Osman I or Osman Gazi, sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. He and the dynasty bearing his name established and ruled the nascent Ottoman Empire; the state, while only a small principality during Osman's lifetime, transformed into a world empire in the centuries after his death. It existed until shortly after the end of World War I. Historians mark the end date at the abolition of the sultanate in 1922, the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, or the abolition of the caliphate in 1924. Due to the scarcity of historical sources dating from his lifetime little factual information is known about him. Not a single written source survives from Osman's reign; the Ottomans did not record the history of Osman's life until the fifteenth century, more than a hundred years after his death. Because of this, it is challenging for historians to differentiate between fact and myth in the many stories told about him.
One historian has gone so far as to declare it impossible, describing the period of Osman's life as a "black hole."According to Ottoman tradition, Osman's ancestors were descendants of the Kayı tribe of Oghuz Turks. The Ottoman principality was just one of many Anatolian beyliks that emerged in the second half of the thirteenth century. Situated in the region of Bithynia, Osman's principality was well-placed to launch attacks on the vulnerable Byzantine Empire, which his descendants would go on to conquer; some scholars have argued that Osman's original name was Turkish Atman or Ataman, was only changed to ʿOsmān, of Arabic origin. The earliest Byzantine sources, including Osman's contemporary George Pachymeres, spell his name as Ατουμάν or Ατμάν, whereas Greek sources render both the Arabic form ʿUthmān and the Turkish version ʿOsmān with θ, τθ, or τσ. An early Arabic source mentioning him writes ط rather than ث in one instance. Osman may thus have adopted the more prestigious Muslim name in his life.
The exact date of Osman's birth is unknown, little is known about his early life and origins due to the scarcity of sources and the many myths and legends which came to be told about him by the Ottomans in centuries. He was most born around the middle of the thirteenth century in 1254/5, the date given by the sixteenth-century Ottoman historian Kemalpaşazade. According to Ottoman tradition, Osman's father Ertuğrul led the Turkic Kayı tribe west from Central Asia into Anatolia, fleeing the Mongol onslaught, he pledged allegiance to the Sultan of the Anatolian Seljuks, who granted him dominion over the town of Söğüt on the Byzantine frontier. This connection between Ertuğrul and the Seljuks, was invented by court chroniclers a century and the true origins of the Ottomans thus remain obscure. Osman became chief, or bey, upon his father’s death in c. 1280. Nothing is known for certain about Osman's early activities, except that he controlled the region around the town of Söğüt and from there launched raids against the neighboring Byzantine Empire.
The first datable event in Osman's life is the Battle of Bapheus in 1301 or 1302, in which he defeated a Byzantine force sent to counter him. Osman appears to have followed the strategy of increasing his territories at the expense of the Byzantines while avoiding conflict with his more powerful Turkish neighbors, his first advances were through the passes which lead from the barren areas of northern Phrygia near modern Eskişehir into the more fertile plains of Bithynia. These legends have been romanticized by the poetical pens which recorded them in years; the Ottoman writers attached great importance to this legendary, dreamlike conception of the founder of their empire. Osman I had a close relationship with a local religious leader of dervishes named Sheikh Edebali, whose daughter he married. A story emerged among Ottoman writers to explain the relationship between the two men, in which Osman had a dream while staying in the Sheikh's house; the story appears in the late fifteenth-century chronicle of Aşıkpaşazade as follows: He saw that a moon arose from the holy man's breast and came to sink in his own breast.
A tree sprouted from his navel and its shade compassed the world. Beneath this shade there were mountains, streams flowed forth from the foot of each mountain; some people drank from these running waters, others watered gardens, while yet others caused fountains to flow. When Osman awoke he told the story to the holy man, who said'Osman, my son, for God has given the imperial office to you and your descendants and my daughter Malhun shall be your wife; the dream became an important foundational myth for the empire, imbuing the House of Osman with God-given authority over the earth and providing its fifteenth-century audience with an explanation for Ottoman success. The dream story may have served as a form of compact: just as God promised to provide Osman and his descendants with sovereignty, it was implicit that it was the duty of Osman to provide his subjects with prosperity. According to Shaw, Osman's first real conquests followed the collapse of Seljuk authority when he was able to occupy the fortresses of
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
Gölcük is a town and district of Kocaeli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. The town is located at the northern gulf of Armutlu Peninsula on the coast of Marmara Sea and south of the province, it is the district. Gölcük is the location of one of the Turkish Navy's main naval bases. Ford Otosan automobile plant is located in Gölcük; the mayor is Mehmet Ellibeş. District governor's official website District municipality's official website
The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East; the Assyrians emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Hittite language was a distinct member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family, along with the related Luwian language, is the oldest attested Indo-European language.
