Lynching is an extrajudicial punishment by an informal group. It is most often used to characterise informal public executions by a mob in order to punish an alleged transgressor, or to intimidate a group. It is a form of informal group social control such as charivari, riding the rail, and tarring and feathering. Lynchings have been frequent in times of social and economic tension. However, it has resulted from long-held prejudices and practices of discrimination that have conditioned societies to accept this type of violence as normal practices of popular justice. Indeed, instances of it can be found in societies long antedating European settlement of North America, the legal and cultural antecedents of American lynching were carried across the Atlantic by migrants from the British Isles to colonial North America. Collective violence was an aspect of the early modern Anglo-American legal landscape. In the United States, during the decades before the Civil War, assertive free-Blacks, Latinos in the South West, Violence rose even more at the end of the 19th century, after southern white Democrats regained their political power in the South in the 1870s.
Nearly 3,500 African Americans and 1,300 whites were lynched in the United States between 1882 and 1968, mostly from 1882 to 1920, the origins of the word lynch are obscure, but it likely originated during the American revolution. The verb comes from the phrase Lynch Law, a term for a punishment without trial, two Americans during this era are generally credited for the phrase, Charles Lynch and William Lynch, who both lived in Virginia in the 1780s. Charles Lynch has the claim, as he was known to have used the term in 1782. There is no evidence that death was imposed as a punishment by either of the two men, in 1782, Charles Lynch wrote that his assistant had administered Lynchs law to Tories for Dealing with negroes, &c. In the United States, the origin of the terms lynching, Charles Lynch was a Virginia planter and American Revolutionary who headed a county court in Virginia which incarcerated Loyalist supporters of the British for up to one year during the war. While he lacked proper jurisdiction, he claimed this right by arguing wartime necessity, subsequently, he prevailed upon his friends in the Congress of the Confederation to pass a law which specifically exonerated him and his associates from wrongdoing.
He was concerned that he might face legal action from one or more of those so incarcerated, Lynch was not accused of racist bias, and indeed acquitted blacks accused of murder on three separate occasions, as dictated by the facts brought before him. He was accused, however, of ethnic prejudice in his abuse of Welsh miners, William Lynch from Virginia claimed that the phrase was first used for a 1780 compact signed by him and his neighbors in Pittsylvania County. While Edgar Allan Poe claimed that he found this document, this was likely a hoax, linguistic evidence is strongly against it, and the story was likely invented in the 19th century. Racist extremism with an eye to viciousness and public spectacle was frequently evident, in the South, members of the abolitionist movement or other people opposing slavery were usually targets of lynch mob violence before the Civil War
Prince William V Gallery
The Prince William V Gallery is an art gallery on the Buitenhof in The Hague that currently shares an entrance with the Gevangenpoort museum. It is a recreation of the gallery Galerij Prins Willem V once founded there by William V. In the meantime another gallery was opened in nearby Huis ten Bosch and undeterred by events, after recovery of most important works in 1815, the large collection was re-housed in the Mauritshuis and the old location was kept on as an archive. It wasnt reopened as an art gallery until 1977, the original gallery was built according to the wishes of the Prince and under the direction of his court painter, Tethart Philipp Christian Haag. Haag managed the collection of paintings by the governor and was his adviser in the purchase of paintings. In 1795 the collection was abducted by the French and housed in the Louvre as war booty, under a treaty many paintings were recovered in 1815, but many were not, such as the portrait of William III of Orange, now in the Lyon museum.
The collection which hangs here is a reconstruction of the original 1774 art cabinet that was situated upstairs above a fencing school. The paintings, taken from various collections, hang crowded together on the walls in the style of the late 18th century, an effort is made to create an impression of the original gallery, rather than any historical accuracy in the choice where which paintings hang specifically. Former top pieces from the gallery such as Potters Young Bull hang elsewhere, the location was used as an archive until it reopened in 1977, but closed again as it underwent restoration work in 1993-1994 and in 2009. Prince William V Gallery on Mauritshuis website Illustrated guide to the collection in 1826 on Archive. org
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
Cornelis de Witt
Cornelis de Witt was a Dutch politician. Cornelis de Witt was a member of the old Dutch patrician family De Witt and he was born on 15 June 1623 in Dordrecht, Dutch Republic. He was the son of Jacob de Witt and the brother of Johan. In 1650 he became burgomaster of Dordrecht and member of the States of Holland and he was afterwards appointed to the important post of ruwaard, who combined the functions of chief of police and prosecuting attorney, of Putten and bailiff of Beierland. He associated himself closely with his brother, the Raadpensionaris of Holland Johan de Witt. In 1667 he was the deputy chosen by the States of Holland to accompany Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter in his famous raid on the Medway, Cornelis de Witt on this occasion distinguished himself greatly by his coolness and intrepidity. He again accompanied De Ruyter in 1672 and took a part in the great battle of Solebay against the united English. Compelled by illness to leave the fleet, he found on his return to Dortrecht that the Orange party were in the ascendant and he was arrested on false accusations of treason, but did not confess despite heavy torture and was ultimately unlawfully condemned to be banished.
