An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Things Are Tough All Over
Things are Tough All Over is a 1982 film directed by Thomas K. Avildsen and starring Tommy Chong and Cheech Marin as two hippies, additionally as Arab businessmen Mr. Slyman and Prince Habib. Cheech and Chong are driving a limo through the desert. Chong, who has decided to stop doing drugs for a while, is talking about rock and roll, Cheech is falling asleep, but Cheech is narrating over what's happening, he says that he's going to tell their story. It's an awful winter in Chicago, Cheech and Chong are poor, struggling musicians working at a car wash owned by a pair of oil-rich Arabs, Mr. Slyman and Prince Habib. After messing up on the job, the 2 are forced by the Arabs to play music at their club. Cheech and Chong try to get with the Arabs' French girlfriends, who are more in love with the stoners; the Arabs find themselves with a large sum of illegal money, which they try to get to their other business in Las Vegas. They decide to stash all the money in the seats of a limousine; the Arabs hire the stoners to drive the limousine to Las Vegas, telling them that they're sending them on a "rock tour."
Cheech and Chong at first get gas in Chicago, but when they reveal they're strapped for cash, the man at the gas station takes a piece of the car as payment. With that idea and Chong find themselves driving across the country, selling parts and pieces of the car for gas and supplies. Soon, their car becomes a wreck and looks messed up, but Cheech and Chong continue to sell parts to get by. While out in the middle of the deserts, they decide to pick up a hitchhiker, who turns out to be none other than Donna, Cheech's girlfriend; the two decide to take Donna in their messed-up limo to the nearest gas station. However, Donna is traveling with dozens of Mexicans, so the stoners end up driving all the Mexicans and Donna to the nearest gas station. To pay for gas and Chong give the old man that runs the place a chair from the limo—which unknown to them is stuffed with the Arab's money. Cheech and Chong deliver the messed-up limousine to the Arabs' other oil plant in the desert, to find no one there.
With no other transportation or money and Chong set out on foot into the desert. They wander into the burning deserts, suffering the Nevada heat, trying to get cars to stop- they remain unsuccessful. Eating peyote to survive and singing to pass the time and Chong do their best to get through the desert, though they believe they'll die from the heat. Back in Chicago, the Arabs find out that Cheech and Chong have delivered what remains of the car without any money in it. After deciding to kill them, the Arabs fly out to Nevada in their private plane and set out by car into the desert; the Arabs meet the old man at the gas station and learn that Cheech and Chong have been around, set out into the deserts. Meanwhile, while walking through the desert and Chong are picked up by the Arab's French girlfriends, who take them to an abandoned motel in the middle of the desert; the French girlfriends have sex with the stoners, are on a hidden camera film. Afterwards, the French ladies leave in their car, leaving the stoners stranded in the middle of nowhere yet again.
Meanwhile, the Arabs are having the same problem, looking for Cheech and Chong in the middle of the desert, having no idea where to go. Cheech and Chong wander through the desert again until they're picked up again, this time by comedian Rip Taylor, whose puns and props make Chong cry; the comedian drives the two into Las Vegas and drops them off at a restaurant, has them dressed up as women to cover up their rags. Cheech and Chong start to dine at the restaurant, before the Arabs show up for dinner as well, having escaped the desert. Before they can eat, all the peyote Chong consumed begins to mess with his mind. Chong becomes emotional and confused, when the Arabs begin to notice, the stoners try to escape. However, their wigs fall off, the Arabs realize it's Cheech and Chong; the Arabs chase the stoners out through the streets of Vegas. Cheech and Chong run into a women's-only porno theater with the murder-happy Arabs on their tail. In the theater, the Arabs see the showing of the hidden camera film of the stoners having sex with the Arabs' girlfriends.
While the Arabs watch, inspired and Chong escape. The stoners set out on foot to leave Las Vegas; the next day, as Cheech and Chong walk out of the city, a car pulls up, Cheech and Chong get in, to find the Arabs and their French girlfriends. At first and Chong are terrified and try to escape, but Mr. Slyman reveals that, instead of killing them, the Arabs have decided to cast the duo in porn films and launder the money through the enterprise. A happy ending, with a narrating Cheech reminding us that "hey, things are tough all over." Cheech Marin as Cheech and Mr. Slyman Tommy Chong as Chong and Prince Habib Evelyn Guerrero as Donna John Steadman as Old Timer George Wallace as The Champ Toni Attell as Cocktail Waitress Mike Bacarella as Cop in Laundromat Billy Beck as Pop Senta Moses as Kid in Laundromat Don Bovingloh as Maitre D' Richard "Moon" Calhoun as Drummer Jennifer Condos as Bass Player John Corronna as St. Louis Biker Aaron Freeman as Cop in Ghetto Mike Friedman as Car Rental Agent Maya Harman as Belly Dancer Vanaghan S. Housepian as Henchman Garth Shaw as Tourist Rip Taylor Dave Coulier Ruby Wax Rikki Marin Shelby Chong Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote, "Cheech and Chong have a good time in'Things Are Tough All Over,' and you will, too."