Hittites referred to their native language as nešili "in the language of Nesa" but called their native land as Kingdom of Hattusa. The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology. Despite their use of the name Hattusa for their state, the Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians, an earlier people who inhabited the region of Hattusa and spoke an unrelated language known as Hattic; the history of the Hittite civilization is known from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom, from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Assyria, Babylonia and the Middle East, the decipherment of, a key event in the history of Indo-European linguistics. The Hittite military made successful use of chariots, although belonging to the Bronze Age, the Hittites were the forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the manufacture of iron artifacts from as early as the 18th century BC; the Hittites were the first of the Indo-European people to make use of iron.
Due to the widespread availability of iron ore, this allowed them to create weapons that were much stronger and cheaper. The Hittite empire fell victim to the Bronze Age Collapse around the beginning of the 12th century BC. Ethnic Hittite dynasties survived in small kingdoms scattered around modern Syria and Israel. Lacking a unifying continuity, their descendants are scattered and have merged into the modern populations of the Levant and Mesopotamia. During the 1920s, interest in the Hittites increased with the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey and attracted the attention of Turkish archaeologists such as Halet Çambel and Tahsin Özgüç. During this period, the new field of Hittitology influenced the naming of institutions, such as the state-owned Etibank, the foundation of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, located 200 kilometers west of the Hittite capital and housing the most comprehensive exhibition of Hittite art and artifacts in the world. Before the archeological discoveries that revealed the Hittite civilization, the only source of information about the Hittites had been the Old Testament.
Francis William Newman expressed the critical view, common in the early 19th century, that, "no Hittite king could have compared in power to the King of Judah...". As the discoveries in the second half of the 19th century revealed the scale of the Hittite kingdom, Archibald Sayce asserted that, rather than being compared to Judah, the Anatolian civilization " worthy of comparison to the divided Kingdom of Egypt", was "infinitely more powerful than that of Judah". Sayce and other scholars noted that Judah and the Hittites were never enemies in the Hebrew texts. Uriah the Hittite was a captain in King David's army and counted as one of his "mighty men" in 1 Chronicles 11. French scholar Charles Texier found the first Hittite ruins in 1834 but did not identify them as Hittite; the first archaeological evidence for the Hittites appeared in tablets found at the karum of Kanesh, containing records of trade between Assyrian merchants and a certain "land of Hatti". Some names in the tablets were neither Hattic nor Assyrian, but Indo-European.
The script on a monument at Boğazkale by a "People of Hattusas" discovered by William Wright in 1884 was found to match peculiar hieroglyphic scripts from Aleppo and Hama in Northern Syria. In 1887, excavations at Amarna in Egypt uncovered the diplomatic correspondence of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. Two of the letters from a "kingdom of Kheta"—apparently located in the same general region as the Mesopotamian references to "land of Hatti"—were written in standard Akkadian cuneiform, but in an unknown language. Shortly after this, Sayce proposed that Hatti or Khatti in Anatolia was identical with the "kingdom of Kheta" mentioned in these Egyptian texts, as well as with the biblical Hittites. Others, such as Max Müller, agreed that Khatti was Kheta, but proposed connecting it with Biblical Kittim rather than with the Biblical Hittites. Sayce's identification came to be accepted over the course of the early 20th century.
Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen International Airport
Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen International Airport is one of three international airports serving Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey. Located 32 km southeast of the city center, Sabiha Gökçen Airport is in the Asian part of the bi-continental Istanbul and serves as the hub for some airlines, including Pegasus Airlines as well as a secondary base for Turkish Airlines and Borajet; the facility is named after Sabiha Gökçen, adoptive daughter of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and the first female fighter pilot in the world. Although Istanbul Airport, located 63 km away on the European side of Istanbul, is larger, Sabiha Gökçen is still one of the largest airports in the country; the airport was built because Atatürk International Airport was not large enough to meet the booming passenger demands. In June 2007, Turkish conglomerate Limak Holding, India's GMR Group and Malaysia Airport Holding Berhad consortium gained the contract for upgrading and maintaining the airport. In mid-2008, ground was broken to upgrade the international terminal to handle 25 million passengers annually.
The new terminal was inaugurated on 31 October 2009. SAW's international terminal capacity was 3 million passengers per year and the domestic terminal capacity was 0.5 million passengers per year. In 2010, Sabiha Gökçen airport handled 11,129,472 passengers, a 71% increase compared to 2009; the airport was planning to host 25 million passengers by 2023, but had handled more than 31 million passengers by 2017. In September 2010, the airport was voted the World's Best Airport at the World Low Cost Airlines Congress in London and received the award; the other awards received by the airport in 2010 were: Turkey’s Most Successful Tourism Investment 2010, the commended award from Routes Europe, the Airport Traffic Growth Award by Airline News & Network Analysis web site anna.aero. With 28,285,578 passengers and 206,180 aircraft movements in 2015, Sabiha Gökçen International Airport is the third busiest single-runway airport in the world, after Mumbai and London Gatwick. However, both Mumbai and Gatwick have two runways and are only considered "single-runway" because they can only operate the second runway if the main one is out of use.
This makes Sabiha Gökçen the world's busiest true single-runway airport. A second runway is being built and is expected to be operational in June 2019; the second runway will increase the hourly capacity from 40 to 80 movements. The new terminal building with a 25 million annual passenger capacity conducts domestic and international flights under one roof; the features and services of the new terminal and its outlying buildings include: a four-storey car park with a capacity of about 4,718 vehicles + 72 bus. A four-storey hotel with 128 rooms, adjacent to the terminal and with separate entrances at air and ground sides. 112 check-in, 24 online check-in counters a VIP building & apron viewing CIP halls with business lounges Multi Aircraft Ramp System, allowing simultaneous service to 8 aircraft with large fuselages or 16 middle-sized fuselage aircraft. A 400 m² conference center 5,000 m² food court, for cafés and restaurants belonging the leading food & beverage brands a duty-free shopping area, with a ground of 4,500 square-meters.
The airport's cargo terminal has a capacity of 90,000 tons per year and is equipped with 18 cold storage depots. The following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from Sabiha Gökçen International Airport: Sabiha Gökçen International Airport is connected to the city of Istanbul and the city's wider metropolitan area through a number of transport options; the airport is located 14 km from the district of Pendik's railway and sea-taxi stations but a connection via Marmaray is planned. The M4 metro line is being extended towards the airport; the current terminus at Tavşantepe is about 10 km from the airport and reachable by taxi or bus E9. Shuttlebuses E10 and E11 serve Taksim and Kadıköy and there are coaches to nearby towns and cities; the airport is reachable by car from the E80. On 23 December 2015 at 2:00 AM, explosions were reported to have occurred in a parked Pegasus Airlines aircraft, killing one cleaner and wounding another inside the plane. Five nearby planes were reported to be damaged as well.
The operations were reported to continue soon after, however with heightened security measured in place. Three days it was reported that PKK-affiliated terrorist group Kurdistan Freedom Falcons had organized the attack. Media related to Sabiha Gökçen International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Current weather for LTFJ at NOAA/NWS Accident history for SAW at Aviation Safety Network
Bolu is a city in Turkey, administrative center of the Bolu Province. The population is 131,264; the city has been governed by mayor Alaaddin Yılmaz since local elections in 2004. It was the site of Ancient Claudiopolis and has been called Eskihisar. Bolu is on the old highway from Istanbul to Ankara, which climbs over Mount Bolu, while the new motorway passes through Mount Bolu Tunnel below the town. Bolu was part of one of the Hittite kingdoms around 2000 BC and 500 BC became one of the leading cities of the Kingdom of Bithynia. Bebryces, Koukones and Paphlagons are native people of the area in antique era. Strabo mentions a Hellenistic town, celebrated for its pastures and cheese, which according to Pausanias was founded by Arcadians from Mantinea. In the Ancient Roman era, as is shown by its coins, the town was called Claudiopolis after Emperor Claudius, it was the birthplace of Antinous, the posthumously deified favourite of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, generous to the city, his name was added to that of Claudius on the coins of the city.
Emperor Theodosius II made it the capital of a new province, formed out of Bithynia and Paphlagonia, called by him Honorias in honour of his younger son and successor Honorius. The city was known under Byzantine rule as Hadrianopolis. Turkmens migrating west settled the city in the 11th century and it was referred to as Boli, Turkicized short for the Greek Polis'city', it was recaptured by Byzantines in 1097 but was conquered by the Great Seljuk Sultanate of Rum in 1197. In 1325, the town was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, becoming known under the present Turkish name, it was ruled by Candaroğlu between 1402 and 1423. It became the chief town of a sanjak in the vilayet of Kastamonu and had a population of 10,000 inhabitants. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Bolu was part of the Kastamonu Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. Bolu was an Ottoman state until Vilayetler Nizannamesi 1864 and was covering from Beykoz kazasi of İsmid Sanjak to Boyabat kazasi of Sinop Sanjak; as secular capital of the Roman province of Honorias, in the civil Diocese of Pontus, the bishopric of Claudiopolis became the metropolitan see, in the sway of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, with five suffragan sees: Heraclea Pontica, Prusias ad Hypium, Tium and Hadrianopolis in Honoriade.
It appears as such in the Notitiae Episcopatuum of Pseudo-Epiphanius of about 640 and in that of Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise of the early 10th century, ranking sixteenth viz. seventeenth among the Patriarchate's Metropolitans. The city, known as Hadrianopolis under Byzantine rule fell to Turkmens migrating west in the 11th century who called it Boli, was recaptured by Byzantines in 1097, besieged unsuccessfully by the Sultanate of Rum in 1177 and reconquered in 1197. Under Ottoman rule since the 14th century it lost to Heraclea Pontica the Metropolitan dignity, it ceased to exist as a residential bishopric in the 15th century. Michel Lequien mentions. Callicrates Gerontius (first actual documented bishop, in 394 attending the council against Metropolitan Bagadius of Bosra. Olympius Calogerus Carterius Hypatus Epictetus Vincentius Ciprianus I only Janin includes a bishop Sisinnius, attending the council in Trullo, but assgns the same to namesake see Claudiopolis in Isauria Nicetas I Ignatius, a friend and correspondent of Patriarch Photios I of Constantinople Ciprianus II Nicetas II John.
The archdiocese was nominally restored by the Catholic Church as a Latin Metropolitan titular archbishopric no than the seventeenth century, first named Claudiopolis / Claudiopoli, renamed in 1933 as Claudiopolis in Honoriade / Claudiopoli di Onoriade / Claudiopolitan in Honoriade. It is vacant, having had the following incumbents: Alfredo Bruniera Alain Guynot de Boismenu, Sacred Heart Missionaries Georges-Prudent-Marie Bruley des Varannes Giuseppe Fiorenza Giovanni Battista Bertagna Joseph-Adolphe Gandy, M. E. P. Eugène-Jean-Claude-Joseph Desflèches, Paris Foreign Missions Society Carlo Gigli Stephanus Antonius Aucher Tommaso Battiloro Titular Bishop: Joannes Nicastro Titular Bishop: Walenty Konstantyn Czulski Titular Bishop: Piotr Tarło Jean-Baptiste Adhémar de Monteil de Grignan Titular Bishop: Tomás de Paredes, Augustinians The countryside around Bolu offers excellent walking and other outdoor pursuits. There are hotels in the town. Sights near the town include: The 14th-century mosque, Ulu Jamii.