Both their bodies were mutilated and their hearts were carved out to be exhibited as trophies. Cornelis de Witt was married to Maria van Berckel, the couple had one daughter, Wilhelmina de Witt. She married her first cousin Johan de Witt Jr. secretary of Dordrecht, Cornelis de Witt and his role in Dutch politics was depicted in the 2015 film Michiel de Ruyter. Both brothers play important roles in the novel The Black Tulip by Alexandre Dumas and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. De Witt, Cornelius. Media related to Cornelis de Witt at Wikimedia Commons
The Hofvijver is a pond in the centre of The Hague. It is adjoined in the east by the Korte Vijverberg, in the south by the Binnenhof, in the middle there is a small island with plants and trees which has no name, it is usually referred to as the island in the Vijverberg. The term pond is actually a misnomer, as the Hofvijver has its origin in a natural dunelake fed by the Haagse Beek, the Haagse Beek still feeds the Hofvijver and so the pond is directly connected to the dunes in Kijkduin. In this dunelake there was an island on which William II built his palace in 1248, other sources say he built his palace alongside the pond and created a moat around it. The city of The Hague celebrated its 700 years of existence in 1948, Count Albert decided on the rectangular shape in the 14th century. In the 17th century the Hofvijver got quays and in the 19th century it was elongated, up to around 1800 the Binnenhof was still encircled by a moat and was only accessible by bridges. The island in the Vijverberg we know nowadays was only created around 300 years ago, how or why it was created is unknown.
In the centre of the stands an flagpole and the island itself counts a number of trees. It is not open to the public, alongside the island there is a fountain in the water. During demonstrations the island has been occupied a couple of times, nowadays the Hofvijver is adjoined in the west by the Buitenhof, but until the 19th century that side was adjoined by houses. The pond is encircled by fairly high quays, but is shallow on some points. In 2004 an underwater gate was built to make sure nobody could swim to the prime ministers office without being detected. His office, the Torentje, adjoins the Hofvijver as it is located on the Binnenhof, on the bank across from the Binnenhof there is a statue of Jantje pointing to the Binnenhof. Jantje probably refers to John I, Count of Holland who died at the age of 15 years, located next to the Vijverberg are several museums, like the Mauritshuis, the Gevangenpoort, the Hague Historical Museum and the Gallery Prince William V. Leo van Heijningen, Duizend jaren Hofvijver, de Hofvijvergeest spreekt, Hapax Media related to Hofvijver at Wikimedia Commons
In the Low Countries, literally steward, designated a medieval official and a national leader. For the last half century of its existence, it became a hereditary role. His son, Prince William V, was the last stadtholder of the republic, whose own son, King William I, became the first king of the Netherlands. The Dutch Monarchy is thus descended from the first stadtholder of the young Republic, William of Orange, the title stadtholder is roughly comparable to Englands historic title Lord Lieutenant. Its component parts literally translate as place holder, or as a cognate, stead holder. Note, that is not the word for the rank of lieutenant. Stadtholders in the Middle Ages were appointed by feudal lords to represent them in their absence, if a lord had several dominions, some of these could be ruled by a permanent stadtholder, to whom was delegated the full authority of the lord. A stadtholder was thus more powerful than a governor, who had limited authority. The local rulers of the independent provinces of the Low Countries made extensive use of stadtholders, in the 15th century the Dukes of Burgundy acquired most of the Low Countries, and these Burgundian Netherlands mostly each had their own stadtholder.