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
Still Smokin (film)
Still Smokin is a 1983 American comedy film by Cheech and Chong. Cheech Marin and Tommy Chong play versions of themselves being invited to Amsterdam for a film festival devoted to Burt Reynolds and Dolly Parton. After assuming that Cheech was Reynolds, the promoter soon finds out that neither Reynolds nor Parton will appear, forcing the festival to be canceled. In need of a replacement act, he goes to Cheech and Chong for help, the duo, which has not performed live on stage in several years volunteers to give a live performance. For much of the film, they do versions of many of several new skits; as most of the sketches featured did not directly fit into the narrative, they are instead presented as cutaways. The final act of the movie features their live performance, climaxing with a version of the "Ralph And Herbie" routine. Cheech Marin as Cheech Tommy Chong as Chong "Man" Hans Man in't Veld as Promoter Carol van Herwijnen as Hotel Manager Shireen Strooker as Assistant Manager Susan Hahn as Hotel Maid Arjan Ederveen as Bellboy #1 Kees Prins as Bellboy #2 Mariette Bout as Barge Waitress Fabiola as Barge Lady Carla van Amstel as Queen Beatrix Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote, "With'Still Smokin',' Cheech Marin and Tommy Chong are scraping the bottom of the barrel and finding only bits and pieces of the characters and comedy routines that were so successful in their earlier films."
Variety panned the film as an "amateurish, incompetent excuse for filmmaking." Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune gave the film one star out of four, writing that it "barely qualifies as a movie," adding, "'Smokin" indicates Cheech and Chong's disrespect for their own audience and makes some of their other miserable films look good by comparison." Richard Harrington of The Washington Post wrote, "Richard'Cheech' Marin and Thomas Chong are'Still Smokin"—that's the name of their latest film venture—but the daffy fires that lit their four previous films are in danger of extinction. Or, to put it in terms they and their friends will understand, it's down to seeds and stems." Linda Gross of the Los Angeles Times wrote, "This is the same old stuff. The humor, if you can call it such, is crass, predictable, scatological and lame." Leonard Maltin's film guide gave it the lowest possible grade of BOMB called it "Rock-bottom. Not the most forgiving C & C fans can justify this nonmovie that climaxes a scant plot involving an Amsterdam film festival with twenty minutes of laughless concert footage."The film has a score of 11% at Rotten Tomatoes based on 9 reviews.
Still Smokin on IMDb Still Smokin at AllMovie Still Smokin at Rotten Tomatoes Still Smokin at Box Office Mojo
Cheech & Chong's The Corsican Brothers
Cheech & Chong's The Corsican Brothers is the sixth feature-length film starring the comedy duo Cheech and Chong. Cheech Marin and Tommy Chong star as the two brothers in a parody of various film adaptations of the classic Alexandre Dumas novel, The Corsican Brothers; the movie is available on Blu-Ray. The film was not received well by critics. Cheech & Chong's The Corsican Brothers opens with a rock band called Los Guys performing with their band in the streets throughout parts of France. Disliking their brand of music, the locals pay off the band to vacate and shortly after the two lead band members meet a gypsy storyteller, she tells them the story of the Corsican brothers who attempt to overthrow a cruel member of a monarchy. After the story, they continue to play in the streets and give an epic final performance in a spot where their music seems to be much more accepted. Cheech Marin as Luis Corsican Tommy Chong as Lucian Corsican Roy Dotrice as The Evil Fuckaire/Ye Old Jailer Shelby Chong as Princess I Rikki Marin as Princess II Edie McClurg as The Queen Robbi Chong as Princess III Jean-Claude Dreyfus as Marquis Du Hickey Rae Dawn Chong as The Gypsy Kay Dotrice as The Midwife Jennie C.
Kos as The Pregnant Mother Martin Pepper as Martin Yvan Chiffre as Tax Collector #1 Dan Schwarz as Tax Collector #2 Serge Fedoroff as Nostrodamus Cheech & Chong's The Corsican Brothers on IMDb Cheech & Chong's The Corsican Brothers at AllMovie Cheech & Chong's The Corsican Brothers at Rotten Tomatoes Cheech & Chong's The Corsican Brothers at Box Office Mojo
Cheech and Chong (album)
Cheech And Chong is the 1971 self-titled debut album of Cheech & Chong, produced by Lou Adler. It features "Dave", one of their most famous routines; the album peaked at #28 on the Billboard 200 the week of March 4, 1972. The album was nominated for Best Comedy Recording at the 14th Grammy Awards, but lost to Lily Tomlin's This Is a Recording. At Christmas that year, a single was released with "Dave" on the B-side and with "Santa Claus and His Old Lady" on the A-side; the single peaked at #38. A possible bootleg of this LP has appeared on the Melody label with the same selections; the cover is different from the copies on Ode and reissued on Warner Brothers. The Melody label was based in New Jersey. Album cover art by Paul Gruwell. All tracks except where noted. Produced by Lou Adler Recorded & engineered by Norman Kinney
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra