France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Rider on the Rain
Rider on the Rain is a 1970 French mystery thriller film starring Charles Bronson, directed by René Clément, produced by Serge Silberman, with film music composed by Francis Lai. Opening with a quotation from Lewis Carroll to suggest that the heroine is like Alice in Wonderland, the film starts on a rainy autumn afternoon in a small resort on the south coast of France. Mellie, newly married to Toni, an airline navigator, away at work, sees a strange man get off a bus. In a shop trying on a dress to wear to a wedding next day, she sees the man spying on her; when she goes home, he ties her up and rapes her. Realising after she has freed herself that he is still in the house, she gets out a shotgun and kills him, she drives the body to a cliff and tips it into the sea, saying nothing to her jealous husband when he returns. Next day at the wedding an uninvited American called. A body has been found and he claims she killed him, which she denies; the day after that, when her husband is away again, Dobbs sneaks into their house and questions Mellie roughly.
She begins to think that the rapist had business with Toni drug related, and, why Dobbs is so persistent. She goes with him to the bank and, offers it to him, but he doesn't want money, just the truth. Next morning Mellie finds the rapist's travel bag. Sneaking into Dobbs' hotel room, she searches it and discovers that he is a US Army colonel on a secret mission, he turns up and tells her a woman who works at a restaurant in Paris has been arrested for the murder. Distraught that an innocent woman is being charged, Mellie jumps onto a plane to Paris and goes to the restaurant, who send her to where the woman's sister works; this proves to be a brothel, where three criminals question Mellie about the dead man. Dobbs, trailing her, breaks in and saves her. Taking her home, Dobbs reveals that the corpse is not that of the rapist but another man's; the rapist was an escapee from a US military prison who had attacked three women in similar fashion before Mellie. She tells him where she tipped the body, found by police frogmen.
For Dobbs the case is closed and he does not tell the police about Mellie. Nor does he mention the 60,000 dollars. In a closing homage to Alfred Hitchcock, it is revealed. Marlène Jobert - Mélancolie "Mellie" Mau Charles Bronson - Dobbs Annie Cordy - Juliette Corinne Marchand - woman Jill Ireland - Nicole Jean Piat - M. Armand Marcel Pérès - station master Gabriele Tinti - Tony Ellen Bahl - Madeline Legauff Jean Gaven - Toussaint Marc Mazza - stranger Marika Green - hostess at Tania's In 1970, the film won the Special David of the David di Donatello Awards. In 1971, it won the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film, was nominated for Best Motion Picture of the Edgar Allan Poe Awards, for the Golden Laurel. In an interview with Variety, Bronson said he learned his lines in French phonetically, so that his own voice would be heard on the soundtrack, it was the last time he did this for European films, allowing himself to be dubbed-over in all subsequent films. The film was a big hit in France, the third most popular movie of 1970.
Bronson's agent Paul Kohner said it was "the turning point for Bronson - and his best. In a few weeks, his name was so big in Europe that hundreds of theatres there were running old American pictures with the name Bronson above the title though he had played the third or fourth lead." The Los Angeles Times called the film "a spellbinding suspense and detection story, done with the kind of affectionate tip of the chapeau to the Hitchcock Hollywood mastery of the form."The Washington Post called it "one of those silk-purse-from a sow's ear exercises absorbing if you go to it casually, but a cheat if you go expecting the last word in civilised movie expense." In 2011, Wild East released Rider on the Rain on a limited-edition DVD alongside Adieu l'ami starring Charles Bronson. "Rider on the Rain" is the main theme of the original movie soundtrack. The American singer-songwriter Peggy Lee wrote English lyrics for the song, recorded it on her 1971 album Make It With You as "Passenger in the Rain".
Rider on the Rain on IMDb Rider on the Rain at AllMovie
Wanted: Babysitter is a 1975 Italian-French-German thriller–drama film directed by René Clément as his final film before his retirement in 1975. The film stars Maria Schneider, Sydne Rome, Vic Morrow, Robert Vaughn, Nadja Tiller. A naive young girl is forcefully kidnapped while babysitting the son of a wealthy food mogul, she and the boy are held hostage by a vengeful movie star. Maria Schneider as Michelle Sydne Rome as Ann Vic Morrow as Vic Robert Vaughn as Stuart Chase John Whittington as'Boots' Peter Franklin Nadja Tiller as Lotte Renato Pozzetto as Gianni Carl Möhner as Cyrus Franklin Clelia Matania as Old neighbour Marco Tulli as Inspector Trieste Armando Brancia as Inspector Carrara Wanted: Babysitter was released in French theatres on October 15, 1975; the film was released on DVD on June 1, 2004 and on January 1, 2005, May 13, 2009. Wanted: Babysitter was digitally remastered on January 2, 2015. Sadoul, Georges. Dictionary of Films. Oakland, California: University of California Press. P. 46.
ISBN 978-0520021525. Wanted: Babysitter on IMDb Wanted: Babysitter at Rotten Tomatoes
The Glass Castle (1950 film)
The Glass Castle is a 1950 French romantic drama film directed by René Clément who co-wrote the screenplay with Gian Bistolfi and Pierre Bost, based on the novel Das große Einmaleins by Vicki Baum. The film stars Jean Servais, Fosco Giachetti and Elisa Cegani; the film's sets were designed by the art director Léon Barsacq. Michèle Morgan as Evelyne Lorin-Bertal Jean Marais as Rémy Marsay Jean Servais as Laurent Bertal Fosco Giachetti as Laurent Bertal Elisa Cegani as Eléna Elina Labourdette as Marion Giovanna Galletti as Louise Morel - l'accusée André Carnège as Le secrétaire Roger Dalphin as Marcel Albert Michel as Le charmeur d'oiseaux Colette Régis as La tenancière de l'hôtel Allain Dhurtal as Le procureur Rendezvous in Paris Le Château de verre at DvdToile The Glass Castle on IMDb The Glass Castle at AllMovie
The Joy of Living
The Joy of Living is a 1961 Italian-French comedy film directed by René Clément. It was entered into the 1961 Cannes Film Festival; the story is set in Rome, in the year 1921. Ulysses enrolls in the Italian Fascist party; the first task entrusted to him by the party leads Ulysses to the printer Fossati, where he's hired as an apprentice. This brings him into contact with a family of anarchists, who will turn him into a reluctant hero for love of the beautiful Franca. However, at a time when he must make a decisive choice, Ulysses obeys neither the anarchists nor the fascists, risks his life for a different idea of freedom. Alain Delon as Ulisse Cecconato Barbara Lass as Franca Fossati Gino Cervi as Olinto Fossati Rina Morelli as Rosa Fossati Carlo Pisacane as Grandfather "Fossati" Paolo Stoppa as Hairdresser Giampiero Littera as Turiddu Didi Perego as Isabella Nanda Primavera Ugo Tognazzi as Anarchist Aroldo Tieri Luigi Giuliani Stefano Valle Jacques Stany Annibale Ninchi Franco Speziali Leopoldo Trieste Gastone Moschin The Joy of Living on IMDb
Laundry refers to the washing of clothing and other textiles. Laundry processes are done in a room reserved for that purpose. An apartment building or student hall of residence may have a shared laundry facility such as a tvättstuga. A stand-alone business is referred to as a self-service laundry; the material, being washed, or has been laundered, is generally referred to as laundry. Laundry has been part of history since humans began to wear clothes, so the methods by which different cultures have dealt with this universal human need are of interest to several branches of scholarship. Laundry work has traditionally been gendered, with the responsibility in most cultures falling to women; the Industrial Revolution led to mechanised solutions to laundry work, notably the washing machine and the tumble dryer. Laundry, like cooking and child care, is done both at home and by commercial establishments outside the home. Laundry was first done in watercourses, letting the water carry away the materials which could cause stains and smells.
Laundry is still done this way in the rural regions of poor countries. Agitation helps remove the dirt, so the laundry was rubbed, twisted, or slapped against flat rocks. One name for this surface is a beetling-stone, related to beetling, a technique in the production of linen; the dirt was beaten out with a wooden implement known as a washing paddle, battling stick, beetle or club. Wooden or stone scrubbing surfaces set up near a water supply were replaced by portable rub boards, including factory-made corrugated glass or metal washboards. Once clean, the clothes were rinsed and wrung out — twisted to remove most of the water, they were hung up on poles or clothes lines to air dry, or sometimes just spread out on clean grass, bushes, or trees. They were Ironed. Before the advent of the washing machine, laundry was done in a communal setting. Villages across Europe that could afford it built a wash-house, sometimes known by the French name of lavoir. Water was channelled from a stream or spring and fed into a building just a roof with no walls.
This wash-house contained two basins – one for washing and the other for rinsing – through which the water was flowing, as well as a stone lip inclined towards the water against which the wet laundry could be beaten. Such facilities were more convenient than washing in a watercourse; some lavoirs had the wash-basins at waist height. The launderers were protected to some extent from rain, their travel was reduced, as the facilities were at hand in the village or at the edge of a town; these facilities were public and available to all families, used by the entire village. Many of these village wash-houses are still standing, historic structures with no obvious modern purpose; the job of doing the laundry was reserved for women. Washerwomen took in the laundry of others; as such, wash-houses were an obligatory stop in many women's weekly lives and became a sort of institution or meeting place. It was a women-only space where they could discuss issues or chat. Indeed, this tradition is reflected in the Catalan idiom "fer safareig".
European cities had public wash-houses. The city authorities wanted to give the poorer population, who would otherwise not have access to laundry facilities, the opportunity to wash their clothes. Sometimes these facilities were combined with public baths, see for example Baths and wash houses in Britain; the aim was to thus reduce outbreaks of epidemics. Sometimes large metal cauldrons, were filled with fresh water and heated over a fire, as hot or boiling water is more effective than cold in removing dirt. A posser could be used to agitate clothes in a tub. A related implement called a washing dolly is "a wooden stick or mallet with an attached cluster of legs or pegs" that moves the cloth through the water; the Industrial Revolution transformed laundry technology. Christina Hardyment, in her history from the Great Exhibition of 1851, argues that it was the development of domestic machinery that led to women's liberation; the mangle was developed in the 19th century — two long rollers in a frame and a crank to revolve them.
A laundry-worker took sopping wet clothing and cranked it through the mangle, compressing the cloth and expelling the excess water. The mangle was much quicker than hand twisting, it was a variation on the box mangle used for pressing and smoothing cloth. Meanwhile, 19th-century inventors further mechanized the laundry process with various hand-operated washing machines to replace tedious hand rubbing against a washboard. Most involved turning a handle to move paddles inside a tub; some early-20th-century machines used an electrically powered agitator. Many of these washing machines were a tub on legs, with a hand-operated mangle on top; the mangle too was electrically powered replaced by a perforated double tub, which spun out the excess water in a spin cycle. Laundry drying was mechanized, with clothes dryers. Dryers were spinning perforated tubs, but they blew heated air rather than water. In the United States and Canada in the late 19th and early 20th century, the occupation of laundry worker was identified wi
L'Assommoir is the seventh novel in Émile Zola's twenty-volume series Les Rougon-Macquart. Considered one of Zola's masterpieces, the novel—a study of alcoholism and poverty in the working-class districts of Paris—was a huge commercial success and helped establish Zola's fame and reputation throughout France and the world; the novel is principally the story of Gervaise Macquart, featured in the first novel in the series, La Fortune des Rougon, running away to Paris with her shiftless lover Lantier to work as a washerwoman in a hot, busy laundry in one of the seedier areas of the city. L'Assommoir begins with Gervaise and her two young sons being abandoned by Lantier, who takes off for parts unknown with another woman. Though at first she swears off men altogether she gives in to the advances of Coupeau, a teetotal roofing engineer, they are married; the marriage sequence is one of the most famous set-pieces of Zola's work. Through a combination of happy circumstances, Gervaise is able to realise her dream and raise enough money to open her own laundry.
The couple's happiness appears to be complete with the birth of a daughter, nicknamed Nana. However in the story, we witness the downward trajectory of Gervaise's life from this happy high point. Coupeau is injured in a fall from the roof of a new hospital he is working on, during his lengthy convalescence he takes first to idleness to gluttony and to drink. In only a few months, Coupeau becomes a vindictive, wife-beating alcoholic, with no intention of trying to find more work. Gervaise struggles to keep her home together, but her excessive pride leads her to a number of embarrassing failures and before long everything is going downhill. Gervaise becomes infected by her husband’s newfound laziness and, in an effort to impress others, spends her money on lavish feasts; the home is further disrupted by the return of Lantier, warmly welcomed by Coupeau - by this point losing interest in both Gervaise and life itself, becoming ill. The ensuing chaos and financial strain is too much for Gervaise, who loses her laundry-shop and is sucked into a spiral of debt and despair.
She too finds solace in drink and, like Coupeau, slides into heavy alcoholism. All this prompts Nana - suffering from the chaotic life at home and getting into trouble on a daily basis - to run away from her parents' home and become a casual prostitute. Gervaise’s story is told against a backdrop of a rich array of other well drawn characters with their own vices and idiosyncrasies. Notable amongst these being Goujet, a young metal worker, who wastes his life in unconsummated love of the hapless laundress. Sunk by debt and alcohol Coupeau and Gervaise both die; the latter’s corpse lying for days in her unkempt hovel before it is noticed by her disdaining neighbours. Zola spent an immense amount of time researching Parisian street argot for his most realistic novel to that date, using a large number of obscure contemporary slang words and curses to capture an authentic atmosphere, his shocking descriptions of conditions in working-class 19th-century Paris drew widespread admiration for his realism, as it still does.
L'Assommoir was taken up by temperance workers across the world as a tract against the dangers of alcoholism, though Zola always insisted there was more to his novel than that. The novelist drew criticism from some quarters for the depth of his reporting, either for being too coarse and vulgar or for portraying working-class people as shiftless drunkards. Zola rejected both these criticisms out of hand; the title L'Assommoir cannot be properly translated into English. It is adapted from the French verb "assommer" meaning to knock out; the noun is a colloquial term popular in late nineteenth-century Paris, referring to a shop selling cheap liquor distilled on the premises "where the working classes could drown their sorrows cheaply and drink themselves senseless". The closest equivalent terms in English are the slang adjectives "hammered" and "plastered". In the absence of a corresponding noun, English translators have rendered it as The Dram Shop, The Gin Palace, The Drunkard, The Drinking Den.
Most translators choose to retain the original French title. L'Assommoir has been translated, there are several unexpurgated modern editions available. In the 1880s, Ernest Alfred Vizetelly produced an English language translation of the novel with some edits designed not to offend the sensibilities of British audiences. Along with his father, Vizetelly had translated a number of Zola's books. However, the salacious nature of Zola's work would see the Vizetellys vilified in parliament and prosecuted for obscenity. L'assommoir Gervaise The ‘Assommoir’ L'Assommoir The Dram Shop Drink The Dram Shop The Gin Palace L'Assommoir L'Assommoir L'Assommoir The Drinking Den The American film The