Only the Prince-Bishopric of Liège and two smaller territories remained outside his domains, stadtholders continued to be appointed to represent Charles and King Philip II, his son and successor in Spain and the Low Countries. Due to the centralist and absolutist policies of Philip, the power of the stadtholders strongly diminished. The stadtholder no longer represented the lord but became the highest executive official, although each province could assign its own stadtholder, most stadtholders held appointments from several provinces at the same time. As these councils themselves appointed most members of the states, the stadtholder could very indirectly influence the general policy, in the army, he could appoint officers by himself, in the navy only affirm appointments of the five admiralty councils. Legal powers of the stadtholder were thus limited, and by law he was a mere official. His real powers, were greater, especially given the martial law atmosphere of the permanent Eighty Years War.
Maurice of Orange after 1618 ruled as a dictator. The leader of the Dutch Revolt was William the Silent, he had been appointed stadtholder in 1572 by the first province to rebel and his personal influence and reputation was subsequently associated with the office and transferred to members of his house. Maurice in 1618 and William III of Orange from 1672 replaced entire city councils with their partisans to increase their power, by intimidation, the stadtholders tried to extend their right of affirmation
William V, Prince of Orange
William V, Prince of Orange was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. He went into exile to London in 1795 and he was the reigning Prince of Nassau-Orange until his death in 1806. In that capacity he was succeeded by his son William, William Batavus was born in The Hague on 8 March 1748, the only son of William IV, who had the year before been restored as stadtholder of the United Provinces. He was only three years old when his father died in 1751, and a long regency began, William was made the 568th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1752. William V assumed the position of stadtholder and Captain-General of the Dutch States Army in 1766, on 4 October 1767 in Berlin, Prince William married Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia, the daughter of Augustus William of Prussia, niece of Frederick the Great and a cousin of George III. He became an art collector and in 1774 his Galerij Prins Willem V was opened to the public, the position of the Dutch during the American War of Independence was one of neutrality.
However, things came to a head with the Dutch attempt to join the Russian-led League of Armed Neutrality, after much political debate and pressure from American and French diplomats such as John Adams, Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol and Court Lambertus van Beyma took the initiative. After the signing of the Treaty of Paris, there was growing restlessness in the United Provinces with Williams rule, in the meantime, a band of young revolutionaries, called Patriots, was challenging his authority more and more. In 1785 William left the Hague and removed his court to Guelders, in September 1786 he had to send an army to stop Herman Willem Daendels, organizing an overthrow at the cities vroedschap. In June 1787 his energetic wife Wilhelmina tried to travel to the Hague, outside Schoonhoven, she was stopped by militia, taken to a farm near Goejanverwellesluis and within two days made to return to Nijmegen. To Wilhelmina and her brother, Frederick William II of Prussia, Frederick sent in an army to attack the dissidents.
Many Patriots fled to the North of France, around Saint-Omer, until his overthrow they were supported by King Louis XVI of France. With the coming of the French Revolution William V joined the First Coalition against Republican France in 1793 and his troops fought bravely in the Flanders Campaign, but in 1794 the military situation deteriorated and the Dutch Republic was threatened by invading armies. The year 1795 was a one for the ancien régime of the Netherlands. Supported by the French Army, the revolutionaries returned from Paris to fight in the Netherlands, a few days the Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam occurred, and the Dutch Republic was replaced with the Batavian Republic. Though only a number complied this contributed to their confusion and demoralisation. Almost all Dutch colonies were in the course of time occupied by the British, who in the end returned most, in 1799 the Hereditary Prince took an active part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, engineering the capture of a Batavian naval squadron in the Vlieter Incident.
The surrender of the ships was formally accepted in the name of William V as stadtholder, but that was his only success, as the troops suffered from choleric diseases, and civilians at that time were unwilling to re-instate the old regime
A rijksmonument is a national heritage site of the Netherlands, listed by the agency Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed acting for the Dutch Ministry of Education and Science. To be designated, a place must be over 50 years old, there are around 51,000 designated rijksmonuments in the Netherlands. The program was started during the Hague Convention in 1954, the current legislation governing the monuments is the Monumentenwet van 1988. The organization responsible for caring for the monuments, which used to be called Monumentenzorg, was recently renamed, and is now called Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed. In June 2009, the Court of The Hague decided that individual purchasers of buildings that were listed as rijksmonuments would be exempt from paying transfer tax, previously this exemption had only applied to legal entities. Many Dutch tourist attractions are rijksmonuments, such as castles or windmills, among the rijksmonuments are many churches. A provincial monument is a monument designated by a province, in the Netherlands there are only two provinces that assign monuments, North Holland and Drenthe.
