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GfK Entertainment charts

The GfK Entertainment charts are the official music charts in Germany and are gathered and published by GfK Entertainment on behalf of Bundesverband Musikindustrie. GfK Entertainment is the provider of weekly Top 100 single & album charts, as well as various other chart formats for genres like compilations, classical music, hip hop, dance and music videos. Following a lawsuit in March 2014 by Media Control AG, Media Control® GfK International had to change its name. Dissemination of the charts is conducted by various media outlets, some of which include VIVA music channel, the Swiss charts website. Other entities that present the charts are MusicLoad and MIX 1, both of which are online associations that post all the charts published by GfK Entertainment on a weekly basis. Furthermore, GfK Entertainment runs a dedicated website providing chart-related news and access to most of the charts. Charts have been published in Western Germany since 1959, in a magazine called Der Musikmarkt, which has played an important role in the German music industry.

Since 1959, the growing desire to have a well-developed music program has made Bundesverband Musikindustrie work together with charts providers to improve the way the charts are determined. For this purpose, different research institutes were tested, out of which Media Control, based in Baden-Baden, was selected. Hence, the first official charts were made available in the magazine Der Musikmarkt in September 1977. There used to be 50 positions only, which in January 1980, was extended to 75 slots. Since 1989, however, GfK Entertainment has adapted the international standards providing 100 positions, now called "Offizielle Top 100 Charts". In 2001, the Top-100 singles charts was modified to reflect the sales of the singles. Media Control developed "Music Video charts" in 2001, which in 2004, was renamed as "DVD charts". While music-videos have their own separate charts, in 2001, GfK Entertainment made it possible for the music-video singles to have the ability to enter the Top-100 singles chart.

In 2002, it was made available for music-video albums to chart on the Top-100 album chart, if the video album contained at least 50% of audio recording. If not the DVD album could qualify for the DVD chart only. In the same vein, if an audio CD contains at least 50% of video recording it could qualify to chart on the DVD chart. In 2003, Media Control joined forces with GfK, thus the company's name being changed to Media Control GfK International GmbH. In 2004, Germany became one of the first music markets wherein sales charts reflect online digital downloads. Digital-only releases came into existence on 13 July 2007, for online downloads only, which altered the way the sales figures were conducted up to that point. Chart positions would no longer be affected by the number of sold music downloads as before, but rather, they would be affected by the sales value of the sold product. Thus, the best-selling albums would not be the ones ending up in the number-one position on the charts. In March 2014, GfK announced that the official chart provider's name in Germany will change from Media Control GfK International GmbH to GfK Entertainment.

There are 3,000 outlets that report their sales on weekly bases in Germany. The weekly sales data is transmitted to GfK Entertainment via communication network channel, PhonoNet; this is the list of categories. List of number one hits in Germany List of best-selling singles by year Bundesverband Musikindustrie GfK Entertainment charts Offizielle Deutsche Charts germancharts.com Provided by Hitparade.ch, the Swiss charts website

Strömma Canal

The Strömma Canal is a short canal located near Strömma, on Värmdö island, Stockholm County, part of Värmdö Municipality in Sweden. This short canal runs parallel to the Svanvägen Road and forms a narrow and shallow connection across Värmdö Island, joining two fjords together, thereby allowing a short cut and safer route from Stockholm and other places to the outer Stockholm archipelago islands such as Sandhamn and Runmarö. A lifting canal road overbridge allows for the passage of larger powered boats and yachts across the Stavnäsvägen Road. Värmdö itself is an island in the inner Stockholm archipelago, is the largest island in the archipelago; the canal is in regular use and is utilised by the many private pleasure boats and such vessels as the MV Strömma Kanal, a sizeable tourist boat that runs seasonally from Stockholm to the island of Sandhamn. Media related to Strömma kanal at Wikimedia Commons

Phytotoxin

Phytotoxins are substances that are poisonous or toxic to the growth of plants. Phytotoxic substances may result from human activity, as with herbicides, or they may be produced by plants, by microorganisms, or by occurring chemical reactions; the term is used to describe toxic chemicals produced by plants themselves, which function as defensive agents against their predators. Most examples pertaining to this definition of phytotoxin are members of various classes of secondary metabolites, including alkaloids and phenolics, though not all such compounds are toxic or serve defensive purposes. Phytotoxins may be toxic to humans. Alkaloids are derived from amino acids, contain nitrogen, they are medically important by interfering with components of the nervous system affecting membrane transport, protein synthesis, enzyme activities. They have a bitter taste. Alkaloids end in -ine. Terpenes are made of water-insoluble lipids, synthesized from acetyl-CoA or basic intermediates of glycolysis They end in -ol and comprise the majority of plant essential oils.

Monoterpenes are found in gymnosperms and collect in the resin ducts and may be released after an insect begins to feed to attract the insect's natural enemies. Sesquiterpenes are found on glandular hairs or subdermal pigments. Diterpenes are block and deter insect feeding. Taxol, an important anticancer drug is found in this group. Triterpenes mimic the insect molting hormone ecdysone, disrupting molting and development and is lethal, they are found in citrus fruit, produce a bitter substance called limonoid that deters insect feeding. Glycosides are made of one or more sugars combined with a non-sugar like aglycone, which determines the level of toxicity. Cyanogenic glycosides are found in many plant seeds like cherries and plums. Cyanogenic glycosides produce cyanide and are poisonous. Cardenolides have a bitter taste and influence NA+/K+ activated ATPases in human heart, they may slow or strengthen the heart rate. Saponins have lipid- and water-soluble components with detergent properties. Saponins interfere with their uptake.

Phenolics are made of a hydroxyl group bonded to an aromatic hydrocarbon. Furanocoumarin is non-toxic until activated by light. Furanocoumarin blocks the transcription and repair of DNA. Tannins are another group of phenolics important in tanning leather. Lignins a group of phenolics, are the most common compounds on Earth, help conduct water in plant stems and fill spaces in the cell. Herbicides interfere with plant growth and imitate plant hormones. ACCase Inhibitors kill grasses and inhibit the first step in lipid synthesis, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thus affecting cell membrane production in the meristems, they do not affect dicots plants. ALS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in some amino acid synthesis, acetolactate synthesis; the plants are starved of these amino acids and DNA synthesis stops. ESPS Inhibitors affect grasses and dicots by inhibiting the first step in the synthesis of tryptophan and tyrosine, enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase enzyme. Photosystem II Inhibitors reduce the electron flow from water to NADPH2+ causing electrons to accumulate on chlorophyll molecules and excess oxidation to occur.

The plant will die. Synthetic Auxin can affect the plant cell membrane. Tabtoxin is produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci that may cause toxic concentrations of ammonia to build up. This buildup of ammonia causes leaf chlorosis. Glycopeptides have been indicated in disease development. A glycopeptide from Corynebacterium sepedonicum causes marginal necrosis. A toxin from Corynebacterium insidiosum causes plugging of the plant stem interfering with water movement between cells. Amylovorin causes wilting in rosaceous plants. A polysaccharide from Xanthomonas campestris obstructs water flow through phloem causing black rot in cabbage. Phaseolotoxin is a modified tripeptide produced by certains strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae CFBP 3388. Phaseolotoxin is a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme ornithine carbamoyltransferase, which catalyzes the formation of citrulline from ornithine and carbamoylphosphate in the arginine biosynthetic pathway.

Phaseolotoxin is an effective inhibitor of OCTase activity from plant and bacterial sources and causes a phenotypic requirement for arginine. Additionally, phaseolotoxin inhibits the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase, involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines. Rhizobiotoxine, produced by Rhizobium japonicum, causes the root nodules of some soy bean plants to become chlorotic. Toxalbumin Phytotoxicity