Bolu Museum holding artifacts from Hittite, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. T
Dervish or darwish in Islam can refer broadly to members of a Sufi fraternity, or more narrowly to a religious mendicant, who chose or accepted material poverty. The latter usage is found in Persian and Turkish, corresponding to the Arabic term faqir, their focus is on the universal values of love and service, deserting the illusions of ego to reach God. In most Sufi orders, a dervish is known to practice dhikr through physical exertions or religious practices to attain the ecstatic trance to reach God, their most common practice is Sama, associated with the 13th-century mystic Rumi. In folklore, dervishes are credited with the ability to perform miracles and described with supernatural powers; the Persian word darvīsh is of ancient origin and descends from a Proto-Iranian word that appears in Avestan as drigu-, "needy, mendicant", via Middle Persian driyosh. Dervishes try to approach God rather by virtues and individual experience, than by religious scholarship. Many dervishes are mendicant ascetics.
The main reason they beg is to learn humility, but dervishes are prohibited to beg for their own good. They have to give the collected money to other poor people. Others work in common professions; some classical writers indicate that the poverty of the dervish is not economic. Saadi, for instance, who himself travelled as a dervish, wrote extensively about them, says in his Gulistan: Of what avail is frock, or rosary, Or clouted garment? Keep thyself but free From evil deeds, it will not need for thee To wear the cap of felt: a darwesh be In heart, wear the cap of Tartary. Rumi writes in Book 1 of his Masnavi: Water that's poured inside will sink the boat While water underneath keeps it afloat. Driving wealth from his heart to keep it pure King Solomon preferred the title'Poor': That sealed jar in the stormy sea out there Floats on the waves because it's full of air, When you've the air of dervishood inside You'll float above the world and there abide... The whirling dance or Sufi whirling, proverbially associated with dervishes is best known in the West by the practices of the Mevlevi order in Turkey, is part of a formal ceremony known as the Sama.
It is, however practiced by other orders. The Sama is only one of the many Sufi ceremonies performed to try to reach religious ecstasy; the name Mevlevi comes from the Persian poet Rumi, a dervish himself. This practice, though not intended as entertainment, has become a tourist attraction in Turkey. There are various orders of dervishes all of which trace their origins from various Muslim saints and teachers Imam Ali. Various orders and suborders have disappeared over the centuries. Dervishes spread into North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Pakistan, India and Tajikistan. Other dervish groups include the Bektashis, who are connected to the janissaries, the Senussi, who are rather orthodox in their beliefs. Other fraternities and subgroups chant verses of the Qur'an, play drums or whirl in groups, all according to their specific traditions, they practice meditation, as is the case with most of the Sufi orders in South Asia, many of whom owe allegiance to, or were influenced by, the Chishti order.
Each fraternity uses its own garb and methods of acceptance and initiation, some of which may be rather severe. The Dervish movement was an early 20th-century Somali Sunni Islamic state, established by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, a religious leader who gathered Somali soldiers from across the Horn of Africa and united them into a loyal army known as the Dervishes; this Dervish army enabled Hassan to carve out a powerful state through conquest of lands claimed by the Somali Sultans, the Ethiopians and the European powers. The Dervish movement acquired renown in the Islamic and Western worlds due to its resistance against Britain and Italy; the Dervish movement repulsed British-led Somali and Ethiopian forces four times and forced them to retreat to the coastal region. The polity maintained relations with other authorities, receiving support from the Ottoman and German empires; the Turks named Hassan Emir of the Somali nation, the Germans promised to recognize any territories the Dervishes were to acquire.
The Dervish movement was defeated by the British in 1920. Various western historical writers have sometimes used the term dervish rather loosely, linking it to, among other things, the Mahdist uprising in Sudan and other rebellions against colonial powers. In such cases, the term "dervishes" may have been used as a generic term for the opposing Islamic entity and all members of its military and religious institutions, including persons who would not be considered "dervishes" in the strict sense. For example, a contemporary British drawing of the fighting in Sudan was entitled "The defeat of the dervishes at Toski". Derviş, a variant of the spelling Fakir Qalandariyya Warsangeli Daraawiish The Tale of the Four Dervishes Qissa Chahar Dervish Death and the Dervish, a novel by Yugoslav writer Meša Selimović The Journey of the Sufi / The Dervish Bektashi Order of Dervishes Rifai Dervish Order Rifai Dervishes A photo essay on the Sufis and Sufi dervishes of Pakistan Videos of Dervish music and dances of Rumi