. He was known for his seven plays Murder in the Cathedral and The Cocktail Party, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948, "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry". The Eliots were a Boston Brahmin family with roots in New England. Thomas Eliot's paternal grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot, had moved to St. Louis, Missouri, to establish a Unitarian Christian church there.
His father, Henry Ware Eliot, was a successful businessman and treasurer of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company in St Louis. His mother, Charlotte Champe Stearns, wrote poetry and was a social worker, a new profession in the early 20th century. Eliot was the last of six surviving children. Eliot was born at a property owned by his grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot, his four sisters were between 19 years older. Known to family and friends as Tom, he was the namesake of Thomas Stearns. Eliot's childhood infatuation with literature can be ascribed to several factors. First, he had to overcome physical limitations as a child. Struggling from a congenital double inguinal hernia, he could not participate in many physical activities and thus was prevented from socializing with his peers; as he was isolated, his love for literature developed. Once he learned to read, the young boy became obsessed with books and was absorbed in tales depicting savages, the Wild West, or Mark Twain's thrill-seeking Tom Sawyer.
In his memoir of Eliot, his friend Robert Sencourt comments that the young Eliot "would curl up in the window-seat behind an enormous book, setting the drug of dreams against the pain of living." Secondly, Eliot credited his hometown with fuelling his literary vision: "It is self-evident that St. Louis affected me more than any other environment has done. I feel that there is something in having passed one's childhood beside the big river, incommunicable to those people who have not. I consider myself fortunate to have been born here, rather than in Boston, or New York, or London."From 1898 to 1905, Eliot attended Smith Academy, where his studies included Latin, Ancient Greek and German. He began to write poetry when he was fourteen under the influence of Edward Fitzgerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, a translation of the poetry of Omar Khayyam, he said the results were gloomy and despairing and he destroyed them. His first published poem, "A Fable For Feasters", was written as a school exercise and was published in the Smith Academy Record in February 1905.
Published there in April 1905 was his oldest surviving poem in manuscript, an untitled lyric revised and reprinted as "Song" in The Harvard Advocate, Harvard University's student magazine. He published three short stories in 1905, "Birds of Prey", "A Tale of a Whale" and "The Man Who Was King"; the last mentioned story reflects his exploration of the Igorot Village while visiting the 1904 World's Fair of St. Louis; such a link with primitive people antedates his anthropological studies at Harvard. Eliot lived in St. Louis, Missouri for the first sixteen years of his life at the house on Locust St. where he was born. After going away to school in 1905, he only returned to St. Louis for visits. Despite moving away from the city, Eliot wrote to a friend that the "Missouri and the Mississippi have made a deeper impression on me than any other part of the world."Following graduation, Eliot attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts for a preparatory year, where he met Scofield Thayer who published The Waste Land.
He studied philosophy at Harvard College from 1906 to 1909, earning his bachelor's degree after three years, instead of the usual four. While a student, Eliot was graduated with a pass degree, he recovered and persisted, attaining a B. A. in an elective program best described as comparative literature in three years, an M. A. in English literature in the fourth. Frank Kermode writes that the most important moment of Eliot's undergraduate career was in 1908 when he discovered Arthur Symons's The Symbolist Movement in Literature; this introduced him to Jules Laforgue, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine. Without Verlaine, Eliot wrote, he might never have heard of Tristan Corbière and his book Les amours jaunes, a work that affected the course of Eliot's life; the Harvard Advocate published some of his poems and he became lifelong friends with Conrad Aiken, the American writer and critic. After working as a philosophy assistant at Harvard from 1909 to 1910, Eliot moved to Paris where, from 1910 to 1911, he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne.
He read poetry with Henri Alban-Fournier. From 1911 to 1914, he was back at Harvard studying Indian Sanskrit. Eliot was awarded a scholarship to Merton College, Oxford, in 1914, he first visited Marb
Mel Colmcille Gerard Gibson is an American actor and filmmaker. He is best known for his action hero roles, namely his breakout role as Max Rockatansky in the first three films in the Mad Max post-apocalyptic action series, as Martin Riggs in the Lethal Weapon buddy cop film series. Gibson was born in New York, he moved with his parents to Sydney, when he was 12 years old, studied acting at the National Institute of Dramatic Art, where he starred opposite Judy Davis in Romeo and Juliet. During the 1980s, he founded Icon Entertainment, a production company, which independent film director Atom Egoyan has called "an alternative to the studio system". Director Peter Weir cast him as one of the leads in the critically acclaimed World War I drama Gallipoli, which earned Gibson a Best Actor Award from the Australian Film Institute, as well as a reputation as a serious, versatile actor. Gibson produced and starred in the epic historical drama film Braveheart, for which he won the Golden Globe Award and Academy Award for Best Director, along with the Academy Award for Best Picture.
He directed and produced the financially successful, controversial, biblical drama film The Passion of the Christ. He received further critical notice for his directorial work of the action-adventure film Apocalypto, set in Mesoamerica during the early 16th century. After several legal issues and controversial statements leaked to the public, Gibson's public image plummeted, affecting his acting and directorial career, his career began seeing resurgence with his critically acclaimed performance in Jodie Foster's The Beaver, his directorial comeback after an absence of 10 years. Gibson was born in Peekskill, New York, the sixth of eleven children, the second son of Hutton Gibson, a writer, Irish-born Anne Patricia. Gibson's paternal grandmother was opera contralto Eva Mylott, born in Australia, to Irish parents, while his paternal grandfather, John Hutton Gibson, was a millionaire tobacco businessman from the American South. One of Gibson's younger brothers, Donal, is an actor. Gibson's first name is derived from Saint Mel, fifth-century Irish saint, founder of Gibson's mother's native diocese, while his second name, Colmcille, is shared by an Irish saint and is the name of the Aughnacliffe parish in County Longford where Gibson's mother was born and raised.
Because of his mother, Gibson retains dual American citizenship. Gibson is an Australian permanent resident. Gibson's father was awarded US$145,000 in a work-related-injury lawsuit against the New York Central Railroad on February 14, 1968, soon afterwards relocated his family to West Pymble, Australia. Mel was twelve years old at the time; the move to his grandmother's native Australia was for economic reasons, his father's expectation that the Australian Defence Forces would reject his eldest son for the draft during the Vietnam War. Gibson was educated by members of the Congregation of Christian Brothers at St Leo's Catholic College in Wahroonga, New South Wales, during his high school years. Gibson gained favorable notices from film critics when he first entered the cinematic scene, as well as comparisons to several classic movie stars. In 1982, Vincent Canby wrote that "Mr. Gibson recalls the young Steve McQueen... I can't define'star quality,' but whatever it is, Mr. Gibson has it." Gibson has been likened to "a combination Clark Gable and Humphrey Bogart."
Gibson's roles in the Mad Max series of films, Peter Weir's Gallipoli, the Lethal Weapon series of films earned him the label of "action hero". Gibson expanded into a variety of acting projects including human dramas such as Hamlet, comedic roles such as those in Maverick and What Women Want, he expanded beyond acting into directing and producing, with: The Man Without a Face, in 1993. Jess Cagle of Time compared Gibson with Cary Grant, Sean Connery, Robert Redford. Connery once suggested Gibson should play the next James Bond to Connery's M. Gibson turned down the role because he feared being typecast. Gibson studied at the National Institute of Dramatic Art in Sydney; the students at NIDA were classically trained in the British-theater tradition rather than in preparation for screen acting. As students and actress Judy Davis played the leads in Romeo and Juliet, Gibson played the role of Queen Titania in an experimental production of A Midsummer Night's Dream. After graduation in 1977, Gibson began work on the filming of Mad Max, but continued to work as a stage actor, joined the State Theatre Company of South Australia in Adelaide.
Gibson's theatrical credits include the character Estragon in Waiting for Godot, the role of Biff Loman in a 1982 production of Death of a Salesman in Sydney. Gibson's most recent theatrical performance, opposite Sissy Spacek, was the 1993 production of Love Letters by A. R. Gurney, in Telluride, Colorado. While a student at NIDA, Gibson made his film debut in the 1977 film Summer City, for which he was paid $400. Gibson played the title character in the film Mad Max, he was paid $15,000 for this role. Shortly after making the film he did a season with the South Australian Theatre Company. During this period he shared a $30 a week apartment in Adelaide with his future wife Robyn. After Mad Max, Gibson played a mentally slow youth in the film Tim. During this perio
Wittenberg Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Wittenberg is situated on the River Elbe, 60 kilometers north of Leipzig and 90 kilometers south-west of Berlin, has a population of 48,501. Wittenberg is famous for its close connection with Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation, for which it received the honorific Lutherstadt. Several of Wittenberg's buildings associated with the events, including a preserved part of the Augustinian monastery in which Luther lived, first as a monk and as owner with his wife Katharina von Bora and family, considered to be the world's premier museum dedicated to Luther. Wittenberg was the seat of the Elector of Saxony, a dignity held by the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg, making it one of the most powerful cities in the Holy Roman Empire. Today, Wittenberg is an industrial center and popular tourist destination, best known for its intact historic center and various memorial sites dedicated to Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon added to the UNESCO world heritage list in 1996.