The designation allows the provinces to protect the monuments and are a base for the regulation of subsidy for restoring the monuments, a municipal monument is a monuments designated by a municipality. A municipal monument is not of importance but it is important for the region or city/village. List of Rijksmonuments List of heritage registers Monumentenregister, official database of heritage sites Monumenten. nl
Buitenhof (The Hague)
The Buitenhof is a square in The Hague, adjacent to the Binnenhof and the Hofvijver pond. It is listed in the Top 100 Dutch heritage sites, the square originated in the 13th century, during the construction of the Binnenhof. It was filled with houses and stables and, during the reign of Count Albert I, the zoo exhibited mostly falcons and other birds of prey that were used for hunting. Later, hounds were exhibited as well, the Buitenhof was moated for safety in the 15th century. People that did not belong to the court, lived outside of it, around the Plaats and the Korte Voorhout, the only entrance to the square was the Gevangenpoort, Prison Gate. A second entrance was introduced in 1814 with the construction of the Gravenstraat, in 1923, the houses between the gate and the Hofvijver were demolished, as was advised by architect Hendrik Petrus Berlage. This created more space for the traffic, which had had to pass the gate before. Number 19 was built in the half of the 18th century as the main office of the garrison.
It was renovated from 1897 to 1900, after which it became a police office, the building currently houses a restaurant. Number 20 was built in 1904 as a restaurant, named Entre Deux Villes, in 1935, the building became a Cineac movie theatre, which became a Pathé movie theatre. Number 22 is the Besognekamer, today a bridge society, the ground floor is occupied by a McDonalds. Number 33 is the Gevangenpoort, which was used as a prison from 1420 to 1828, number 34 was built in 1467. In the 19th century, it was used as parking place of carriages of the court, number 37 is known as Vijverhof today. It was rebuilt by De Lussanet de la Sablonière in 1972, the building is used as an annex of the House of Representatives. Number 38 is since 1872 the Cadastre, number 39-42 are three 17th century houses, today housing the four star Hotel Corona
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II
Bamboo scaffolding is a type of scaffolding made from bamboo and widely used in construction work for centuries. Many famous landmarks, notably The Great Wall of China, were built using bamboo scaffolding and it was first introduced into the building industry in Hong Kong immediately after colonization in the 1800s. It was widely used in the building of houses and multi-story buildings prior to the development of metal scaffolding and it was useful for short-term construction projects, such as framework for temporary sheds for Cantonese Opera performances. There is three types of scaffolding in Hong Kong,1, in 2013, there were 1,751 registered bamboo scaffolders and roughly 200 scaffolding companies in Hong Kong. The use of scaffolding is diminishing due to shortages in labor. Despite the lack of force and material, recently the safety problem has become another serious concern. The labor shortage may be due to the reluctance of younger generations to become scaffolders, “They even think that it’s a dirty and dangerous job.
“They refuse to step in, although we give them high pay. Young generations do not like jobs that involve hard work. ”Another reason fewer people are becoming scaffolders is that new recruits need to undergo training with the Hong Kong Construction Industry Council in order to acquire a license. Older scaffolders generally learned in apprenticeships, and may have been able to gather more hands-on experience, material shortages are a contributing factor to the decline. The bamboo scaffolding material was imported from mainland China, bamboo—which matures after three years to the wide diameter and thick skin perfect for scaffolding—came from the Shaoxing area in Guangdong. Over the past two decades, firms have had to look to Guangxi instead, the industrys fear is that one day supplies will be blocked due to export embargoes and environmental concerns. Attempts to import bamboo from Thailand, or switch to synthetic or plastic bamboo, have so far proved unsuccessful, in many African countries, notably Nigeria, bamboo scaffolding is still used in small scale construction in urban areas.
In rural areas, the use of scaffolding for construction is common. Some of the structures in relaxation and recreation centres both in urban and rural areas of Nigeria are put in place using bamboo materials and this is not for reasons of poverty but to add more aesthetics to these centres. Bamboo materials are used in the construction of some bukas in rural areas. Content about specifications Double-row Scaffold Only double-row bamboo scaffold is allowed to use for working at height, nylon Mesh The perimeter of bamboo scaffold shall be covered by nylon mesh against falling objects. The lapping of nylon mesh should be at least 100mm wide and Egress Suitable means of access shall be provided from the building or ground level to the scaffold such as gangway and ladder etc