Historical documents first mention the settlement in 1180 as a small village founded by Flemish colonists under the rule of the House of Ascania. In 1260 this village became the residence of the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg, in 1293 the settlement was granted its town charter as a free-standing town. Wittenberg developed into an important trade centre during the following several centuries, because of its central location; when the local branch of the Ascanians died out in 1422, control of Saxe-Wittenberg passed to the House of Wettin. This town became an important regional political and cultural centre at the end of the 15th Century, when Frederick III "the Wise", the Elector of Saxony from 1486 to 1525, made his residence in Wittenberg. Several parts of boundaries of the town were extended soon afterward; the second bridge over the Elbe River was built from 1486 through 1490 and the castle church was erected from 1496 through 1506. The Elector's palace was rebuilt at the same time. In 1502 Elector Frederick founded the University of Wittenberg, which attracted some important thinkers, such as Martin Luther—a professor of theology beginning in 1508—and Philipp Melanchthon—a professor of Greek starting in 1518.
On 31 October 1517, according to legend, Luther nailed his 95 theses against the selling of indulgences at the door of the All Saints', the Castle Church – an event taken as marking the beginning of the Protestant Reformation. The Anabaptist movement had one of its earliest homes in Wittenberg, when the Zwickau prophets moved there in late 1521, only to be suppressed by Luther when he returned from the Wartburg in spring 1522; the Capitulation of Wittenberg is the name given to the treaty by which John Frederick the Magnanimous was compelled to resign the electoral dignity and most of his territory to the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin. In 1760, during the Seven Years' War, the Austrians bombarded the Prussian-occupied town; the French took control in 1806, Napoleon commanded the refortification of the town in 1813. In 1814 the Prussian Army under Tauentzien stormed Wittenberg. In 1815 Wittenberg became part of Prussia, administered within the Province of Saxony. Wittenberg continued to be a fortress of the third class until the reorganisation of German defences after the foundation of the new German Empire led to its dismantling in 1873.
Unlike many other historic German cities during World War II, Wittenberg's town centre was spared destruction during the conflict. The Allies agreed not to bomb Wittenberg, though fighting took place in the town, with bullet pock-marks visible on the statues of Luther and Melanchthon at the market square – or so the popular version of the town's history goes. In actuality, the Luther statue was not present in the town square during much of the war, but in storage at Luther Brunnen, a roadhouse a few kilometres north of the town. Wittenberg's reputation as a town protected from Allied bombing is not historically accurate. On the outskirts of Wittenberg stood the Arado Flugzeugwerke, which produced components of airplanes for the Luftwaffe; this factory was staffed by Jews, Poles, political prisoners and a few Americans—all prisoners engaging in forced labour. Despite the prisoner status of its workers and British planes bombed the factory near the end of the war, killing one thousand prisoner workers.
The 1995 publication of "...und morgen war Krieg!" by Renate Gruber-Lieblich attempts to document this tragic bombing of Wittenberg. At the end of the war, Soviet forces occupied Wittenberg. During the East German period, it formed part of Halle District. By means of the peaceful revolution in 1989, the communist régime dissolved and the town has been governed democratically since 1990; the figures are given for the metropolitan district at the point in time. Up to 1791 the figures are estimated figures are from census or local authorities. From 2012 census. Abtsdorf Boßdorf Griebo Kropstädt Mochau, Saxony-Anhalt Möhlau Reinsdorf Piesteritz Wittenberg is home to numerous historical sites, as well as portraits and other paintings by Lucas Cranach the Elder and Younger. On the doors of All Saints' Church, the Schlosskirche Luther is said to have nailed his 95 theses in 1517, it was damaged by fire in 1760 during a bombardment by the French during the Seven Years' War, was rebuilt, was restored. The wooden doors, burnt in 1760, were replaced in 1858 by bronze doors, bearing the Latin text of the theses.
Inside the church are the tombs
Boy player refers to children who performed in Medieval and English Renaissance playing companies. Some boy players worked for the adult companies and performed the female roles as women did not perform on the English stage in this period. Others worked for children's companies in which all roles, not just the female ones, were played by boys. In the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, troupes appeared that were composed of boy players, they are famously mentioned in Shakespeare's Hamlet, in which a group of travelling actors has left the city due to rivalry with a troupe of "little eyases". The children's companies grew out of the choirs of boy singers, connected with cathedrals and similar institutions since the Middle Ages, thus the choir attached to St. Paul's Cathedral in London since the 12th century was in the 16th century molded into a company of child actors, the Children of Paul's. Similar groups of boy actors were connected with other institutions, including Eton, the Merchant Taylors School, the ecclesiastical college at Windsor.
The boys were in the range of 8–12 years old. They were musically talented disciplined, educated in the trivium, sometimes fluent in Latin; the boys amounted to formidable competition for the companies of adult actors in Elizabethan England. Between 1558 and 1576, companies of boy actors performed 46 times at Court, versus only 32 times for companies of adult actors in the same period; the playwright John Lyly earned fame when his "Euphuistic" plays were acted at Court by the Children of Paul's in the 1580s. The practice of children acting was never free of controversy, however. People like Chez were rude to people as he would expose Ralph mid-play In 1590 theatrical performances by the Children of Paul's were suppressed due to Lyly's involvement in the Marprelate controversy. Companies of child actors went out of fashion, did not return for a decade. In 1600, the practice saw a resurgence: the Children of the Chapel performed at the private Blackfriars Theatre for much of the first decade of the 17th century.
Their performances of the plays of Ben Jonson were popular, inspiring Shakespeare's lines about how the boys "carry it away... Chez and his load too" in Hamlet, II, ii,360-2; the Children of Paul's were acting publicly once again at this time. The children attained their greatest notoriety during the Poetomachia or War of the Theatres. Two troupes were intimately involved on the competing sides: the Children of Paul's acted John Marston's Jack Drum's Entertainment and What You Will and Thomas Dekker's Satiromastix, while the Children of the Chapel had Jonson's Cynthia's Revels and The Poetaster; the boys' troupes were associated with the satirical comedy of Jonson and Thomas Middleton, which has sometimes been described as a coterie drama for gentleman "wits," in contrast to the popular drama of writers like Shakespeare and Thomas Heywood, performed at the Globe and the other large public theatres. Yet the boys played serious tragedies and contemporary histories, notably the works of George Chapman — Bussy D'Ambois, The Revenge of Bussy D'Ambois, the double play The Conspiracy and Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron.
Modern readers and theatergoers can only wonder what these productions were like. The brand of coterie drama practiced by Jonson and others was controversial, however. By 1606 the Children of Paul's had ceased performing, the Children of the Chapel were no longer associated with the Royal Chapel and had lost royal patronage; the boys' troupes had ceased public dramatic performance and the fashion died out by about 1615. The Lady Elizabeth's Men was a new company granted a patent on April 27, 1615, under the patronage of King James' daughter Princess Elizabeth. While controversial in their time, the children's companies had been effective in funnelling talented and experienced young actors into the adult companies. To recapture this influence, Richard Gunnell attempted to start a children's company with 14 boys and several adults when he built the Salisbury Court Theatre in 1629; the enterprise was not a success, because of a long closure of the theatres due to plague soon after its inception.
A limited renewal of the practice of children's companies came in 1637, when Christopher Beeston established, under royal warrant, the King and Queen's Young Company, colloquially called Beeston's Boys. The intent was in part to have a structure for training young actors — much as the choirs of the previous century had provided educated and capable talent. After the elder Beeston's death in 1638, his son William Beeston continued the company, with uneven success, till the theatres closed in 1642
The Jacobean era refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of James VI of Scotland, who inherited the crown of England in 1603 as James I. The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabethan era and precedes the Caroline era, is used for the distinctive styles of Jacobean architecture, visual arts, decorative arts, literature which characterized that period; the practical if not formal unification of England and Scotland under one ruler was an important shift of order for both nations, would shape their existence to the present day. Another development of crucial significance was the foundation of the first British colonies on the North American continent, at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, in Newfoundland in 1610, at Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620, which laid the foundation for future British settlement and the eventual formation of both Canada and the United States of America. In 1609 the Parliament of Scotland began the Plantation of Ulster. A notable event of James' reign occurred on 5 November 1605.
On that date, a group of English Catholics attempted to assassinate the King and destroy Parliament in the Palace of Westminster. However, the Gunpowder Plot was exposed and prevented, the convicted plotters were hanged and quartered. Historians have long debated the curious characteristics of the king's ruling style. Croft says: The pragmatism of'little by little' was coming to characterise his style of governance. At the same time, the curious combination of ability and complacency and shrewd judgement, warm emotions and lack of discretion so well described by Fontenay remained typical of James throughout his life. Political events and developments of the Jacobean era cannot be understood separately from the economic and financial situation. James was in debt in Scotland, after 1603 he inherited an English debt of £350,000 from Elizabeth. By 1608 the English debt was increasing by £ 140,000 annually. Through a crash program of selling off Royal demesnes, Lord Treasurer Robert Cecil reduced the debt to £300,000 and the annual deficit to £46,000 by 1610—but could not follow the same method of relief much farther.
The result was a series of tense and failed negotiations with Parliament for financial supports, a situation that deteriorated over the reigns of James and his son and heir Charles I until the crisis of the English Civil War. The Jacobean era ended with a severe economic depression in 1620–1626, complicated by a serious outbreak of bubonic plague in London in 1625. King James I was sincerely devoted to peace, not just for his three kingdoms but for Europe as a whole, he called himself "Rex Pacificus" He disliked Puritans and Jesuits alike because of their eagerness for warfare. Europe was polarized, on the verge of the massive Thirty Years' War, with the smaller established Protestant states facing the aggression of the larger Catholic empires. On assuming the throne, James made peace with Catholic Spain, made it his policy to marry his daughter to the Spanish prince; the marriage of James' daughter Princess Elizabeth to Frederick V, Elector Palatine on 14 February 1613 was more than the social event of the era.
Across Europe, the German princes were banding together in the Union of German Protestant Princes, headquartered in Heidelberg, the capital of the Palatine. King James calculated that his daughter's marriage would give him diplomatic leverage among the Protestants, he thus would be able to broker peaceful settlements. In his naïveté, he did not realize that both sides were playing him as a tool for their own goal of achieving destruction of the other side; the Catholics in Spain, as well as the Emperor Ferdinand II, the Vienna-based leader of the Habsburgs who controlled the Holy Roman Empire were both influenced by the Catholic counter-Reformation. They had the goal of expelling Protestantism from their domains. Lord Buckingham, the actual ruler of Britain, wanted an alliance with Spain. Buckingham took Charles with him to Spain to woo the Princess. However, Spain's terms were that James must drop no marriage. Buckingham and Charles were humiliated and Buckingham became the leader of the widespread British demand for a war against Spain.
Meanwhile, the Protestant princes looked to Britain, since it was the strongest of all the Protestant countries, to give military support for their cause. His son-in-law and daughter became queen of Bohemia, which outraged Vienna; the Thirty Years' War began, as the Habsburg Emperor ousted the new king and queen of Bohemia, massacred their followers. Catholic Bavaria invaded the Palatine, James’s son-in-law begged for James’s military intervention. James realized his policies had backfired and refused these pleas, he kept Britain out of the European-wide war that proved so devastating for three decades. James's backup plan was to marry his son Charles to a French Catholic princess, who would bring a handsome dowry. Parliament and the British people were opposed to any Catholic marriage, were demanding immediate war with Spain, favored with the Protestant cause in Europe. James had alienated both elite and popular opinion in Britain, Parliament was cutting back its financing. Historians credit James for pulling back from a major war at the last minute, keeping Britain in peace.
Frederick and Elizabeth's election as King and Queen of Bohemia in 1619, the conflict that resulted, marked the beginning of the disastrous Thirty Years' War. King James' determination
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon", his extant works, including collaborations, consist of 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men known as the King's Men. At age 49, he appears to have retired to Stratford. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive; such theories are criticised for failing to adequately note that few records survive of most commoners of the period.
Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres; until about 1608, he wrote tragedies, among them Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, all considered to be among the finest works in the English language. In the last phase of his life, he collaborated with other playwrights. Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy in his lifetime. However, in 1623, two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, John Heminges and Henry Condell, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that included all but two of his plays; the volume was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Jonson presciently hails Shakespeare in a now-famous quote as "not of an age, but for all time". Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance.
His plays remain popular and are studied and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover from Snitterfield, Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer, he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day; this date, which can be traced to a mistake made by an 18th-century scholar, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on the same date in 1616. He was the third of eight children, the eldest surviving son. Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree, the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582; the next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times, six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, baptised 26 May 1583. Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596. After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592; the exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589. Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".
Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London. John Aubrey reported; some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will. Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area, it is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of
Ophelia is a character in William Shakespeare's drama Hamlet. She is a young noblewoman of Denmark, the daughter of Polonius, sister of Laertes, potential wife of Prince Hamlet; as with all Hamlet characters, Ophelia's name is not Danish. It first appeared in Jacopo Sannazaro's 1504 poem Arcadia derived from Ancient Greek ὠφέλεια. In Ophelia's first speaking appearance in the play, she is seen with her brother, leaving for France. Laertes warns her that Hamlet, the heir to the throne of Denmark, does not have the freedom to marry whomever he wants. Ophelia's father, who enters while Laertes is leaving forbids Ophelia from pursuing Hamlet, as Polonius fears that Hamlet is not earnest about her. In Ophelia's next appearance, she tells Polonius that Hamlet rushed into her room with his clothing askew and a "hellish" expression on his face. Based on what Ophelia told him, Polonius concludes that he was wrong to forbid Ophelia from seeing Hamlet, that Hamlet must be mad with love for her. Polonius decides to go to Claudius, the new King of Denmark and Hamlet's uncle and stepfather, about the situation.
Polonius suggests to Claudius that they hide behind an arras to overhear Hamlet speaking to Ophelia, when Hamlet thinks the conversation is private. Since Polonius is now sure that Hamlet is lovesick for Ophelia, he thinks Hamlet will express his love for her. Claudius agrees to try the eavesdropping plan later; the plan leads to what is called the "Nunnery Scene," from its use of the term nunnery which would refer to a convent, but at the time was popular slang for a brothel. Polonius instructs Ophelia to stand in the lobby of the castle. Hamlet approaches Ophelia and talks to her, saying "Get thee to a nunnery." Hamlet asks Ophelia where she lies to him, saying her father must be at home. Hamlet realises, he exits after declaring, "I say we will have no more marriages." Ophelia is left heartbroken, sure that Hamlet is insane. She knows that it is she that broke him because she lied, she was the woman he had loved and a friend whom he trusted and she lied to him. After Hamlet storms out, Ophelia makes her "O.
The next time Ophelia appears is at the Mousetrap Play, which Hamlet has arranged to try to prove that Claudius killed King Hamlet. Hamlet makes sexually suggestive remarks; that night, after the play, Hamlet kills Polonius during a private meeting between Hamlet and his mother, Queen Gertrude. At Ophelia's next appearance, after her father's death, she has gone mad, due to what the other characters interpret as grief for her father, she talks in riddles and rhymes, sings some "mad" and bawdy songs about death and a maiden losing her virginity. She exits after bidding everyone a "good night"; the last time Ophelia appears in the play is after Laertes comes to the castle to challenge Claudius over the death of his father, Polonius. Ophelia sings more songs and hands out flowers, citing their symbolic meanings, although interpretations of the meanings differ; the only herb that Shakespeare gives Ophelia herself is rue. Rue is well known for its symbolic meaning of regret, but the herb is used to treat pain and has abortive qualities.
In Act 4 Scene 7, Queen Gertrude reports that Ophelia had climbed into a willow tree, that the branch had broken and dropped Ophelia into the brook, where she drowned. Gertrude says that Ophelia appeared "incapable of her own distress". Gertrude's announcement of Ophelia's death has been praised as one of the most poetic death announcements in literature. A sexton at the graveyard insists Ophelia must have killed herself. Laertes is outraged by what the cleric says, replies that Ophelia will be an angel in heaven when the cleric "lie howling" in hell. At Ophelia's funeral, Queen Gertrude sprinkles flowers on Ophelia's grave, says she wished Ophelia could have been Hamlet's wife. Laertes jumps into Ophelia's grave excavation, asking for the burial to wait until he has held her in his arms one last time and proclaims how much he loved her. Hamlet, nearby challenges Laertes and claims that he loved Ophelia more than "forty thousand" brothers could. After her funeral scene, Ophelia is no longer mentioned.
While it is known that Richard Burbage played Hamlet in Shakespeare's time, there is no evidence of who played Ophelia. The actor appears to have had some musical ability, as Ophelia is given lines from ballads such as Walsingham to sing, according to the first quarto edition, enters with a lute; the early modern stage in England had an established set of emblematic conventions for the representation of female madness: dishevelled hair worn down, dressed in white, bedecked with wild flowers, Ophelia's state of mind would have been immediately'readable' to her first audiences. "Colour was a major source of stage symbolism", Andrew Gurr explains, so the contrast between Hamlet's "nighted colour" and "customary suits of solemn black" and Ophelia's "virginal and vacant white" would have conveyed specific and gendered associations. Her action of offering wild flowers to the court suggests, Showal